For full text, please contact to Editor-in-chief at :firstname.lastname@example.org
1. R. K. MAITI, P. VIDYASAGAR, P. P. BANERJEE, B. RAVI KUMAR AND V. P. SINGH [Research advances on seed physiology, salinity and some other factors affecting crop growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 379-392 (2005). Vibha Agrotech Ltd. 501, Sirisampada Rajbhavan Road, Samajiguda, Hyderabad-500 082 (A. P.), India.
present paper makes a review on different aspects of seed physiology
and seedling establishment of paddy. The crop growing conditions differ
in different countries. Several studies related to the factors affecting
seed viability of rice have been directed. Inadequate crop stands are
common in dry land farming in India and other countries. Salinity causes
a problem in rice growing areas of many countries. Salinity affects
crop growth at different stages. Several ameliorative measures are adopted
to reduce the salinity problems. Several factors affect stand establishment,
among which low and high temperature and salinity are important. Low
temperatures affect pollen viability and reproductive development of
rice. Ameliorative measures are suggested to reduce salinity effect
in rice growth. Genetics and biotechnology of salinity tolerance have
been studied with a reasonable success. Besides other factors such as
allelopathy, sound, weeds, methanogenesis, heavy metals and micronutrients
have great impact on rice productivity.
2. P. P. BANERJEE, P. VIDYASAGAR, R. K. MAITI, B. RAVI KUMAR AND V. P. SINGH[Seed dormancy–A dominant trait in rice (Oryza sativa L.) : A review]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 393-401 (2005). Vibha Agrotech Ltd.501, Sirisampada, Rajbhavan Road, Samajiguda, Hyderabad-500 082 (A. P.), India.
Dormancy is a desirable
trait for the adaptation of a species in adverse conditions. Rice possesses
dormancy specially during rainy season. This review gives in brief the
research advances on dormancy in rice discussing the problems, types
of dormancy, factors influencing dormancy, the mechanisms of dormancy,
the genetics behind and the methods to break dormancy. Temperature,
relative humidity, the age of seeds and genotypes influence dormancy
in rice seeds. Seed dormancy in rice is mainly imposed by hull, pericarp/testa
and embryo factor. Dormancy owing to hull is genetically independent.
Dormancy is strong in weedy rice. Domestication and breeding activities
have elimated alleles at loci for shattering and morphological characteristics
of improved rice cultivars. A review on genetics of dormancy is also
R. K. MAITI, P. VIDYASAGAR AND V. P. SINGH [Research trends on seeds,
germination, seed vigour and seedling establishment in maize (Zea mays
L.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 402-416 (2005). Vibha Agrotech Ltd. 501,
Sirisampada, Rajbhavan Road, Samajiguda, Hyderabad-500 082
In the present review,
recent trends on research on maize seeds and seedling establishment
are discussed in brief. Several studies are on the biochemistry and
biotechnology of maize seeds such as Vp1-mediated repression of alpha-amylase
genes, hexose phosphorylation at distinct cellular sites, characterization
of thiamine-binding proteins, a transcript encoding a nucleic acid-binding
protein, etc. The paper discusses various factors affecting seed viability,
biochemistry of germination and seedling development, emergence, photomorphogenesis,
seedling establishment such as fungal infection, accelerated ageing,
water stress, salinity, cold tolerance, its mechanism and various other
factors. The concerted studies need to be undertaken on the genotypic
variability of maize cultivars for various seed and seedling establishment
traits and their adaptations to various stress factors and in understanding
the mechanism of tolerance to these stress factors.
KUMAR, J. S. BOHRA, S. N. SHARMA AND C. S. SINGH [Effect of
different tillage techniques and genotypes on growth and yield of wheat
after rice]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 417-420 (2005). Department
of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural SciencesBanaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2001-02 to study the effect of different tillage techniques (zero till drill, bed planter, rotavator drill and conventional sowing) and wheat genotypes (HUW-234, HUW-468 and HUW-510) on growth and yield of wheat. Among the different tillage techniques, zero tillage produced the tallest plant, highest tiller number and maximum dry weight per running metre though it was found equally effective as rotavator drill and conventional sowing but significantly superior over the bed planter sowing. In case of yield attributing characters and yield the zero tillage sowing proved its superiority over bed planter and conventional sowing as it significantly augmented the yield attributing characters like effective tillers, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and the grain and straw yield over bed planter and conventional sowing. However, sowing by zero tillage and rotavator drill was found qually effective. Among the different wheat genotypes, HUW-243 proved its superiority over HUW-468 in respect of growth and yield attributing characters like plant height, tillers per running metre, dry matter accumulation, effective tillers per running metre and grain and straw yield but remained comparable to the wheat genotype HUW-510.
P. N. RASAL, V. N. GAVHANE, D. A. GADEKAR, M. S. KAMBLE, N. V. KASHID
AND G. N. SHIRPURKAR [NIDW-15 (Panchvati)–A noble variety
of wheat for rainfed conditions of Maharashtra]. Res. on crops
6 (3) : 421- 423 (2005). Agricultural Research Station, Niphad Mahatma
Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, District Ahmednagar (Maharashtra),
NIDW-15, a noble cultivar of wheat, was identified for rainfed conditions in the year 2002 at Agricultural Research Station, Niphad for rainfed conditions of Maharashtra. In university trials (MLT), the genotype NIDW-15 produced higher grain yield over the check viz., N-59 (7.19%). In the AICWIP trials conducted over three years, the variety NIDW-15 produced higher grain yield over the checks viz., N-59 (3.36%), MACS-1967 (17.14%) and B. Yellow (25.51%). From the frontline demonstrations of wheat conducted during 1995-2002, NIDW-15 produced higher grain yield over the checks viz., N-59 (41.51%) and Kenfad (59.57%). The performance of NIDW-15 on cultivars field showed that the variety NIDW-15 produced 23.10% higher grain yield over the check MACS-1967.
6. P. N. RASAL AND V. N. GAVHANE [Differential reaction of wheat genotypes to phenological development, heat unit consumed, thermal use efficiency and grain yield]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 424-428 (2005). Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, District Nasik (M. S.), India.
