Volume 24, Number 2 (September, 2002)
1. 1. R. K. MAITI, V. P. SINGH, E. S. ARREOLA AND Y. S. U. CHIRINO [Physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance of Phaseolus bean and other related crops to drought, high and low temperature and salinity-a review] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 205-241 (2002) Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México
The productivity of Phaseolus bean and other crops is affected by various abiotic factors, of which drought, high and low temperatures and salinity are very important. The paper makes a revision of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to these stress factors. Sufficient studies have been undertaken to investigate its effects on the physiology and production of the crop and establishing parameters for the selection of cultivars tolerant to drought, high and low temperature and salinity and finally its mechanism of resistance. For example, in case of salinity, the resistant varieties should have capacity to compensate the ionic and osmotic disbalance caused by salinity and other stress factors. The physiological parameters used as parameters of sensitivity or resistance are indices of germination, growth rate, leaf area, dry weight and index of assimilation of carbon. The response of biochemical adaptation to these salinity and other stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris as observed in other organisms has been studied for genetic improvement of commercial varieties. Analysis has been made on the mechanism of osmoprotection which is related to the flow of water and nutrients and at the same time the process of signal transduction through hormones or other routes of transduction.
2. J. A. RAJI AND P. O. OYEKAN [The agronomic assessment of the nutrient production potentials of soybean/sorghum intercrops in peasant farming system] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 242-246 (2002). Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Obafemi Awolowo University, P. M. B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan
The agronomic evaluation of protein, energy and some nutrient potentials/production from intercropping soybean/sorghum on flat and ridge was carried out from agronomic data on yields. Intercropping both crops along the same row (intracrop arrangement) resulted in greater nutrients than any other planting system. Intracrop arrangement of soybean on flat resulted in higher protein, energy and nutrient production per hectare than any other treatment. The potential protein production per hectare of soybean was 3-8 times than that of sorghum; approximately 1 : 1 for carbohydrate (energy), while Ca, P and Fe from intercropped soybean were approximately 3-10; 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 times that of sorghum, respectively.
3. M. RAMASAMY, K. RAJENDRAN, A. S. VENKATA-KRISHNAN, M. L. MANOHARAN AND S. RAMA-NATHAN [Production potential of groundnut+redgram intercropping system] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 247-249 (2002). Tamilnadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai (T. N.), India.
Field experiments were conducted during kharif seasons of 1998, 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the productivity and economic returns of groundnut+redgram intercropping system at National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban. Performance of the crops (Groundnut-TMV 7 and Vamban 1 of redgram) was better in sole crop than when grown in combination. Among the various row combinations, groundnut+short duration redgram (Vamban 1) in 8 : 1 row recorded the higher groundnut equivalent yield (1064 kg ha-1). Higher production efficiency in terms of kg/ha/day (9.2 kg/ha/day) and high net return were obtained in groundnut+vamban redgram under 8 : 1 row ratio.
4. M. R. SATAPATHY, D. ROUT AND B. K. MOHAPATRA [Production potential and economics of maize based intercropping systems in Easternghat Highland Zone of Orissa] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 250-254 (2002). OUAT Regional Research and Technology Transfer Substation Umerkote-764 073 (Orissa), India
A field experiment carried out at the OUAT Regional Research and Technology Transfer Substation, Umerkote, Orissa during kharif seasons of 1994, 1995 and 1996 showed that maize+arhar 2 : 2 ratio recorded highest maize equivalent yield followed by maize+arhar 2 : 1 ratio. Highest average land equivalent ratio of 1.30 was obtained from maize+arhar 2 : 2 ratio and the lowest average land equivalent ratio of 1.08 from maize+soybean 2 : 4 ratio. Maize+arhar 2 : 2 ratio gave the highest gross return and net profit per hectare. The highest benefit : cost ratio was obtained from sole crop of arhar followed by maize+arhar 2 : 2 ratio due to more production and higher support price of arhar, whereas the lowest under sole crop of maize.
