Volume 52, Number 6 (November) 2017
1. Moazam Ghasemi, Ghorban, Noormohammadi*, Hamid Madani, Hamid-Reza Mobasser and Mohammad-Zaman Nouri [Effect of foliar application of zinc nano oxide on agronomic traits of two varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 195-201 (2017). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
In order to investigate the effects of foliar application of nano zinc oxide on agronomic characteristics of two rice varieties, an experiment was conducted in personal research farm located in the Amol city in 2014. The experiment was conducted as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments included main factor cultivars in two levels (Tarom and Shiroodi) and sub-factor was foliar application of zinc nano oxide in five levels (S1 : Non-sprayed, S2 : Spraying 20 ppm in mid-tillering and panicle initiation, S3 : spraying 20 ppm in panicle initiation and full heading, S4 : Spraying 40 ppm in mid-tillering and panicle initiation and S5 : Spraying 40 ppm in panicle initiation and full heading). The results showed that Tarom compared with the Shiroodi was successful only in plant height (147.63 cm) and the percentage of spikelets per panicle (88.99). The highest height, number of spikelets per spike, biological yield, grain yield and straw yield were achieved with treatments S3 and S5. The highest number of tillers per hill belonged to treatments S2, S4 and S5, respectively. Also, the maximum 1000-grain weight (27.58 g) and longest clusters (28.98 cm) were achieved under treatments S5 and S4, respectively. Finally, the highest height was 151.9 and 154.5 cm under interactions of S2 × V1 and S4 × V1, respectively. While the highest 1000-grain weight was 28.16 and 28.80 g under interactions of S3 × V2 and S5 × V2, respectively.
2. HENGDONG ZHANG, MIN HUANG*, GUANGHUI CHEN AND YINGBIN ZOU [Relationships between amylose content and pasting properties in Chinese rice]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 202-208 (2017). Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops (CICGO) Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Amylose content (AC) is an important factor influencing the eating and cooking qualities of rice. Finding useful relationships between AC and pasting properties is a precondition to extend the use of Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) as an analytical tool to estimate AC in rice. In this study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify the pasting properties that are closely related to AC in Chinese rice. We extracted the data (n = 440) of AC and pasting properties, including peak viscosity (PV), trough viscosity (TV), final viscosity (FV), breakdown (BD) and setback (SB), from 32 published studies that were conducted in China. Large variations were observed in both AC and pasting properties. AC was significantly related with all the pasting properties in the total sample. The correlation coefficient was highest between AC and SB (0.6283), followed by those between AC and FV (0.6176), between AC and TV (0.3671), between AC and BD (–0.2551), and lowest between AC and PV (0.1153). The relationships between AC and pasting properties could vary among different AC groups of rice. However, the significant correlation coefficients between AC and pasting properties within each AC group (0.2258~0.4344) were not very high. Our results suggest that SB and FV are the two pasting properties that are closely related with AC in Chinese rice, and further studies are needed to obtain optimal results on the relationships between AC and pasting properties within different AC groups of rice.
3. M. J. Asgari*, M. H. Gharineh1, A. H. Ziaiyan and M. A. Asoudar [Effects of water stress on wheat nitrogen use under minimum and conventional tillage systems]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 209-217 (2017). 1Department of Crop and Agriculture University of Ramin, Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
In this research, by using a split-block design and implementing two single-line source sprinkler systems, the effect of four levels of 0, 90, 135 and 180 kg N/ha and four levels of 6245, 6700, 7110 and 7460 m3/ha of irrigation water in three replications, under two minimum and conventional tillage systems on wheat was studied. The results showed that there was not a significant difference between the two tillage systems in total yield, the number of grains in panicles, 1000-grain weight, number of grains, water use efficiency, grain protein contents and phosphorus and potassium uptake. The main effects of irrigation water and nitrogen treatments on the all studied parameters were significant. At all levels of nitrogen, agronomic and physiological efficiency in conventional tillage system was less than that of minimum tillage system. The optimum amount of grain yield in conventional tillage system was obtained from the combined application of 7110 m3/ha irrigation water and 180 kg N/ha (I2N180 treatment) and in minimum tillage was obtained from the combined application of 6700 m3/ha irrigation water and 135 kg N/ha (I3N135 treatment). In terms of water use efficiency, in both of two conventional and minimum tillage systems combined application of 135 kg N/ha and 6700 m3/ha of irrigation water and were superior treatments. In both of two conventional and minimum tillage systems, minimum grain yield was obtained from I4N0 treatment and at least water use efficiency was obtained from I1N0 treatment. These results showed that in the same wheat fields, a conventional tillage system could be replaced by minimum-tillage system.
