Volume 58, Number 5 & 6 (September & November 2023)

1. Kavita Devi1, Deeksha Sharma1, RAGHUVIR SINGH and Ram Prakash Pandey* [Screening and characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their effect on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 207-215 (2023). 1University Institute of Biotechnology-Biosciences Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab-140 413, India *(e-mail: ram.e11496@cumail.in)


A multitude of roles are played by microbes in food and agriculture that include nutrient cycling and management, organic matter decomposition and fermentation. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), representing microbial groups and with the ability of colonizing plant roots, influence plant growth through various indirect and direct modes in order to promote its growth and/or protect it from diseases or damage due to insect attack. This research was conducted during August 2022 to April 2023 at Chandigarh University, Punjab, wherein 15 bacterial isolates were isolated from rhizospheric soils of different crop plants. Isolates were identified based on biochemical characteristics and their plant growth promotional efficiencies were tested in-vitro. A total of ten isolates were found positive for four or more than 4 plant growth promoting traits. These isolates were further identified at molecular level using amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA sequences. Sequences were submitted to the NCBI GenBank portal and accessions numbers were obtained. Potential microbial strains were inoculated with Barley seeds and a significant increase in plant height, dry weight and wet weight as well as number of seeds was recorded in inoculated plants as compared to control plants. However, maximum plant growth and yield was recorded in the plants inoculated with isolates 21B (Klebsiella quasivariicola) and 28B (Arthrobacter sp.). These isolates may become very crucial alternatives of chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.

2. E. Balaji1,*, R. Raman1 and R. Krishnamoorthy1 [Evaluation of different weed management practices on production and energy analysis of maize (Zea mays L.)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 216-220 (2023). 1Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: balajibala084@gmail.com)


The agricultural production system faces two main challenges: sustainability and climate change. For greater profitability, they must trade off against one another. To reduce the dependence on non-renewable resources, agricultural energy efficiency needs to be increased. Additionally, weed control is crucial to sustainability. In order to evaluate the energy balance, major energy indicators and profitability of maize under various weed control strategies, the current study was carried out. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out at farmers’ field in Kurmalur village of Perambalur District, Tamil Nadu, India during Kharif season of 2021 in order to evaluate different weed management practices on production and energy analysis of maize.  The field experiment was laid out with ten treatments with three replications.  The treatments consist of control, hand weeding on 15 and 30 DAS, pre-emergence application of atrazine, post emergence application of tembotrine, 2,4-D, halosulfuron methyl, Tembotrine, Mesotrione + Atrazine.  Pre emergence application of Atrazine 1 kg/ha on 3 DAS fb Post emergence application of Tembotrine 105 g/ha on 20 DAS recorded the highest grain (4469 kg/ha) and straw yield (5708 kg/ha) with Net energy (156860 MJ/ha) and Energy Use Efficiency (14.55).

3. ABHISHISHA MAWKHIEW AND LOLLY S. PEREIRA* [Flowering and fruiting phenology of selected mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties in West Garo Hills of Meghalaya]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 221-227 (2023). Department of RDAP, North- Eastern Hill University Tura Campus, Chasingre, Tura-794002, West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India *(e-mail: drlollysp@gmail.com)


Phenological stages of reproductive growth of three mango varieties viz., Amrapali, Dashehari and Kesar were observed in the years 2017 and 2018 at the instructional Farm of the department of Rural Development and Agricultural Production (RDAP) of North Eastern Hill University, Tura Campus, West Garo Hills District, Meghalaya, India, using the extended BBCH (Biologische Bundesantalt Bundessortenamt and Chemische Industrie) scale for mango proposed by Hernandez Delgado and his coworkers in 2010. The dates of occurrence of the principal stages of inflorescence emergence (stage 5), flowering (stage 6) and fruit development (stage 7) and the duration for transition from one phenological stage to the next were recorded. Completion of inflorescence emergence (stages 510-519) in variety Amrapali was noted in 25-58 days, in variety Dashehari in 27-58 days and in variety Kesar in 22-74 days. Flowering period (stages 610-619) lasted for 14-38 days in variety Dashehari, 15-36 days in Kesar and 15-44 days in Amrapali. The shortest fruit development period (stages 701-709) was noticed in Dashehari (98-127 days) followed by Amrapali (103-138days) and Kesar (106-142days). The data on time required for transition from one phenological stage to the next, of the principal stages of inflorescence emergence, flowering and fruit development, can help in advance planning and implementation of plant protection measures, growth regulator treatments, manure or fertilizer treatments and harvesting of a variety in a particular agro-climatic condition, which ultimately influence the productivity of a variety.