5. H. N. RAVANKAR AND P. A. SARAP [Influence of soil fertility at critical growth stages on yield of sorghum-wheat sequence under long term fertilization on Vertisols] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 255-260 (2002). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (Maharashtra), India.
The field experiment for monitoring long term changes in soil fertility and crop yield under sorghum-wheat cropping sequence is being carried out at Central Research Station, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola since 1988 (kharif). The present study was undertaken during 1999-2000 i. e. after 11 complete cycles. Results indicate a significant increase in the nutrient availability at 30 DAS and flag leaf stage of both sorghum and wheat with the application of 100% NPK+10 t FYM ha-1 over 100% NPK application. Decreasing trend in nutrient availability was observed from 30 DAS upto flag leaf stage of both the crops. The data on yield showed that application of zinc alongwith 100% NPK was significantly superior over the recommended dose of NPK for sustaining the yield of sorghum in a sorghum-wheat sequence over years. Significant positive correlation of available NPK at 30 DAS and flag leaf stage of sorghum and wheat was obtained with their yields.
6. R. S. CHANDEL, P. C. SUDHAKAR AND KALYAN SINGH [Effect of sulphur application on growth and yield of rice in rice-mustard cropping sequence] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 261-265 (2002). Department of Agronomy Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi-221 005, India.
Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of sulphur applied to rice and mustard grown in sequence on growth and yield of rice at the Research Farm, BHU, Varanasi, India during 1997-98 and 1998-99. Four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1) in main plot during kharif season (rice) and three sub-plot sulphur levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1) during rabi season (mustard) were laid out in split plot design. The treatments were replicated five times. Sulphur was applied as single super phosphate (SSP). Increasing sulphur levels in rice significantly improved growth attributes i. e. tiller number, leaf number and dry matter production; yield traits such as panicle length, grains panicle-1, test weight, grain and straw yield as well as harvest index of rice upto 45 kg ha-1; however, 45 and 30 kg S ha-1 was at par. Sulphur application to mustard also significantly improved growth attributes, yield attributes, harvest index as well as grain and straw yields of rice in following season upto 40 kg ha-1.
7. H. C. BAYAN AND O. S. KANDASAMY [Effect of weed control methods and split application of nitrogen on weeds and crop in direct seeded puddled rice] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 266-272 (2002). Department of Agronomy, Centre for Soil and Crop Management Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.), India.
An experiment was laid out in split plot design with two N management practices as main plot and seven weed control methods as sub-plot treatments in direct seeded puddled rice at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif and rabi seasons of 1999-2000. The results revealed that application of recommended dose of N in four splits at 10 days after sowing (DAS), active tillering, panicle initiation and at heading stages recorded significantly lower dry weight of weeds and increased crop growth viz., leaf area index, plant dry matter, effective tillers m-2 and filled grains panicle-1 which resulted in higher grain yield compared to five equal splits of N applied from basal to heading stages. Among weed control methods, cultural+manual method recorded lowest weed population and weed dry weight with maximum weed control efficiency (74.6 and 83.3% in kharif and rabi, respectively) which resulted in highest crop growth and yield attributes. This treatment also recorded the highest grain yield (6607 and 6511 kg ha-1) with maximum energy use efficiency (8.76 and 8.74 kg ha-1) and highest benefit : cost ratio.
8. K. RAJENDRAN, A. S. VENKATAKRISHNAN, M. RAMASAMY, M. L. MANOHARAN AND S. RAMA-NATHAN [Performance of rice hybrids in western zone of Tamil Nadu] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 273-275 (2002). Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute Aduthurai-612 101 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field experiment was carried out at Department of Rice, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif 2000 in RBD with three replications in clay loam soil to study the performance of different hybrids on yield attributes, yield and quality parameters. The treatments, consisting of five hybrids viz., DRRH 1, ADTRH 1, PHB 71, PA 6201 and KRH 2, were compared with variety CO 47. The results of the experiment revealed that among the different hybrids ADTRH 1 performed better in quality traits viz., better milling percentage, cooking quality and soft gel consistency. The different treatments did not have significant effect on yield attributes and yield.