4. RESHMA SUTAR, G. M. SUJITH* AND N. DEVAKUMAR [Nutrient status and microbial activity as influenced by jeevamrutha and panchagavya in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] grown on Alfisols]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 218-223 (2017). All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sunflower University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Field experiment conducted during kharif 2015 in an Alfisol with 12 treatment combinations indicated significant influence of jeevamrutha and panchagavya on physico-chemical properties of soil–Organic carbon, pH and electrical conductivity. Significantly higher available nitrogen was observed with jeevamrutha @ 1000 l/ha and panchagavya @ 7.5% (357.03 kg/ha). Significant differences were observed with respect to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake in soil due to application of varied levels of jeevamrutha and panchagavya spray. Further, results indicated the higher P-solubilizers and N-fixers population with soil application of jeevamrutha and panchagavya at their higher levels. Significantly higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in plants and higher grain yield were recorded with soil application of jeeevamrutha @ 1000 l/ha and panchagavya spray @ 7.5%. Thus, liquid organic formulations applied through soil as well as spray contributed for improved fertility status of soil.
5. Pankaj Swami*, Shamindra Saxena and Surendra Kumar Godara [A critical analysis of agro-climatic parameters : Soil temprature, air temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure and net radiation in agro-ecosystem of Sesamum indicum L. in north-western arid region of Rajasthan]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 224-228 (2017). 1Department of Botany, Govt. Dungar College NH 11, Sagar Road, Bikaner-334 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Climate is a major component of the environmental complex. In general, climate, as understood by the early Greek scientists, includes the general condition of the atmosphere such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind and other variables. The agro-ecosystem in the present study includes the following parameters : 1. Air temperature in °C, relative humidity in percentage and vapour pressure in mm of mercury at the ground surface and at different heights (5, 15, 30, 60 and 100 cm), 2. Soil temperature in °C at ground surface and at different depths (5, 15 and 30 cm) and 3. Net radiation in g.cal/cm2/min. These agro-climatic parameters were recorded on various stages viz., vegetative growth stages, flowering stage (i. e. at 50% flowering) and capsule stage (i. e. at 50% capsule formation by visual rating) at different times of that day i. e. 8.00, 14.00 and 18.00 h in the year 2016 at research site which was located in crop field of sesame at village Ridmalsar lying 20 km in north-east to the city Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. It can be concluded from present study that air temperature in profile, relative humidity distribution and also vapour pressure in the microclimatic zone (sesame agro-ecosystem) of the atmosphere varies with changes in the time of day (morning, noon and afternoon), change in height of profile (5, 15, 30, 60 and 100 cm) and stages of crop. The net radiation values also show increase from morning to noon in all the different stages of growth.
6. Balkrishan Singh*, Rohatash Singh and A. K. Barholia [Response of guava to foliar application of urea, potassium sulphate and borax on growth and fruit yield]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 229-233 (2017). Department of Horticulture R. V. S. Krishi Visva Vidyalaya, Gwalior-474 002 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, Gwalior in M. P. during 2014 and 2015 to study the “response of guava to foliar application of urea, potassium sulphate and borax on growth and fruit yield. Results revealed that application of urea @ 2% (U2) produced higher growth, yield attributes and yield of fruit (69.67 kg/plant) over rest of the urea levels. Potassium sulphate @ 1% (K2) produced higher growth, yield attributing and fruit yield (62.42 kg/plant) as compared to potassium sulphate @ 0.5% and control (Potassium sulphate @ 0%). Amongst the borax levels, application of borax @ 0.75% resulted in significantly higher growth, yield attributes and yield of fruit (64.86 kg/plant) over all the remaining borax levels.