A field experiment comprising
25 aestivum wheat genotypes was conducted during rabi season of 2002-03
to study the reaction of wheat genotypes to their phenological development
with respect to anthesis and maturity, heat unit consumed, thermal use
efficiency and grain yield. The experiment was conducted under normal
(17 November) and late (17 December) sown under irrigated conditions
so as to expose the genotypes to heat stress. The results revealed that
the late sowing reduced the period required for anthesis and physiological
maturity. The heat unit consumed (thermal requirements) of all genotypes
varied according to their phenophases and time of sowing. The genotype
7C/FRANGO-60 consumed minimum heat units and the genotypes TEPOLA/RABE
and PBW-373 required maximum heat units to complete their life cycle.
The thermal use efficiency for grain yield and biomass yield was found
to be less with delayed time of sowing. The thermal use efficiency for
grain yield and biomass yield was highest in 7C/FRANGO-60 under both
the sowing dates and it was lowest in WH-712 and PBW-73 under normal
and late sown conditions, respectively. Consistently higher grain yield
was recorded in NL-623-ONPL and 7C/FRANGO-60 under both sowing dates
by showing their tolerance to heat stress.
7. V. N. GAVHANE, P. N. RASAL AND G. N. SHIRPURKAR [Heat susceptibility index and thermal requirement of aestivum wheat genotypes under heat stress]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 429-433 (2005). Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, District Nasik (M. S.), India.
A field experiment comprising 25 aestivum wheat genotypes was conducted during rabi season of 2002-03 to study the response of wheat genotypes to their heat susceptibility index for yield (S) and thermal requirement at anthesis and physiological maturity. The experiment was sown under normal (17 November) and late (17 December) sown irrigated conditions. The results revealed that the heat susceptibility index for yield (S) of different wheat genotypes ranged from 0.45 to 1.41. The genotypes viz., NL-623-ONPL (S=0.45) and 7C/FRANGO-60 (S=0.54) with low values of ‘S’ were found to be heat tolerant as compared to rest of the genotypes. The thermal requirement of all genotypes varied according to their phenophases and time of sowing. The genotype 7C/FRANGO-60 consumed minimum heat units and the genotypes TEPOLA/RABE and PBW 373 required maximum heat units to complete their life cycle.
Experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2001-02 on sandy loam soil of Iglas, Aligarh. The treatment comprised three levels of nitrogen (N25, N50 and N75) and four types of mulches (no mulch, grass, straw and plastic mulch). The results revealed that the growth and yield attributing characters as well as grain, straw, total biomass and nitrogen harvest of barley crop increased significantly with increasing nitrogen application rates except number of filled grains/earhead and 1000-grain weight. Marked improvement in growth, yield attributes and yields as well as nitrogen uptake was recorded with application of mulches. The plastic mulch proved superior over others.
A field experiment was conducted during 1995, 1996 and 1998 kharif seasons under rainfed condition at UAS Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijapur to study the seed yield and its yield parameters in different genotypes of pearl millet. The results indicated that significant difference between genotypes was observed for seed yield in all the three years. The highest mean seed yield was recorded by the genotype ICMV-221 followed by Raj-171 and ICMV-155. The lowest mean seed yield was recorded by PCB-15, followed by Pusa Safed.
Field experiments were conducted in Typic Chromusterts of experimental farm, at Annamalainager to study the split application vis-a-vis customary full dose/basal application of different sources of potassic fertilizers viz., muriate of ptash (MOP) and sulphate of potash (SOP) on rice. The soil was low in available N, medium in available P, high in available K and low in available S. The results showed that split application of potassium was found to be better with regard to grain and straw yield and N, P, K and S uptake than entire basal application. Among the sources tried, MOP was proved to be superior to SOP.
To study the growth and yield of different direct seeded upland rice varieties, a field experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications taking seven different upland rice varieties as treatment at School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Medziphema, Nagaland, during kharif season of 2000. Significantly higher number of tillers/plant and shoot dry weight were recorded in the variety Saraju-52, whereas highest plant height was recorded in the local variety Leikhumo. The variety Saraju-52 also recorded significantly higher number of effective tillers, number of panicles/m2, grain (40.03 q/ha) as well as straw (45.33 q/ha) yield compared to other varieties. The local variety Leikhumo recorded significantly higher number of filled grains/panicle as well as weight and length of panicle. The variety Pant-12 recorded lowest grain (22.10 q/ha) and straw (36.88 q/ha) yield.
A field experiment was conducted during 2002 and 2003 in medium black soils of Madhya Pradesh to study the graded levels of phosphorus and potassium on grain yield, quality, economics and balance sheet of soybean. Application of P2O5 and K2O significantly increased the grain yield, protein content, oil content, net return and B : C ratio upto 60 and 50 kg/ha, which was at par with 90 and 75 kg/ha, respectively. Whereas the highest removal and gain (+) were recorded with application of 90 kg P2O5/ha and K2O 75 kg/ha.
13. O. P. S. RAGHUWANSHI, S. C. DESHMUKH AND S. R. S. RAGHUWANSHI [Effect of some new post-emergence herbicides on weed parameters and seed yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill]]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 448-451 (2005). JNKVV College of Agriculture, Indore (M. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2001-02 at Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Indore, on clay loam soil to study the effect of post-emergence herbicides and their doses on the weed parameters, seed yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], plant height, number of triplicates, dry matter per plant, yield attributes and seed yield of soybean, weed dry matter and weed density were significantly affected by herbicides. Higher seed yield and seed production efficiency were obtained under weed free upto 60 DAS after sowing and with 1 IC+(Imazethapyr+Imazamox-FP) 25 g/ha post-emergence (20 DAS).
14. U. K. BEHERA AND K. P. JHA [On-farm evaluation of promising pigeonpea cultivars for the drought prone uplands of western Orissa]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 452-453 (2005). Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753 006 (Orissa), India.
On-farm farmers' participatory trial was conducted during rainy seasons of 1990 and 1991 in the village Palsipani (Kalahandi) in western Orissa to evaluate promising pigeonpea varieties/cultivars suitable for the rainfed unbunded upland situations. Among the pigeonpea varieties/cultivars tested, ICPL-87, ICPL-151, UPAS-120 and Local tall varieties were promising with a yield level of 0.935 to 1.075 t/ha. ICPL varieties were susceptible to blister beetle. Farmers got especially impressed with the variety UPAS 120 because of shorter duration, uniformity in flowering and maturity and comparatively less blister beetle problem.