4. T. SONIYA* AND E. ARIVAZHAGAN [Impact of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 228-232 (2023). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: soniyathennavan1997@gmail.com)


Summer squash cultivation is becoming more and more popular among farmers due to its increased nutritional content, short growing season, and quicker economic payoff. Although there is a respectable amount of production, India’s productivity is extremely poor which is big worry for the commercial cultivation of summer squash and the environmental factors causes low productivity. In order to boost production and productivity, raise the number of female flowers, increase profitability for small and marginal farmers, and combat environmental conditions, plant growth regulators play a significant role in this crop. Therefore, by introducing the use of plant growth regulators, summer squash cultivation farmers’ income and yield can be raised. The investigation was carried out at the farmer’s field at Sorakalnatham, Natrampalli taluk, Tirupattur district, Tamil Nadu during February- April 2023 to study the plant growth regulators on the performance of summer squash. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments replicated thrice. The treatments were included different concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acid (50, 100, 150 ppm), Gibberellic acid (50, 100, 150ppm), Ethrel (150, 200, 250ppm), Malichydrazide (150, 200, 250ppm), and Control (water spray). The results indicated that the maximum values for growth attributes viz., plant height (78.32 cm), number of branches/plant (3.86) and leaf area (375.29 cm2), flowering and yield attributes viz., number of female flower/plant (11.85), number of fruits /plant (8.67), fruit set % (73.16), fruit length (44.06 cm), single fruit weight (1.37 kg), fruit yield /plant (11.37 kg) and lowest number of male flower/plant (20.69), sex ratio (1.75) were recorded in the foliar application of plant growth regulator NAA @ 100 ppm. This was followed by the foliar application of plant growth regulators ethrel @ 150 ppm. Significant differences were observed with the use of growth regulators on growth, flowering and yield traits of summer squash.

5. T. SONIYA* AND E. ARIVAZHAGAN [Influences of different plant spacing on growth and yield of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 233-237 (2023). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail: soniyathennavan1997@gmail.com)


In summer squash correct spacing is one of the most vital factors in agricultural plant growth because it helps plants to develop to their maximum potential above and below ground. Plant density is another major factor influencing production. Inter-species competition, in general, reduces production at too high populations. However, with very low populations, environmental elements such as light, space, water, and soil are not properly exploited, resulting in an overall decrease in yield. A field experiment was conducted during July-September in 2022, at the farmer’s field at Sorakalnatham, Natrampalli taluk, Tirupattur district, Tamil Nadu. The experimental design used was randomized block layout with three replications and four treatments. In respect of growth parameter wider plant spacing T4 (2m x 1m) i.e., lower plant density produced maximum plant height (69.52 cm), number of branches/plant (3.63), number of leaves/plant (17.85) and number nodes/plant (15.39). The flowering characters was lowest value was recorded in wider plant spacing viz., days to first male flower (28.49), days to first female flower (33.42), and lowest number of male flower/plant (25.46), highest number of female flower plant-1 (7.79). And also yield parameters of fruit length (41.94 cm), fruit girth (33.54 cm), single fruit weight (1.29 kg), number of fruits/plant (5.45) and fruit yield/plant (6.51 kg) was maximum was produced in wider plant spacing except fruit yield/ha (54.15 t/ha) at closer spacing. The above said treatment was found to be on par with the treatment T3 (2m x 0.5m).

6. T. Q. H. NGO1, T. H. THAI1, T. X. P. TRAN1 AND D. H. TRAN1,* [Evaluation of Bacillus sp. strains for biological control of gummy stem blight, Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 238-242 (2023). 1Faculty of Agronomy, University of Agriculture and Forestry Hue University, Dong Ba, Hue City, Vietnam *(email: tdanghoa@hueuni.edu.vn)


The gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) is a major and destructive disease of watermelon in Vietnam. Bacillus species have been used to control plant diseases as biological control agents. This study was carried out at the Department of Crop Production and Plant Protection, Phu Yen province, Vietnam during 2020 – 2021 to determine fungal inhibition of D. bryoniae DB-03 in in vitro and disease suppression of gummy stem blight under greenhouse conditions by Bacillus sp. strains namely S1A1, S1F3, S13E3, S18F11, and S20D12, which were isolated from stem-base of groundnut in central Vietnam. Results revealed that, all the tested strains of Bacillus sp. showed good inhibitory effect on the hyphal growth of D. bryoniae strain DB-03 in potato dextrose broth. Among the strains, Bacillus sp. S20F12 had highest inhibition of the mycelia growth of D. bryoniae strain DB-03 with an antagonistic efficiency of 60.7% at 10 days after fungal inoculation. Bacillus sp. reduced gummy stem blight under greenhouse conditions. At 21 days after fungal inoculation, disease incidences were low in the plants treated with Bacillus sp. S18F11 and S20D12 by 60.0% and 63.3%, respectively. The results would contribute to the knowledge of antagonistic activities of the Bacillus to optimize the biological control programme against D. bryoniae.