7. H. Kishor*, G. Prabhuling, D. S. Ambika and Y. C. Abhijith [Chemical induced mutations for development of resistance in banana cv. Nanjanagudu Rasabale]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 234-239 (2017). 1Department of Fruit Science University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587 104 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The chemical mutagens have become important tool to enhance agronomic traits of banana crop. It is being used to develop fusarium resistant lines in various susceptible banana cultivars. There are several mutagens like EMS and NaN3 available for banana crop improvement and each mutagen has its own important role as positive or negative effects on growth and development of banana plants. Explants from shoot tip culture were treated with various EMS (0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 0.12%) and NaN3 (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03%) concentrations. The putative mutants obtained after in vitro rooting were subjected for artificial inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Screening putative mutants resistance to Panama disease was carried out by using syringe method of inoculation. It was observed that EMS treated mutants were more susceptible compared to NaN3 treatment. Among the NaN3 doses, 0.01% was found to produce three resistant lines during preliminary screening under greenhouse conditions.
8. M. S. Shah*, M. L. Kewat and H. S. Kushwaha [Synchronizing nitrogen and potassium supply with crop demand to boost seed cotton yield, nutrient uptake and fertility balance of Bt cotton hybrid (NSPL-999)]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 240-245 (2017). Department of Agronomy Natural Resource Management, M. G. C. G. V. V., Chitrakoot Satna-485 334 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted to assess N and NK split application synchronized with crop demand. Eight timings of application and two different doses of N and NK both were taken as different treatments. Timings were planned to supply the fertilizer at different crop growth stages i. e. at 10, 30, 45, 60 and 75 DAS. Split application of N and NK did not have any significant effect on initial soil states (phosphorus kg/ha) and soil fertility balance (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium kg/ha). Nutrient uptake (Potassium kg/ha) and final soil status (Phosphorus kg/ha) were significantly increased with N120K40 (kg/ha) and N120 (kg/ha) split application as well as 03 split applications (10, 45 and 60 DAS) and 02 split applications (10 and 45 DAS). The initial soil status and final soil status of nitrogen and potassium were higher when fertilizer was applied in 04 split (10, 30, 45 and 60 DAS) and 02 splits (10 and 45 DAS) equal dose. But phosphorus and nitrogen uptake was highest when fertilizer was applied in 03 splits (10, 45 and 60 DAS) 210.02 kg/ha and (10, 30 and 60 DAS) 78.79 kg/ha.
9. Y. Kakahrash and E. Nabizadeh* [Evaluation and comparison of different genotypes of sugar beet under conditions of Rhizoctonia infestation]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 246-255 (2017). Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
In order to compare and evaluate different genotypes of sugar beet suffering from Rhizoctonia diseases, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Miandoab, Iran, in 2014. The experimental materials were 16 sugar beet genotypes. Analysis of variance of data showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits, except root sodium content, alkalinity and sugar extract percentage. Based on the results of mean comparison, SBSI-1 genotype had the highest infestation percentage and 31868 and 31870 genotypes showed the lowest infestation percentage. In addition, F-20654 and 31079 genotypes had higher root yield, white sugar content, gross sugar yield and white sugar yield compared with other genotypes. In the present study, there was positive correlation among the white sugar yield with root yield, gross sugar content, white sugar content, gross sugar yield and extract percentage; and significant negative correlation with the traits of infestation percentage, root sodium content and alkalinity. Finally, according to the analysis of data, the 31873, F-20655 and 31079 genotypes were identified as suitable genotypes for cultivation in the presence of Rhizoctonia infestations.
10. G. Preetha*, J. Stanley and T. Manoharan [Acute toxicity of chloronicotinyls to cotton whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 256-258 (2017). Department of Agricultural Entomology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Acute toxicity of chloronicotinyls viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid and thiacloprid using leaf dip bioassay method, was determined against the sucking pests, whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman collected from cotton fields of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. Based on the LC50 values of respective chloronicotinyl compounds, the order of toxicity was found to be acetamiprid > imidacloprid > thiamethoxam > thiacloprid (B. tabaci) and imidacloprid > thiamethoxam > thiacloprid > acetamiprid (T. tabaci). The respective LC95 values were 11.092, 29.653, 5.055 and 16.034 ppm against whiteflies and 2.876, 12.896, 13.139 and 11.884 ppm against thrips for imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid and thiacloprid, respectively.