The inoculation of five phosphate solubilizing isolates recorded significant increase in plant dry matter, N and P uptake and grain yield of pigeonpea. The inoculation effect was maximum in respect of Aspergillus niger, and it was followed by Aspergillus awamori, Bacillus strain-1, Aspergillus fumigatus and Bacillus strain-2, respectively. The inoculation with fungal inoculant A. niger recorded the maximum increase in plant dry matter of pigeonpea at flowering and harvesting i. e. 18.25 and 23.47%, respectively. Among the bacterial inoculants, Bacillus strain-1 recorded the maximum increase in plant dry matter at flowering and harvesting i. e. 13.45 and 12.30%, respectively. All the inoculants increased the grain yield from 12.10 to 15.50 g/plant with the increase in N and P uptake from 23.54 to 60.43 and 14.40 to 30.18%, respectively, over uninoculated treatment.
Twenty soil samples collected from the rhizosphere of pigeonpea recorded the presence of phosphate solubilizing micro-organisms. The prominent zones of P solubilization were produced by the isolates on Pikovaskaya's agar medium. The phosphate solubilizing capacity of these isolates was confirmed colourimetric estimation by using tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate as a P source in liquid medium. The per cent P solubilization ranged from 47.40 to 61.00 using tricalcium phosphate and from 9.00 to 18.20 using rock phosphate as P source. The results also indicated that the temperature of 300C was most favourable for maximum P solubilization, except for Aspergillus fumigatus which solubilized maximum phosphate at 35oC. The incubation period of 14 days was optimum for maximum phosphate solubilization by the isolates. The optimum pH for P solubilization was 6 and 8 for fungal and bacterial isolates, respectively.
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2002-03 to study the effect of polyethylene film mulching on growth and yield of groundnut under irrigated conditions. Polyethylene film mulching caused significant variations in growth parameters, yield parameters, yield and economics of groundnut. Polyethylene film mulching with pre-emergence herbicide application recorded maximum growth, yield parameters, pod yield and monetary return. This treatment also recorded lesser weed population. Growth parameters yield attributing characters and pod yield were higher under polyethylene film mulching with pre-emergence herbicide application.
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02to study the effect of irrigation and integrated nutrient management on yield of rabi castor (Ricinus communis). Almost all the yield attributes like spike length, spike number, spike weight and capsules per spike were higher irrigation scheduling at 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and integrated nutrient management (INM) treatment with 75% RDF+25% N through FYM+ Azospirillum. Total seed yield was significantly higher with 0.6 IW/CPE ratio in 2000-01, whereas during 2001-02, seed yield between 0.6 and 0.8 IW/CPE ratios was on par. INM practice with 75% RDF+25% N through FYM+Azospirillum recorded significantly higher seed yield. Interaction between IW/CPE ratio and INM practices on total seed yield revealed that maximum seed yield was obtained with 0.6 IW/CPE ratio at 75% RDF+25% N through FYM+Azospirillum.
Investigations were carried out during seasons of summer and kharif 2001 to study the effect of sulphur at varying doses viz., 0, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1 and different organics viz., farmyard manure, poultry manure and sulphitation pressmud each applied at 10 t ha-1 on yield and sulphur use efficiency of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cv. TMV 3. The seed and stover yield progressively increased with S levels. While response ratio, apparent S recovery and agronomic efficiency except physiological efficiency were decreased with increased S levels. Seed yield increased with application of S levels and 45 kg S ha-1 registered maximum seed yield (870.2 and 898.1 kg ha-1). But SUE was maximum with S @ 45 kg ha-1. Poultry manure @ 10 t ha-1 recorded the highest seed yield (777.4 and 801.8) and sulphur use efficiency.
20. MOHAMMAD SAJID, V. V. GABHANE, M. N. PATIL, S. T. DANGORE AND G. J. BHAGAT [Soil related constraints and production potential of soils under rainfed crops in semi-arid region]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 470-476 (2005). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (Maharashtra), India.
Detailed survey of Warkhed Watershed in Akola district of Maharashtra was carried out and 14 pedons were studied and classified as Typic Haplusterts, Vertic Haplustepts, Typic Haplustepts and Typic Ustorthents. The capability classification showed that the soils were classified under capability classes II, III, IV and VI. Some of the soil related constraints associated with these capability classes are erosion susceptibility, shallow soil depth, low moisture retentivity, high swell-shrink potential and unfavourable tilth. The land resource development plan generated based on soil related constraints and soil site suitability evaluation for rainfed crops under semi-arid climatic conditions would help in achieving potential yields of cotton, sorghum pigeonpea, green gram, soybean and pearl millet, on a sustainable basis under similar soils and agroclimatic conditions elsewhere.
A field experiment was conducted during 2002-03 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore at Typic Vertic Ustochrept to study the influence of STCR recommended levels and potassium humate on the productivity of cotton-blackgram cropping system under irrigated condition. The soil was sandy clayey loam with low available nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and rich in potassium. Yield attributes of cotton such as number of sympodial branches, fruiting points, boll setting (%) and boll numbers were increased with application of 100% STCR recommended level contributed to higher seed cotton yield (22 q/ha) rather than 75 and 50% STCR recommended level. Among potassium humate treatments, soil application of either 30 or 40 kg/ha recorded higher yield attributes and yield. The interaction effect was found to be significant, among which application of 100% or 75% STCR recommended levels of NPK alongwith 30 kg/ha potassium humate application and 40 kg/ha or combination of soil application of potassium humate 20 kg/ha+1% seed soaking+0.1% foliar spraying with 100% STCR recommended fertilizers recorded higher yield attributes and yield. Application of 100% or 75% STCR recommended levels and 40 kg/ha soil application of potassium humate had residual influence in terms of blackgram yield. The interaction effect was found to be insignificant. Application of 100% STCR recommended levels alongwith 30 kg/ha potassium humate as soil application recorded higher returns in cotton and with 40 kg/ha potassium humate application in the succeeding blackgram.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the four major annual crops grown for edible oil in the world. Since its oil contains unsaturated fatty acid with no cholesterol, its demand has been increasing. So, development of salt tolerant varieties/hybrids will be much useful to increase the area of cultivation. With this idea, 60 hybrids alongwith their 19 parents were evaluated for their salt tolerance level in in vitro condition through tissue culture technique. By studying the callus fresh weight it was concluded that the parents 852A, 234A, 6D-1, CO 4 and Morden and the hybrids 821A x RHA298 and 852A x Morden which produced more than 40 mg of fresh callus at 0.8% NaCl concentration as salt tolerant genotypes. The genotypes viz., RHA299, 351A x RHA857, 351A x RHA586, 351A x 6D-1, 821A x RHA297, 821A x RHA856 and 852 A x 6D-1 which recorded more than 30 mg of callus fresh weight were considered to be moderately salt tolerant. From callus morphological score it was decided that the parents CO 4 and Morden and the hybrids 821A x RHA298 and 852A x Morden which scored more than six as salt tolerant and the parents 852A x 234A, RHA299 and 6D-1, and the hybrids 351A x RHA857, 821A x RHA856 and 852A x RHA586 which scored more than five as moderately tolerant. In combination of these two observations, the parents CO 4 and Morden and the hybrids 821A x RHA298 and 852A x Morden were considered as salt tolerant and the parents 852A, 234A, RHA299 and 6D-1, and the hybrids 351A x RHA857 and 821A x RHA856 as moderately tolerant.