9. P. K. BANDYOPADHYAY AND S. MALLICK [Phenophase-wise study of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of wheat and winter maize in relation to irrigation at Damodar valley irrigation command area] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 276-285 (2002). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
Phenophase-wise reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), maximum evapotranspiration (ETm), actual crop coefficients (Kc) and net irrigation requirements (NIR) of wheat and winter maize under varying moisture regimes in Damodar valley irrigation command area having shallow water table conditions were estimated using pan evaporation methods. Three irrigation schedulings based on ID : CPE ratios viz., 1.2 (I1), 0.9 (I2) and 0.6 (I3) were followed. Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of crops was estimated using water balance studies in field experimental plots in 1992-93 and 1993-94 rabi seasons. Phenophasic differences in ETm and ETa of crops existed with peak values during flowering and grain filling stages of the crops. Compared to ETa, ETm values were underestimated in I1 regime during all the phenophases of wheat and maize crops except flowering stage. The percentage of mean values of ETa to ETm was 104, 96 and 93 for wheat and 103, 96 and 95 for maize under I1, I2 and I3 irrigation levels. Phenophase-wise Kc values indicated that the period between flowering and initial fruiting was the most sensitive to water requirement. During this period, maximum Kc values of 1.22 for wheat and 1.26 for maize were recorded. Net irrigation requirement under I1 regime (ETa-NIR) of wheat and maize showed close agreement with ETm-NIR with a maximum value of 258.10 and 295.10 mm, respectively. Total seasonal ETa of wheat was 241.25 mm and maize was 280.30 mm for a grain yield of 3089 and 2478 kg ha-1 under I1 regime with 4 and 5 number of irrigation for wheat and maize. The water use efficiency for this regime was 12.80 and 8.84 kg ha-1 mm-1. The results demonstrate the potential use of simple pan evaporation method for estimating crop water requirements of canal command areas where detailed meteorological data are not available.
10. M. ASHRAFUZZAMAN, M. A. HALIM KHAN AND S. M. SHAHIDULLAH [Vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays) as affected by a range of salinity] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 286-291 (2002). Department of Crop Botany Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
A pot experiment was conducted with five levels of salinity (EC 0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dSm-1) obtained by adding NaCl with soil in order to study the effect of salinity on vegetative growth of maize. Higher salinity levels caused significant reduction in growth parameters like leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf number and leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight. However, it had less effect on root : shoot ratio.
11. D. J. JIOTODE, D. L. LAMBE AND C. S. DHAWAD [Growth parameters and water use studies of maize as influenced by irrigation levels and row spacings] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 292-295 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Maize var. AMC-1 (Akola maize Composite-1) was tested for its growth responses and water use studies influenced by irrigation levels at 40, 60, 80 mm CPE and irrigation as per critical growth stages of crop and three row spacings viz., 30, 45 and 60 cm during rabi season. Irrigation at 40 mm CPE recorded significantly highest values in terms of all the growth parameters as well as consumptive use, potential evapo-ranspiration, soil moisture depletion, absolute water use rate and relative water use rate. However, water use efficiency was highest in case of irrigation as per critical growth stages of crop and at 60 cm row spacing. Row spacing of 60 cm recorded highest number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter per plant. Height of plant and leaf area index were highest at 30 cm row spacing.