11. Puneet Beniwal, Priyanka Siwach, Vijay S. Beniwal* and Vikas Hooda** [In vitro studies on direct shoot regeneration of Stevia rebaudiana using nodal explants]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 259-267 (2017). 1Centre for Biotechnology Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : Beniwalvijay57@gmail.com; **email@example.com)
Stevia rebaudiana belonging to family Asteraceae is a natural sweetener crop and seems to be a alternative crop for diversification in Indian agriculture. Stevia produces sterile seeds and the availability of cuttings is seasonal and limited. Tissue culture plants of stevia are genetically pure, free from pathogens and have excellent vigour. In the present studies, in vitro propagation of stevia was attempted through direct shoot regeneration from nodal explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins (BA, Kin) and auxins (NAA, IAA and IBA) alone and in combinations with each other was used for shoot induction, multiplication and rooting of regenerants in vitro. The maximum nodal explants survival (100%) was observed by sterilizing the nodal explants with NaOCl (1.0%) for 15 minBavistin (0.2%) for 15 minStreptocyclin (0.1%) for 15 minHgCl2 (0.1%) for 3 min. Highest shoot induction (95.6%) in 7.8 days was observed on the medium MS+BA 1.5 mg/l+Kin 1.5 mg/l +IAA 0.5 mg/l+Ascorbic acid 20 mg/l+Citric acid 40 mg/l). Addition of antioxidants (Ascorbic acid 20 mg/l and citric acid 40 mg/l) in the establishment medium proved effective in checking the release of inhibitory substances from the explants in the media resulting in synergistic effect on the shoot induction. Comparatively low shoot regeneration (93.7%) was recorded on MS basal medium supplemented with BA 1.5 mg/l+Kin 1.5 mg/l+IAA 0.5 mg/l and devoid of additives (Ascorbic acid 20 mg/l and citric acid 40 mg/l). Maximum shoot proliferation was obtained on the medium MS basal+BA 2.0 mg/l+Kin 2.0 mg/l+IAA 0.5 mg/l after 30 days of culturing. Half strength MS basal medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l) exhibited maximum rooting (92%) and average root number/culture with 8.6 days to rooting. Acclimatized plantlets were transplanted successfully under field conditions and during hardening 100% survival of plantlets was observed on potting mixture containing sand+ soil+ vermicompost (1 : 1 : 1).
12. Nehanjali Parmar*, Ajay Kumar Thakur and Kamlesh Kanwar [Standardization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation protocol in Punica granatum L. cv. Kandhari Kabuli]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 268-276 (2017). 1Department of Biotechnology Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni-173 230, Solan (H. P.), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation in Punica granatum cv. Kandhari Kabuli has been developed using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants via both direct and indirect organogenesis pathways. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring gus and npt-II genes in a binary vector pBI 121 had been used for genetic transformation studies. Pre-culturing of explants for 48 h (2 days) on regeneration medium before agrobacterial infection significantly increased the transformation frequency. Co-cultivation period of 48 h (2 days) was found to be optimum for genetic transformation. Cefotaxime in a concentration of 500 mg/l was found optimal for controlling the excessive bacterial growth and transformed shoots were selected using 50 mg/l kanamycin. Only the transformed cells were able to grow on the selective regeneration medium. Transgenic shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA, 0.02% activated charcoal, 50 mg/l kanamycin and 500 mg/l cefotaxime and subsequently acclimatized to the culture room conditions. Stable transformation and expression were confirmed on the basis of GUS histochemical and spectrophotometric assays. This genetic transformation protocol will provide a platform for genetic manipulation of pomegranate for incorporation of genes governing various horticulturally important traits in future.
13. R. S. LOUSHAMBAM*, C. L. THAKUR, AIDO TALOH AND SHANKAR MAYANGLAMBAM [Effect of IBA formulations, provenances on growth parameters and physiological attributes of Morus indica under nursery conditions in Himachal Pradesh]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 277-281 (2017). 1Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The growth behaviour and physiological attributes response of four provenances of Morus indica were studied under the effect of growth regulator (IBA). The collection was made from Nauni, Hamirpur, Dhaulakuan and Jachh of H. P. The growth parameters studied were : Number of leaves and number of branches per plant, leaf fresh weight and average leaf area under nursery stage. Significant variations in almost all parameters were recorded among the different IBA formulations, provenances and diameter classes. The control treatment (T1) performed the best for all the growth behaviour parameters and physiological attributes studied. The provenance Jacch (P3) showed overall best response of number of leaves per plant with 40.73 and average leaf area (61.42 cm2). Diameter class D3 (Cuttings having diameter greater than 1.25 cm) exhibited significantly better performance in respect of growth behaviour and physiological attributes. Nauni provenances exhibited better values for all the physiological attributes with photosynthetic rate (2.46 µ mol/m2/s), transpiration rate (1.03 m mol/m2/s) and water use efficiency (2.38).