23. A. SUMAN, V. GOURI SHANKAR, L. V. SUBBA RAO AND N. SREEDHAR [Analysis of genetic divergence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 487-491 (2005). Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.), India.
One hundred and fourteen rice genotypes were evaluated for 16 metric characters to quantify genetic diversity existing among them by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. The genotypes fell into 10 clusters. Maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters V and X. Among the 16 quantitative characters studied, harvest index contributed maximum (26.42%) towards divergence followed by seed density (18.35%) and total number of tillers per plant (15.52%). Cluster X had maximum number of spikelets per panicle, panicle length, filled grains per panicle, plant yield and biological yield. Cluster III exhibited lowest means for plant height, days to 50% flowering, panicle length, 100-grain weight, germination per cent, seedling dry weight, seedling length and seedling vigour index. The genotypes from clusters III and X, which have high and low cluster means for the majority of the characters, are suggested as parents for hybridization. Geographical diversity did not relate to genetic diversity.
The paper presents the results of a comparative evaluation of seed and seedling vigour traits of several pearl millet and maize hybrids. Good quality seeds, good storage, free of disease and insects are essential to maintain genetic purity of a crop seed. The hybrids of both the crops showed large variability in the seedling traits studied, but the degree of the variability of these traits is more in pearl millet hybrids. Significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations occur among some of the seedling traits. The heritability percentages of these traits are much higher in pearl millet compared to those in maize hybrids indicating that there is a great scope in genetic improvement of the seed vigour traits utilizing these traits in pearl millet. Poor seed and seedling vigour in pearl millet hybrids are attributed to smaller seed size and lower seed reserve compared to that in maize hybrids. Therefore, shallow sowing depth and uniform land preparation are recommended to ensure good emergence in pearl millet. The improvement of bolder and compact seeds needs to be given emphasis in a breeding programme of pearl millet.
Hybrids were produced utilizing two diverse colour linted genotypes (Arkansas green and Algerian brown). Six white linted including two high seed oil content genotypes viz., MCU 7 and Sahana were crossed in half diallel fashion and were studied for estimatig heterosis for 10 characters. The maximum relative heterosis for seed cotton yield was observed in the cross Arkansas green x SVPR 2 (79.66%). The promising hybrid MCU 12 x MCU 7 exhibited maximum heterobeltiosis (75.29%) and standard heterosis (53.50%). The cross combination SVPR 2 x MCU 12 exhibited highest significant relative heterosis (74.30%) for number of bolls per plant. The hybrid Algerian brown x Sahana recorded 54.35% heterosis over better parent. And the hybrid Algerian brown x MCU 11 exhibited significant heterosis (77.93%) over check variety MCU 5. While the hybrid Arkansas green x MCU 12 showed highest standard heterosis for boll weight. For lint index, hybrid Arkansas green x Algerian brown registered highest (47.03%) relative heterosis per cent. The hybrid Arkansas green x MCU 5 (76.57%) exhibited high standard heterosis for seed index. Similarly, for seed oil content the hybrid SVPR 2 x Sahana exhibited 28.63% positive significant relative heterosis. The promising hybrids identified were MCU 5 x Sahana, SVPR 2 x Sahana, MCU 12 x MCU 7, Arkansas green x SVPR 2, SVPR 2 x MCU 5 and Arkansas green x Sahana and need to be exploited after multiple environment testing.
Correlation and path coefficient analysis was carried out in 59 genotypes (42 hybrids and 17 parents) of forage maize for 10 component characters including green fodder and dry matter yield. Except crude protein content and neutral detergent fibre, all the component characters had significant and positive correlation with both the types of yield (green and dry). Path coefficient revealed that the characters dry matter yield per plant, number of leaves per plant, days to 50% silking and plant height had positive direct effects on green fodder yield. This indicated that these characters were the most important characters to be considered for selection to bring about an improvement in yield. The indirect effect of these characters via other characters was also positive.
Forty-seven genotypes of rice including 16 local basmati varieties and 31 high yielding varieties/advanced lines were evaluated to assess the genetic variability, heitability and genetic advance for panicle characters under two sowing dates. Highly significant variation among the genotypes was observed for different characters. The differences between genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation were relatively low for almost all the characters except primary branch number panicle-1. High to moderate genotypic coefficients of variation with high heritability and genetic advance were recorded for grain yield panicle-1, chaffy grains panicle-1, grain yield plant-1, filled grains panicle-1 and secondary branch number panicle-1, indicating the effectiveness of selection for these characters.
28. RAKSHIT KAPOOR, G. R. LAVANYA AND G. SURESH BABU [Evaluation of genetic variability in mungbean]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 509-510 (2005). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Allahabad Agricultural Institute–Deemed University, Allahabad-211 077 (U. P.), India.
Studies on variability and genetic parameters in 20 mungbean genotypes revealed significant differences for seven yield and yield attributing traits. Pods per plant and seed yield per plant exhibiting high PCV indicated the favourable effect of environment. High GCV suggested presence of substantial amount of genetic variability for 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and pod length alongwith high heritability and genetic advance as percentage of mean. High estimates of these parameters showed that additive gene effects controlled these characters and phenotypic selection for these traits was likely to be effective.