12. JITENDER KUMAR, HARBIR SINGH, TEJ SINGH AND V. P. SINGH [Seed yield, water use and water use efficiency of summer mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] as influenced by methods of sowing, irrigation and irrigation schedules] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 296-298 (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A field experiment was conducted during summer 1998 on sandy loam soil at Hisar to study the response of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] to methods of sowing [Normal (30 x 10 cm); paired row sowing (15 : 45 cm)], irrigation (controlled flooding; furrow irrigation) and irrigation schedules [one irrigation at 20 days after sowing (DAS); one irrigation at 35 DAS; two irrigations one each at 20 and 35 DAS; three irrigations one each at 20, 35 and 50 DAS]. Mungbean cv. MH-85-111 had significantly higher seed yield, markedly higher water use and water use efficiency under normal method of sowing compared to paired row sowing. Highest seed yield (1064 kg ha-1) was recorded with three irrigations, one each at 20, 35 and 50 DAS. Lowest yield was obtained when crop was irrigated once at 20 DAS. An increase in irrigation frequency increased the seasonal water use but decreased the water use efficiency. Normal sowing and controlled flooding method of irrigation resulted in markedly higher water use than other method (s) of sowing and/or irrigation.
13. C. PREM KUMAR, A. P. NAGARAJU AND S. B. YOGANANDA [Studies on sources of phosphorus and zinc levels on cowpea in relation to nodulation, quality and nutrient uptake] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 299-302 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.
Effects of sources of phosphorus and zinc levels were screened for their efficiency in field grown cowpea in terms of nodulation, quality and uptake of nutrients. The results revealed that application of phosphorus through DAP resulted in maximum uptake of N, P2O5 and zinc by the crop. Nodule number, nodule dry weight and quality parameters also followed the same trend. Among zinc levels application of zinc at 9.0 kg ha-1 resulted in increased nodulation, uptake of nutrients, protein content and protein yield over control.
14. A. H. AL-LAWATI AND H. A. ESECHIE [Comparative water use efficiency and nutritive value of rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana) and forage corn (Zea mays L.) in South Batinah Region of Oman] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 303-308 (2002). Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Agricultural Research Centre, P. O. Box 50, Seeb 112, Sultanate of Oman.
The water use characteristics and nutritive value of rhodesgrass cv. Katambora and forage corn cv. Sharquiah White under sprinkler irrigation were compared in experiments conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Experimental Station in 1996 to 1998. Irrigation scheduling was based on SCS-Microcomputer Irrigation Package, with catch cans being used to measure the amount of water applied by the irrigation system. Water use efficiency (WUE) values and dry matter (DM) yield for forage corn were 2.24 kg/m3 and 1.54 kg/m2, respectively. The corresponding values for rhodesgrass were 0.91 kg/m3 and 1.00 kg/m2. Forage corn had significantly lower crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and higher total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations than rhodesgrass. There were no significant differences in crude protein concentration. These results clearly show that forage corn was superior to rhodesgrass with respect to water use efficiency as well as nutritive value at the South Batinah Region of Oman.
15. V. IMAYAVARAMBAN, K. THANUNATHAN, R. SINGARAVEL AND G. MANICKAM [Studies on the influence of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield parameters and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 309-313 (2002). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field investigations were carried out during summer and kharif seasons of 2000, respectively, in farmers' field and at experimental farm of Annamalai University to study the impact of integrated nutrient management on sesame cv. TMV 3. Regardless of the locations, the integrated nutrient supply system of FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1+recommended NPK of 35 : 23 : 23 kg ha-1+Azospirillum seed inoculum and soil applications @ 10 kg ha-1+phosphobactrin @ 10 kg ha-1+MnSO4 @ 5.0 kg ha-1 favourably improved the varied growth, yield attributes and yield of sesame and the increment in yield was 49.2 and 44.6% over recommended application of NPK alone, in respective locations.
16. V. IMAYAVARAMBAN, R. SINGARAVEL, K. THANUNATHAN AND G. MANICKAM [Studies on the effect of different plant densities and the levels of nitrogen on the productivity and economic returns of sesame] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 314-316 (2002). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field experiments were conducted to find out the effect of varied plant populations and nitrogen levels in combination with and without Azospirillum inoculation on the productivity and economic returns in sesame cv. VRI 1. The highest plant population of 1,66,666 ha-1 significantly recorded the maximum seed yield, net income and the benefit : cost ratio compared to lesser plant population viz., 1,33,333 and 1,11,111 plants ha-1. Similarly, application of 25% extra dose of nitrogen than the recommended in combination with seed inoculation with Azospirillum significantly recorded the maximum seed, net income and benefit : cost ratio during both the cropping seasons.