14. MOULASAB* AND S. N. SUDHAKARA** [Knowledge level of sericulture farmers by adoption of improved production technologies and profile analysis from Koppal district of Karnataka]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 282-287 (2017). 1Department of Agricultural Extension University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 104 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org ; **email@example.com)
The case study was conducted to know the knowledge level of improved sericulture production technologies of farmers in Koppal district of Karnataka during the year 2016-17. Major findings revealed that more than half (55%) of the respondents belonged to medium knowledge level category. While 22% of the respondents possessed low knowledge and high knowledge level was noticed among only 23% of respondents about improved sericulture production technologies. The variables, namely, age, education, occupation, land holding, family annual income, farming experience in sericulture, mass media participation, extension participation, extension contact, scientific orientation and risk orientation were found important in influencing the knowledge level of the sericulture farmers about improved sericulture production technologies.
15. MOULASAB* AND S. N. SUDHAKARA** [Problems faced by sericulture farmers by adoption of improved production technology practices from Koppal district of Karnataka]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 288-293 (2017). 1Department of Agricultural Extension University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 104 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org ; **email@example.com)
The case study was conducted to know the adoption of improved sericulture production technologies and problems faced by farmers in Koppal district of Karnataka during the year 2016-17. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents (54.00%) belonged to medium adoption category with respect to sericulture production technologies. Whereas 34% of the respondents belonged to low adoption category and only 12% of the respondents belonged to high adoption category. The variables, namely, age, education, occupation, land holding, family annual income, farming experience in sericulture, mass media participation, extension participation, extension contact, scientific orientation and risk orientation were found important in influencing the adoption of mulberry sericulture production technologies by farmers. With regard to problems, the major problems faced by the farmers are lack of knowledge regarding control of pests and diseases like uzifly, ants, pebrine, white muscardine and yellow muscardine (100.00%), lack of marketing facility and fluctuation in price of cocoon (100.00%), lack of information about crossbred races of silkworm (94.00%), lack of information about concentration of the disinfectant (87.00%), lack of knowledge regarding controlling of pest and diseases (84.00%), lack of supply of disease free laying (DLFs) from govt. sources (84.00%), high cost of establishment at initial stage (80.00%), high incidence pest and disease like stem borer (78.00%), lack of knowledge about training and pruning of mulberry plant (70.00%) and inadequate training facilities (70.00%).
16. Farhang Azarang*, Ghazal Jafari and Maryam Karami [Evaluation of the mining area of river materials using matrix method : A case study of Dez river, Iran]. Crop Res. 52 (6) : 294-298 (2017). 1Young Researchers and Elites Club Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com)
Rivers are considered to be the most important sources of fresh water and principled mining of materials is momentous. To provide appropriate solutions for reducing the negative impacts of sand and gravel mining is the great challenge in the field of river materials mining. Many of the world’s rivers have suffered a lot of problems due to superfluous mining of sand and gravel. The matrix method is one of the most common international methods for evaluating the site of sand and gravel mining from rivers. In the matrix method, based on river characteristics and the materials mining area, it is recognized whether the river has the potential for mining of materials or not, and also which method should be utilized to mine sand and gravel from the river in order to reduce the negative environmental impacts. In this research, a matrix method is applied to a reach of the Dez river in Iran. Dez river is located in the range between the Dez diversion dam to the Hamid-Abad Bridge with braided pattern and a matrix particular to braided river is used to evaluate the mine area of the materials. In the results section, the characteristics table of the mining area of river materials in the studied reach is presented from the Dez river. In addition, the research results show that the volume of sand and gravel mining is about 50 thousand cubic metres and scraped extraction is a suitable method for extracting materials in the studied area.