29. JAGRATI TRIPATHI AND CHITRA KUMAR MISHRA [Heterosis studies for yield and yield components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 511-513 (2005). Vidisha Institute of Science & Technology, Teela Khedi Road, Vidisha-464 001 (M. P.), India.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important and conventional oil seed crops of India next to groundnut. Its productivity has been stagnant during past few years. Exploitation of heterosis is considered to be the best tool to have a quantum jump in yield. Commercial exploration of heterosis in sesame would be feasible due to epipetlous nature of the flower, high success in artificial crossing, high seed production ratio and low seed rate. Heterosis for days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant was evaluated in 24 crosses derived from a 8 x 3 line x tester analysis in sesame. Heterosis was worked out over mid parent, better parent and standard parent. The study revealed that the hybrids TNAU-11 x TC-25, TKG-55 x CO-1 and JLT-7 x TMV-5 were superior for exploitation of seed yield and other contributing characters.
30. T. S. GHIMIRAY, INDRAJIT SARKAR AND AMAR ROY [Variability studies in chrysanthemum grown over two environments]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 514-516 (2005). Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya Regional Research Station (Hill Zone) Kalimpong-734 301 (West Bengal), India.
Genetic variability was studied with 12 chrysanthemum varieties under two environmental conditions (viz., open field and polyhouse) for various growth and floral characters. The phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than those of genotypic coefficients of variation for all the characters studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed in yield of flowers/plant (g) and number of branches/plant over environments, flower freshness after full bloom (days) under open field and flower diameter (cm) under protected condition. This indicated the greater influence of additive gene effects in controlling these traits. The non-additive gene effects were evident in most of the characters, which exhibited moderate to low genetic advance in spite of having high heritability estimates.
Studies on variability, correlation and path coefficients were made on single plant yield and its components in 26 cowpea genotypes. High heritability and high genetic advance were obtained for all the nine traits. Single plant yield had positive and significant association with clusters/plant, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight as indices for improving yield in cowpea. Path analysis revealed that pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight had high direct effect towards single plant yield. Clusters/plant showed high indirect effect through pods/plant on grain yield. The study revealed that genetic improvement of grain yield was possible by selecting characters having positive correlation and positive direct effect.
Fifty-four elite germplasm lines being maintained at Agricultural Research Station, Nellore were evaluated for their genetic diversity with regards to yield, yield components and quality traits. The genotypes were classified into nine clusters, based on Mahalanobis D2 statistic. Geographical and genetic diversity were observed to be unrelated, as genotypes from diverse geographical regions were placed in the same cluster, while genotypes from the same centre were grouped into different clusters. Results on inter-cluster distances revealed maximum diversity between genotypes of clusters IV and VIII. Intra-cluster distance was maximum for cluster V, indicating the existence of variability within the cluster. A perusal of the results on cluster means revealed greater yield, number of grains per panicle, panicle length, plant height and days to 50% flowering for cluster IV, indicating the desirability of genotypes from the cluster for improvement of grain yield and the above yield components. Further, plant height and days to 50% flowering, together accounted for 82.04% of the total genetic divergence, indicating their importance in the choice of parents for hybridization programmes. Studies on isozyme variability of the nine best performing genotypes, obtained from each of the nine clusters, classified on the basis of Mahalanobis D2 statistic confirmed their genetic diversity. The genotypes were distinguished based on presence, absence or intensity of the seven peroxidase and five esterase bands obtained in the gel electrophoretic studies.
Fifty-four elite genotypes were evaluated for their variability with regards to yield, yield components and quality characters. Estimates of heritability and genetic advance were also obtained for the above traits. In addition, studies on character associations and path coefficients were also undertaken. The results revealed high variability, heritability and genetic advance for number of grains per panicle, grain yield per plant, harvest index and kernel L/B ratio, while days to maturity, fertility percentage, hulling recovery and kernel elongation ratio had recorded high heritability coupled with low genetic advance. Further, yield was observed to be positively associated with days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. Among these, number of effective tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were noticed to exert high direct effects on grain yield. High indirect effects of the different yield component traits and quality characters studied were also noticed through plant height and harvest index, indicating the need for emphasis on these traits during selections for yield improvement. However, a balance needs to be struck between plant height and harvest index during selections due to their negative inherent association. Further, non-significant associations were noticed for yield and the quality characters studied, indicating the ineffectiveness of simultaneous selection for improvement of yield and quality.
34. M. RIZWANA BANU, A. KALAMANI, S. ASHOK AND S. JEBARAJ [Effect of mutagenic treatments in M2 generation of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]–An assessment through genetic advance and heritability]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 535-538 (2005). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Assessment of variability estimates has been one of the dependable statistical measures to find out the mutagenic effect on the polygenes. The study was conducted by using two mutagens viz., Gamma rays and EMS in cowpea varieties (CO 6 and VBN-1) in the M2 generation. The heritability and genetic advance had mostly increased in majority of the characters. The increase was more visualized in single plant yield, number of pods per plant and pod length. 50 Krad of gamma rays and 0.15% of EMS treatments were found to be most effective to produce off springs with maximum estimates. VBN-1 was found to be more effective for fixing and advancing the superior characters induced through mutations.
35. ADNAN KANBAR, H. E. SHASHIDHAR* AND S. P. MANE [Genetic variability of root morphology and related traits in an indica-indica based mapping population of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 539-541 (2005). MAS Lab., Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural, Sciences, Bangalore-560 065, India*(E-mail : email@example.com).
Root morphology and related traits were studied at vegetative growth stage under well-watered condition in a randomly chosen subset of 127 doubled haploid mapping population derived from a cross between CT 9993 and IR 62266 alongwith parents and checks viz., Azucena, IR 64, IR 58821 and Moroberekan. Genetic parameters of root and shoot related traits were estimated. High heritabilities (broad sense) were recorded for all the traits. NOT, TRN, RV, RDW and SDW showed higher GCV and PCV and hence higher expected GA as per cent of mean. Transgressants were obtained on higher as well as lower side for different root traits.
36. M. S. KANWAR AND B. N. KORLA [Assessment of changes in character associations in late cauliflower through intermating]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 542-546 (2005). Department of Vegetable Crops Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan-173 230 (H. P.), India.
Correlation coefficients of BIPs were compared with the F3 progenies in cauliflower. BIPs were developed in F2 generation of an intervarietal cross PSB-1 x KT-9 in late cauliflower using NCD-1. F3 progenies were also produced. Net curd weight was significantly correlated with leaf length, gross plant weight and harvest index in both the progenies while with leaf breadth in BIPs only. Significant differences in the significant correlation coefficients of BIPs and F3 progenies were found in case of stalk length with days to marketable maturity, leaf length with leaf breadth, and net curd weight with gross plant weight and harvest index. Gross plant weight and harvest index had maximum direct as well as indirect contribution towards net curd weight.