17. DAYA RAM AND S. S. DAHIYA [Crop zoning for prospective agriculture in Haryana] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 317-322 (2002). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
Zoning of crops in Haryana state based on cropping patterns and crop combinations was presented by using districtwise two years' average data (1996-97 and 1997-98). The diversity in agro-environmental conditions led the farmers to grow various crops in different parts of the State. Wheat, rice, oilseeds, cotton, bajra, pulses and sugarcane were the dominant crops in ranking order forming various crop combinations. Five broad crop zones were identified on the basis of crop domination nomenclature. These zones were : (i) Wheat in the central north-east and east, (ii) rice in the central-east, (iii) oilseeds in the south, (iv) cotton in the west and (v) bajra in the south-west parts of the State. It was suggested that dominance of wheat and rice crops which occupied more than 50% of the total cropped area should be minimized by introducing legumes and commercial crops to diversify cropping pattern for sustainable agriculture.
18. IGNACIO GARCÍA MARTÍNEZ, FRANCISCO CRUZ SOSA, ALFONSO LARQUÉ SAAVEDRA AND MARCOS SOTO HERNÁNDEZ [Extraction of auxin-like substances from compost] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 323-327 (2002). Departamento de Biotecnología Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa San Rafael Atlixco, 186, Colonia Vicentina, México, D. F., 09340, Mexico.
Compost samples were used to evaluate the presence of auxin-like substances. A methanolic extract was obtained for further purification and analysis. Silica gel HPTLC plates were employed for identifying analogous compounds with RF values similar to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), used as auxin standard. Biological activity was evaluated using garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) root growth inhibition as a bioassay. HPTLC results indicate the presence of a compound with similar RF value to IAA, and a bioassay showed that the extract had biological activity analogous to auxins. These evidences support the presence of a compound with molecular structure and biological activity very similar to the auxin in the compost extracts analyzed.
19. SYED ZAMEER HUSSAIN, S. JAVARE GOWDA AND S. C. MANDHAR [Effect of packaging materials on mango oil pickle during storage] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 328-331 (2002). Department of Agricultural Engineering University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore (Karnataka), India.
Mango oil pickle prepared and stored at room temperature (30±5ºC) for the period of three and six months in four types of packaging materials was analysed for its bio-chemical changes and organoleptic values. The pH, acidity, total and reducing sugar showed an increasing trend with the increase in storage period, while the parameters like protein content, ascorbic acid and non-reducing sugar were found to decrease with the increase in storage period. Maximum rancidity was noticed in LDPE bags, comparatively a strong off flavour was observed in HDPE containers. In case of plastic canes, mashy texture was observed after six months of storage. However, the pickles stored in glass jars were found to be of superior quality over other packaging materials and got the total organoleptic score of 15 adjudged as good even after six months of storage.
20. K. C. SUD AND R. C. SHARMA [Critical limit of nitrogen for predicting potato response to nitrogen in hill soils] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 332-337 (2002). Division of Crop Production Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla-171 001 (H. P.), India.
Laboratory and field studies conducted on acidic hill soils of Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) showed that K2Cr2O7-oxidizable N was a superior index of N availability to potato as compared to conventional soil test for N i. e. organic carbon, KMnO4-oxidizable N and Ca (OH)2-hydrolysable N. The critical limit determined by Cate and Nelson graphical procedure for the proposed method was 1370 ppm N. The potato response to N decreased with increase in soil test value for K2Cr2O7-oxidizable N.
21. R. C. SAHOO, B. K. MOHAPATRA, C. M. KHANDA, M. R. SATAPATHY AND D. LENKA [Water use efficiency and yield of potato as influenced by plastic mulching] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 338-342 (2002). Department of Agronomy Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa), India.