37. M. R. CHOUDHURY, N. C. TALUKDAR AND A. SAIKIA [Changes in organic carbon, available N, P2O5 and K2O under integrated use of organic manure, biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on sustaining productivity of tomato and fertility of soil]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 547-550 (2005). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of inorganic fertilizers coupled with organic manure and biofertilizer on organic carbon, available N, P2O5 and K2O in soil as well as on plant growth parameters of tomato crop. Incorporation of Azotobacter, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and FYM alongwith inorganic fertilizers significantly improved the organic carbon content and available N, P2O5 and K2O status of the soil. The highest plant height, number of leaves per plant and yield of tomato were obtained with Azotobacter, PSB, FYM and inorganic fertilizers followed by PSB, FYM and inorganic fertilizer treated soils. The population of Azotobacter in the native soil was less than that the PSB. Inoculated and fertilizer nitrogen added soil had maintained increased microbial population.
38. M. R. CHOUDHURY, N. C. TALUKDAR AND A. SAIKIA [Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and productivity of brinjal]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 551-554 (2005). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.
The effect of integrated use of organic manure, biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on nutrient status of soil and productivity of brinjal was studied in a field experiment conducted during 2002-03 with various treatment combinations including FYM, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), rock phosphate Azotobacter and inorganic fertilizers. The differences in organic carbon, available N, P2O5 and K2O were significantly influenced. The organic carbon and available N status increased significantly with conjunctive use of inorganic fertilizers, biofertilizers and FYM. The combined use of organic, biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizers sustained the productivity. Soil available nutrients like N, P2O5 and K2O increased significantly with the application of various organic and microbial sources of nutrients in combination with fertilizers over the fertilizer alone. The highest plant growth parameters and yield of brinjal were recorded with Azotobacter, PSB and FYM alongwith inorganic fertilizers. The native population of PSB in soil was more than that of Azotobacter. Inoculated and fertilizer N added soil had maintained increased microbial population.
39. S. KASHYAP, D. BORBORAPHOOKAN AND P. BARUA [Effect of drip irrigation and black plastic mulch on growth, yield and water use of broccoli [Brassica oleracea (L.) var. italica]]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 555- 559 (2005). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat- 785 013 (Assam), India.
A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2000-01 to study the growth, yield and water use as influenced by different irrigation management practices with or without black plastic mulch in broccoli, var. KTS-1. There were nine treatments in total, eight treatments were on drip irrigation at different levels of evaporation replenishment (ERP) viz., 60, 80, 100 and 120% of USWB class A pan evaporation with or without black plastic mulch. Ninth treatment was on furrow irrigation at fortnightly intervals on the basis of available soil moisture depletion. The studies indicated that there was improved growth, yield and increased water use efficiency (WUE) under drip irrigation as compared to furrow irrigation. The highest broccoli yield of 25.14 t/ha was found under drip irrigation at 120% EPR with black plastic mulch, while the lowest yield (9.22 t/ha) was found in the furrow irrigated plants. The WUE was considerably higher under drip irrigation than under furrow irrigation. Drip irrigation at 60% EPR with black plastic mulch recorded the highest WUE (4.11 t/ha-cm), while it was lowest (0.59 t/ha-cm) under furrow irrigation.
40. S. K. PURBEY AND P. R. MEGHWAL [Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment on seed germination and vigour of aonla seedlings]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 560-561 (2005). Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur- 342 003 (Rajasthan), India.
The pre-sowing seed treatment with various concentrations of KNO3 and GA was carried out to improve the germination percentage and vigour of the seedlings. The results revealed that maximum seed germination (93.33%), root length (31.33 cm) and root diameter (0.39 cm) were observed in the seeds treated with 1% KNO3 for 18 h, while lowest seed germination (53.33%), main root length (12.67 cm) and root diameter (0.22 cm) were recorded in control. The seedling height, number leaflets and survival of the 100 days old seedlings were significantly more in 1% KNO3 treatment.
U. KOTOKY, R. HAZARIKA AND S. CHOUDHURY [Productivity and water
use efficiency (WUE) of Arecanut as influenced by drip irrigation].
Res. on crops 6 (3) : 562-564 (2005). Department of Horticulture
An experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2001-03 to study the effect of different methods of irrigations i. e. conventional drip, pitcher drip and bamboo drip with or without mulch in Arecanut. The yield and yield attributing characters and water use efficiency (WUE) were found to be superior in plants under irrigation treatments than those under rainfed (control). The plants under pitcher drip with black polyethylene mulch recorded the highest yield (18.15 t/ha) and WUE (1.509 t/ha-cm) followed by plants under bamboo drip with black polyethylene mulch (yield : 15.22 t/ha and WUE : 1.273 t/ha-cm) and conventional drip with black polyethylene mulch (yield : 14.90 t/ha and WUE : 1.216 t/ha-cm), while the lowest yield (5.09 t/ha) as well as WUE (0.314 t/ha-cm) were recorded under control.
42. G. S. KULMI AND P. N. TIWARI [Effect of sowing methods and seed rates on growth, yield and quality of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 565-567 (2005). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Mandsaur-458 001 (Madhya Pradesh), India.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at College of Agriculture, Mandsaur to evaluate the effect of two sowing methods (line sowing and broadcast sowing) and four seed rates (4, 6, 8 and 10 kg/ha). Results of the field experiment revealed that significantly superior yield attributes like tillers/plant, spikes/plant and spike length of isabgol were registered with broadcast sowing over line sowing. Broadcast method gave significantly higher seed yield (22.14%), straw yield (22.09%) and net profit (24.81%) than line sowing. Yield and yield attributes of isabgol decreased with the increase in seed rates from 4 to 6 kg/ha. Seed rate of 4 kg/ha recorded significantly higher yield attributing characters, seed yield (11.90%), straw yield (11.84%) and net profit (13.46%) than that of 6 kg/ha.
43. P. N. TIWARI AND G. S. KULMI [Effect of biofertilizers, organic and inorganic nutrition on growth and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 568-571 (2005). J. N. K. V. V. Kailash Nath Katju College of Horticulture Mandsaur-458 001 (Madhya Pradesh), India.