Field experiments, conducted during rabi seasons of 1994-95 and 1996-97 on a sandy loam soil of Bhubaneswar to study the effect of plastic mulching on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), revealed that mulching increased tuber yield by 19.5 and 29.5 q ha-1 over unmulched condition during the first and second years, respectively. Irrigation at 50% ASM produced 23.85 and 23.52% more yield over irrigation at 25% ASM in the respective years. 100% N produced significantly more tuber yield than 50% N. The plant height, number of tubers per hill and weight of tubers (g) per hill were more in mulched treatments than unmulched treatments. WUE was maximum for the treatments receiving mulching, full N and higher irrigation level i. e. irrigation at 50% ASM in both the years.
22. P. HAZRA, R. GHOSH, R. DUTTA AND U. ROY [Comparative petiole anatomy and stomatal features of four clonal groups of pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 343-349 (2002). Department of Vegetable Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
Petiole anatomy and stomatal features of four clonal groups taking 20 diverse female clones of pointed gourd, the dioecious vegetable crop of Cucurbitaceae, were studied. The transverse section of petiole revealed no variation in the plan of arrangement of the tissues : epidermis, internal parenchyma, bundle cap and vascular bundles. Highest epidermal cell length and width were recorded in the clonal group showing the highest fruit length and the lowest in the clonal group which had the lowest fruit length. The vascular bundles were arranged in bi-colateral manner and distributed in the ground tissue in the form of ring. Highest mean dimension of vascular bundle was recorded in the clonal group which produced the highest vegetative growth but lowest fruit yield. Stomata of pointed gourd appeared to be anomocytic type with two accompanying subsidiary cells on two sides of the kidney-shaped guard cells. Stomata were present in both the leaf surfaces but frequency was much higher in the lower leaf surface. Huge interclonal variation was recorded for all the stomatal characters. Highest stomatal frequency and dimension were registered in the lowest yielding clonal group and comparatively much low and in some cases the lowest magnitude of stomatal characters was recorded in the highest yielding clonal group.
23. S. AL-KHANJARI, A. AL-KATHIRI AND H. A. ESECHIE [Variation in chlorophyll meter readings, nodulation and dry matter yields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 350-356 (2002). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Experiments were conducted to study the effect of salinity on chlorophyll meter readings, nodulation and dry matter yield of alfalfa. The alfalfa cultivars used were Batini (relatively salt tolerant), Buraimi (moderately salt tolerant) and Modaybi (salt sensitive) and the salinity treatments were 0 dSm-1 (control), 4.0 dSm-1 and 8.0 dSm-1. Seeds were inoculated with either TAL 380 or TAL 1372 Rhizobium strains. All the three cultivars were generally not significantly different from each other with respect to their chlorophyll concentration, nodulation and dry matter yields in a salt-free environment. Substantial yield reductions occurred even at the 4.0 dSm-1 salinity treatment, with cv. Modaybi being the most affected. Alfalfa inoculated with TAL 1372 was more tolerant to salinity than those inoculated with TAL 380. Based on these results, it was suggested that, when growing alfalfa in a saline soil, seeds should be inoculated with Rhizobium strains that are to have some degree of tolerance to salinity.
24. R. K. MAITI, JAIME A. CUERVO PARRA, MARTÍN CADENA SALGADO AND V. P. SINGH [Studies on germination of Mammillaria carnea through methods of propagation in laboratory and greenhouse in Puebla, México] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 357-361 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas, Santa Catarina Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72829, Puebla, México
The present study discussed the results of some techniques of propagation utilised for inducing the germination of the seeds of Mammillaria carnea. It was concluded that the presence of natural light, as well as a temperature fluctuating between 10º to 35ºC was necessary for inducing germination of the seeds of cactus, thereby giving a very high percentage of germination (80%). The results were highly satisfactory and may be recommended for the utilization of this technique which is very simple and economic for the propagation of this species as well as other species of cactus.
25. B. A. SAKHARE, S. B. ATALE, B. D. GITE AND R. B. GHORADE [Inheritance of plant height and ear length in durum wheat] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 362-369 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.
A 9 x 9 diallel excluding reciprocals was made in gamma rays treated and untreated genetically divergent varieties of durum wheat. Genetic components and graphic analysis were worked out for plant height and ear length in F1 untreated, F1 treated, F2 untreated and F2 treated populations. Both component and graphic analysis revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive type of gene action for controlling both the characters studied in all the populations. The additive components are usually decreased in treated F1 as well as F2 populations for both the characters, while non-additive components were relatively increased in treated populations than untreated ones for both the characters studied. The graphic analysis revealed that the array points were comparatively more scattered in gamma rays treated populations, indicating the creation of new genetic variability in these populations. Under these situations for exploitation of both additive and non-additive genetic variance and also for broad base adapted varieties, in certain elite crosses, population breeding approach in the form of biparental mating between selected recombinants as well as mating of selected segregants between crosses in early segregating generations should be practised.
26. B. A. SAKHARE, S. B. ATALE, B. D. GITE AND R. B. GHORADE [Heterobeltiosis in crosses developed from mutagenically treated and untreated parents in durum wheat] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 370-373 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.
Seeds of nine genetically different varieties of durum wheat were treated with gamma rays. Thirty six crosses from untreated and 36 crosses from treated parents were produced by half diallel fashion and the heterobeltiosis among both untreated and treated crosses was worked out. The heterobeltiosis among both untreated and treated crosses for all the characters studied was not observed sufficiently high. However, number of crosses showing desirable heterobeltiosis was increased in treated populations for seeds per ear and 1000-seed weight, which indicated creation of new genetic variability in treated crosses. It offered a great scope for selection in segregating treated populations for developing pure lines for these traits, while for ears per plant, number of crosses showing desired heterobeltiosis was found to be much decreased in treated population. Adequate selection in segregating generations of crosses showing relatively high heterobeltiosis for ears per plant may be rewarding.
27. JITENDER KUMAR, HARBIR SINGH, TEJ SINGH, D. S. TONK AND ROSHAN LAL [Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and its components in summer moong [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 374-377 (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A field experiment was conducted to study the response of methods of sowing and irrigation and irrigation schedules to mungbean cultivar MH-85-111 grown of loamy sand soil of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during summer 1998. Among various characters influencing ultimate grain yield, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1, 1000-grain weight and grains plant-1, all had positive and significant association with final grain yield. Path analysis revealed that number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield plant-1 were some of the most cordial characters of grain yield of mungbean.
28. YAGYA DUTT, C. R. BAINIWAL AND K. D. SEHRAWAT [Combining ability analysis for threshing percentage in pearl millet] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 378-380 (2002). Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A diallel set of 10 diverse pearl millet population parents was made to evaluate general combining ability (GCA) effects of population parents and specific combining ability (SCA) effects of cross combinations. The results showed significant variation among populations as well as their crosses. The significant variance due to general combining ability and specific combining ability indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of threshing percentage. Populations RVPT 93 (102) and HMP 9102 were identified as the best on the basis of mean threshing percentage and high GCA effects. Crosses with high mean threshing percentage and SCA effects were also identified and their further use in breeding programme has been suggested.
29. MANOJ KUMAR, HARBIR SINGH, A. K. KHIPPAL, R. S. HOODA AND T. SINGH [Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and its components in pearlmillet] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 381-385 (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
Correlative analysis of data on grain yield components and grain yield recorded on pearlmillet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend. Stuntz] hybrids (HHB 94, HHB 67, HHB 60, HHB117/HHB147), grown under six nitrogen levels, indicated that grain yield had significant positive correlation with all componental characters under study except harvest index. Path coefficient analysis indicated that stover yield/plant and grain yield/plant had relatively higher and positive influence on final grain yield of pearlmillet. Indirect effects of other characters on grain yield of pearlmillet through stover yield/plant and grain yield/plant were also positive and comparatively higher.