A field study was conducted on vertisols of K. N. K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur during rabi 2001-02 and 2002-03 to find out the effect of biofertilizers, organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of isabgol. All treatments exerted conspicuous effect on growth, yield and yield attributing characters. Half recommended dose viz., N10P20K10+FYM 10.0 t/ha significantly increased plant height (18.52%), effective tillers/plant (44.54%), spikes/plant (36.44%), test weight (20.43%), seed yield (31.17%) and net profit (Rs. 30666/ha) over control. This treatment was also found to be superior over recommended dose (N20P40K20) and FYM 10.0 t/ha alone for seed yield (17.89 and 7.60%) and net profit (14.38 and 6.53%), respectively. An increase of 9.15 and 7.70% in seed yield over control was recorded due to soil application of Azotobacter and PSB each at 3.0 kg/ha, respectively, where highest benefit : cost ratio (136.36 and 134.13) was obtained.
44. S. KALITA AND A. BASIT [Relative safety of some plant extracts on the parasitization and emergence of Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 572-575 (2005). Depatment of Entomology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.
An in vitro study was carried out to assess the safety of four different plant extracts viz., Melia azedarach, Annona squamosa Linn., Nerium indicum Mill. and Citrus sinensis Linn. on the parasitization of the hymenopteran egg parasitoid. The parasitism percentage of the parasitoid was affected by all the plant extracts but at lower rate as compared to the chemical insecticides. The adult emergence was reduced to 37.00 to 66.00% when sprayed before parasitization as compared to 53.67 to 74.67% emergence when sprayed after parasitization. Citrus sinensis revealed contrasting results with 37.00 and 61.67% adult emergence in pre- and post-parasitism treatments, respectively. Quinalphos 25 EC was found to be the most toxic recording only 0.67 to 2.33% adult emergence.
45. M. KANDIBANE, S. RAGURAMAN AND N. GANAPATHY [Arthropods community turnover in irrigated rice ecosystem, Madurai, Tamil Nadu]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 576-578 (2005). Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.
The community turnover of arthropods increased during successional age of the crop growth. The turnover of arthropods was more than 40.00 and 50.00% in weeded and partially weeded plots, respectively, in the second week. The turnover of arthropods was more in partially weeded plot than the weeded plot, which had decline in the sixth week. Among the four varieties tested, ADT 39 had 57.14 and 91.89% turnover in second and seventh week, respectively, in partially weeded plots.
46. LETA TULU BEDADA* [Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield and disease severity evaluated in four varieties planted at five different dates in south-western Ethiopia]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 579-586 (2005). Jimma Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box-192, Jimma, Ethiopia *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Grain yield and severity of three major diseases of maize were evaluated in four varieties planted at five different dates for three years to identify optimum planting date that can be adopted for less disease severity and better grain productivity. The treatments were arranged in a 4 x 5 factorial experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were recorded on grain yield, 100-seed weight, days to 50% silking, tasseling and maturity, and disease severity. Severity of gray leaf spot (GLS), turcicum leaf blight (TLB) and common rust (CR) was scored using a 1-5 rating scale and was then transformed through log transformation before executing analysis of variance. Analysis of variance was done separately for each year and then combined across years using MSTAT-C software. The results revealed significant differences in grain yield (P<0.01) and other related agronomic traits due to planting date, variety and year x planting date. Similarly, year, variety, year x variety and planting date x variety interactions have significantly influenced severity of all diseases indicating seasonal variation of diseases and also differential response of varieties to environment of their reaction to diseases. The East African varieties, UCB and BH-660, recorded significantly lower disease severity compared to Gutto which is of CIMMYT origin. Higher disease severity observed with some planting dates is not expected to affect grain yield in the respective varieties despite significant planting data x variety interaction effects. Those planting dates are either too early or too late to plant those varieties for large scale grain production. Planting date has significantly (P<0.01) influenced severity of CR only indicating that manipulating planting date can be adopted as a strategy to control CR in maize. However, those planting dates that have significantly reduced CR severity have also produced significantly lower grain yield indicating that one has to critically consider the level of desired grain yield and losses caused by the disease in exploiting planting date as an option to control it in maize. Planting on May 5 and 20 has exposed the crop to favourable environment and hence produced significantly higher grain yield compared to the latter two 15 days interval planting dates. Rainfall received at different crop growth stages was positively correlated with grain yield indicating that the distribution and amount of rain have influenced grain yield more than other climatic variables. It was concluded that planting date had no significance to reduce severity of the three diseases in maize. Rather emphasis should be placed on breeding East African germplasm to develop disease resistant varieties. Based on grain yield and disease severity evaluation and better chance of getting ensured rainfall, May 5 to 20 was recommended as the optimum planting date for maize in the south-western Ethiopia.
R. K. MAITI, E. SANCHEZ-ARREOLA, P. WESCHE-EBELING AND RAMÍREZ-BRAVO
O. ERIC [Effects of different light-temperature treatments over
germination responses and seedling development of some Agave species].
Res. on crops 6 (3) : 587-595 (2005). Departamento de Química
y Biología Universidad de las Américas-Puebla Santa Catarina
Martir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México.
A study was made to determine the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of Agave. Three temperature ranges (19-23°C, 19-32°C and 28-32°C) and three light treatments (white light, red light and darkness) were used to determine possible relations. The further development of seedling was followed over a period of three months. At 19-23°C there was no significant difference in speed of germination and percentage among treatments, however, plant development tended to decrease in comparison to others. Furthermore, plantlets germinated at low temperature ranges had shown greater survival percentage over three months without showing patterns under light treatments. On the other hand, at 28-32°C there was a higher speed and germination percentage under dark treatments. Despite plantlets obtained from these treatments appeared to develop faster, but they had a diminished survival rate for most species. As for seeds germinated at 19-32°C presented a lower speed and germination percentage than those from a lower range. Therefore, the results indicate that the seeds of agave genera tend to germinate either under buried or under micro sites where temperature changes are kept at an optimal range. However, the latter condition would be favoured as it assures a fast seedling development to assure successful establishment.
NASER A. ANJUM, IRAM DIVA, ROBINA SHAHEEN AND R. P. UPADHYAY [Impact
of industrial effluents on broad bean (Vicia faba L.)–A cytological
approach]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 596-599 (2005). Environmental
Botany Research Unit, Department of Botany Hamdard University, New Delhi-110
062, India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The city of Bhagalpur is known for its silk industry. A considerable
amount of water with full of industrial effluents, related to silk is
being used for irrigation of vegetable growing fields. The heart of
industrial area is full of effluents of silk industry discharge, which
produces visible impact on the flora as well as the fauna of this locality.
The present project was oriented to screen the cytological impact of
industrial effluents on plants. For this, broad bean (Vicia faba L.)
was selected as the test material. Among the cytological parameters
selected is mitotic index (M. I.), the chromosomal behaviour during
cell division under various levels of treatments. It was noticed that
the mitotic index had fallen corresponding to the increasing dosage
of effluent used for the treatment. In addition to above, several other
chromosomal abnormalities were also observed at higher dosage of the
effluent treatment. The observation as such is indicative of impact
of effluents at different stages of the cell cycle.
Accurate and rapid methods for identification of genotypes and genotypic comparisons have important practical applications in plant breeding. Electrophoretic banding pattern of seed proteins of 30 groundnut genotypes was obtained by SDS-PAGE technique. The banding pattern for the protein was specific for each genotype and was therefore highly reproducible as the technique was standardized. Some genotypes have unique bands, which may help in identifying them individually. Several genotypes can also be identified by absence of particular bands. This study suggests that electrophoretic banding pattern could be an important compliment to other morphological and biochemical tests for the identification of genotypes.
50. G. RAGHUNADHA REDDY [Profitability and economic efficiency of shrimp farming–A case study*]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 606-614 (2005). Department of Agricultural Economics Institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
The related profitability measures and resource use efficiency of shrimp
aquaculture are analyzed in this article to examine the economic feasibility
for long term sustainability of the culture. In view of the recent setback
of brackish water prawn farming, the present study was aimed at highlighting
the profitability of shrimp aquaculture in West Godavari district of
Andhra Pradesh. Maximum investments as well as productivity were observed
in large ponds, however, the net profits and other profitability parameters
were in favour of medium size ponds. The medium farmers followed by
large farmers emerged as technologically the advanced group, who adopted
scientific culture management practices meticulously. The revival phase
of shrimp culture from the recent setback was observed by the study.
The material inputs viz., feed followed by stocking material and fuel
and electricity were excessively used and need necessary readjustments.
The resources graded as efficiently utilized were lime, organic manures
and pond area by all the farmers. The author forecast that the shrimp
culture would continue without incurring any losses under normal favourable
conditions in the study area.
The supply of kolanut is usually done by south-western states of Nigeria to the northern part of the country. The trend in this trade link is gradually reducing in some western states as a result of some constraints being faced by kolanut farmers. The study was carried out in Ogun State of Nigeria to determine these constraints and offer solutions to them. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of respondents for the study. Primary data were obtained from 137 kolanut farmers in six villages through personal interview using well-structured questionnaire. The findings of the study revealed that majority (79.6%) of the respondents fell within the age range of 40-89 years. Majority of the respondents (89.8%) were married, while few (28.5%) were female kolanut farmers. The respondents had one form of education or the other i. e. adult literacy to post secondary education. During kola production, the respondents encountered very severe constraints such as inadequate capital (76.6%), old kola trees (78.1%), poor marketing (64.9%), air pollution (69.3%), low fertility (45.9%) and pests and diseases (62.2%). Other constraints were lack of improved plant varieties, inadequate chemicals, poor transportation, old age of kolanut farmers and industrialization/urbanization. As part of their coping strategies to low level of kola production, all (100.0%) the farmers cultivated other crops in addition to kolanut production, while many (98.5%) farmers were also engaged in other income generating activities such as carpentry, bricklaying, tailoring, blacksmithing, etc. The statistical analysis revealed that the correlation analysis of the relationship between the constraints and the level of kolanut production was significant (r=0.157, P= -1.22). This shows a negative relationship. It was, therefore, recommended that more extension agents be employed to visit the farmers on their farms, this will help encourage and monitor the farmers’ performance in kola production. Also farmers should form cooperative societies, this will enable them to solve many of the problems that confront them on their kola farm.
52. K. CHITTIBABU, G. SUBBI REDDY, R. SRI HARI BABU AND M. MAVHAVI [Correlation studies in acid lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle] seedlings]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 622-624 (2005). A. N. G. R. A. U. Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati-517 502 (Andhra Pradesh), India.
An experiment was conducted during November 1998-June 1999 at farmers’ field in Modukur village, near Tenali, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, to study the correlations between the tree yield and fruit quality parameters in acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm Swingle). The yield/tree had highly significant correlation with fruit weight (0.929), fruit volume (0.835), juice weight (0.707) and rag weight (0.502) and negative correlation with seed% (-0.447). The most desirable traits for selection of superior types were fruit weight, fruit volume, juice weight, juice volume, juice recovery, brix : acid ratio and ascorbic acid content, whereas the undesirable traits were peel thickness, peel percentage, rap percentage, peel weight, rag weight and number of seeds per fruit. The strains 18, 26, 21, 27, 13, 24, 12 and 3 were found superior for yield, yield attributes and physico-chemical properties of fruit.
53. A. VENKAT REDDY, G. SREEHARI AND A. KIRAN KUMAR [Evaluation of certain new insecticides against chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) and mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus)]. Res. on crops 6 (3) : 625-626 (2005). J. V. R. Horticultural Research Station, Malyal, Mahabubabad, Warangal-506 101 (A. P.), India.
Field evaluation of the bioefficacy of certain new insecticides alongwith traditional insecticides as foliar spray against chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis and mites, Polyphagotarsonemus latus was undertaken under irrigated conditions during 2001 and 2002. Results indicated that among 17 insecticides tested, Fipronil 5% SL @ 0.01% followed by Thiomethoxam 25 WG @ 0.005%, Acetamiprid 20 SP @ 0.002% and Dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06% were found to be more effective against thrips, as they reduced thrips population, while Carbaryl 50 SP @ 0.15% followed by Phosalone 50 EC @ 0.07%, Chloropyriphos 20 EC 2 0.05% were found to be least effective. Fipronil 5% SL @ 0.01% followed by Thiomethoxam 25 WG @ 0.005%, Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 0.09% were found to be effective against mites, while Carbaryl followed by Dichlorovas 76 EC 2 0.076% and Indoxacarb 14.5 SL @ 0.0145% were found to be ineffective against mites.