30. RATNA RAJ LAXMI AND H. P. SINGH [Genotype-environment interaction : an inter-relationship] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 386-389 (2002). Department of Statistics M. D. University, Rohtak (Haryana), India
A relationship between various regression models and different components in a model is represented by a newly proposed graphic method and shown how these are interlinked with each other.
31. K. M. AZAM, W. S. BOWERS, A. SRIKANDAKUMAR, ISSA H. AL-MAHMULI AND ALI A. AL-RAEESI [Insecticidal action of plant extracts against nymphs of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 390-393 (2002). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman
Experiments were conducted with leaves and seeds extracts of eight sub-tropical plants, namely, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Boswellia sacra, Crotolaria juncea, Jatropa dhofarica, Myrtus communis and Sueda aegyptica by steeping 12.5 g of shaded dried leaf/seed powder of the plants in 62.5 ml water-ethanol (1 : 4 v/v) for 24 h. The extracts were suction filtered. Required quantity of filtrate was diluted with water to get 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% spray solutions, respectively. Tomato leaves with whitefly nymphs were used to test the insecticidal properties of the extracts. The leaves were kept in contact on filter papers for 2 h just before spraying and for 24 h after spraying of extracts. The filter papers were sprayed with ninhydrin (0.4% in ethanol) and kept in oven at a temperature of 80ºC for 2 min, which developed purple spots due to honeydew secreted by whitefly nymphs. The difference between the number of spots before and after spray gave the mortality of nymphs. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using statistical analysis system for the mortality of nymphs for all the extracts including control. The mortality of nymphs in different plant extracts at different concentrations was significant (<0.05) and there was no interaction among plant extracts with varying concentrations.
32. P. P. SINGH, R. P. YADAV AND B. SINGH [Effect of insecticides and Rhizobium used as seed treatment on plant mortality and nodulation in fieldpea (Pisum sativum L.)] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 394-397 (2002). Department of Entomology & Agricultural Zoology Trihut College of Agriculture, Dholi, Muzaffarpur-842 131 (Bihar), India.
All the six insecticides viz., carbofuran 3 G, phorate 10 G, acephate 75 SP, monocrotophos 36 EC, chlorpyriphos 20 EC and dimethoate 30 EC @ 15 g, 5 g, 10 g, 10 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml/kg seed, respectively, used as seed treatment without Rhizobium inoculation were found effective in reducing plant mortality caused by stemfly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon) and recorded lesser number and dry weight of nodules/plant as compared to untreated and uninoculated control. But phorate 10 G and acephate 75 SP, when used in combination with Rhizobium inoculation, gave poorer performance in reducing plant mortality (1.7 to 7.6% and 2.5 to 8.3%, respectively, and number of nodules 4.9 and 5.7, respectively) and dry weight of nodules/plant (19.0 and 20.5 mg, respectively). Performance of carbofuran 3 G+Rhizobium inoculation remained unaffected, while effectiveness of monocrotophos 36 EC, chlorpyriphos 20 EC and dimethoate 30 EC was equally effective in respect of plant mortality, number and dry weight of nodules/plant.
33. V. I. POPA, C. AGACHE, C. BELECA AND M. POPA[Polyphenols from spruce bark as plant growth regulator] Crop Res. 24 (2) : 398-406 (2002). Gheorghe Asachi, Technical University, Iasi, Argentina.
Chemical treatment of bark through a variety of techniques allows the separation of a complex mixture, comprising polyphenols and hemicelluloses, committed towards many directions of development. Thus, the present paper focalises on research regarding the use of the vegetal polyphenols extracted from spruce bark as biostimulator agents for plant growth. The extraction of the polyphenolic products was realised in two sequences with NaOH 1% solution, respective acetone. The polyphenolic fractions obtained undertook chemical modification through treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Both types of polyphenolic fractions, unchanged and modified, were used in standard experiments for germination and culture in vegetable pots. The per cent of new plants, the medium height and the speed of growth were followed during plant's growth. The obtained results show that the biostimulative action of the vegetal polyphenols varies with their nature, concentration and chemical modification.
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