7. S. Kalaiselvan1,* and A. R. Lenin1 [Assessment of growth and early maturation traits in various genotypes of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 243-247 (2023). 1Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: kalai4111084@gmail.com)


The success of any breeding programs depends on the parents chosen. Breeders select parents with high mean values as an added benefit for crossing programmes. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the performance of muskmelon genotypes for growth and earliness attributes. Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most well-known desert vegetables, belong to the Cucurbitaceae family. Thirty-three germplasm lines were collected from different regions of India. The experiment was conducted at Puthur village, Salem district, and evaluated under Randomised Block Design with three replications during February to May 2022. The findings indicate that the genotypes CM 2, CM 16, CM 11, CM 19, CM 7, CM 13 and CM 22 reported as elite genotypes were exhibited higher values for different traits like days to first female flower opening, first female flowering node, number of vines per plant, vine length (cm), sex ratio and days to first fruit harvest. As a result, the above mentioned seven genotypes are used in the hybridization programme, could be exploited to develop elite cultivars with maximum growth and earlier in flowering and harvest.

8. Arthi L. R.1,*, S. Kumar1, Arumugam Shakila1 and V. Prabudoss [Standardization of integrated nutrient management for enhancing the yield of Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce) cv. Local]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 248-250 (2023). 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: arthideepthi@hotmail.com)


The investigation on “Standardization of integrated nutrient management for enhancing the yield of Manila tamarind” was carried out to identify the application of optimum concentration of nutrients (NPK @ 100% and 50%) along with biofertilizers (FYM, vermicompost and phosphobacteria) to increase the weight of the fruit and yield of Manila tamarind. The field experiment was laid out in randomized block design in three replications with ten treatments. The yield parameters viz., fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), weight of the aril with seed (g),weight of the peel (g), number of arils, number of aril/ fruit, fruit yield (kg/tree/year) was found to be the highest in the treatment which received (T8) 50% of NPK + 5 kg vermicompost + 10 kg FYM+ phosphobacteria 100 g followed by (T4) FYM 10 kg + vermicompost 5 kg+ phosphobacteria 100 g and significantly the least values are observed in control. It can be concluded that the application of 50% of NPK + 5 kg vermicompost + 10 kg FYM+ phosphobacteria 100 g can be recommended for the optimum dose for application of integrated nutrients to enhance the yield of Manila tamarind.

9. P. Hazarika*, Ajay Kumar and Dhrubajyoti Das [Evaluating pre-sowing seed treatment on the germination of important forest fruit plant species]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 251-259 (2023). ICFRE-Rain Forest Research Institute Sotai, Jorhat, Chenijan-785010 (Assam), India *(e-mail: hazarikapaug08@gmail.com)


Propagation of wild fruit species is rare, somewhat difficult and necessitates for standardization for their conservation and uphold livelihood. Therefore, a trial was conducted on pre-sowing seed treatment to evaluate best treatment for germination of Dimocarpus longan Lour. (Sapindaceae) Falcourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch. (Flacourtiaceae) and Myrica esculanta Buch. Ham. Ex. D. Don (Myricaceae) in the nursery of ICFRE- Rain Forest Research Institute, Sotai, Jorhat. The seed germination test was conducted in nursery bed filled with mixture of Soil and FYM at the ratio of 3:1. The study revealed that germination of seeds influenced by pre-sowing treatments. Among 6 pre-sowing seed treatments given for Dimocarpus longan, the highest germination percentage (80%) was obtained in cold water treatment for 24 hours and the lowest (26%) for the seed treated with 20% Suphuric acid (H2So4) for 15 min. Likewise, amongst 7 pre sowing seeds treatments for Flacourtia jangomas, 80% germination was observed for the soaking treatment of 5% ethrel for 5 min, followed by Gibberellic acid (GA3) 800 ppm treatment for 18 hours was 63%. Among 6 different pre sowing seed treatments of Myrica esculenta, the 15 min soaking treatment with 20% H2So4 was recorded for 30% germination, followed by 30% H2So4 for 20 min was 20%. Observed that seeds of Dimocarpus longan were started germination on 9 day of sowing and completed within 30 days. Germination of Flacourtia jangomas seeds started on 45 day of sowing and completed within 90 days. The seed of Myrica esculenta was observed to germinate 6 months after sowing.

10. PRIYADHARSHINI V1,*, AYYASAMY REGUPATHY1 AND KATHIRVELU C1 [In vitro efficacy of fenazaquin 18.3% w/w (200 SC) against Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in chilli]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 260-263 (2023). 1Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Chidambaram-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail: priyadharshinivelayutham1996@gmail.com)


Yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus is one of the important pests in chilli ecosystem and causes considerable yield loss. Synthetic acaricides play a major role in the management of yellow mites. A novel pesticide, fenazaquin 18.3% w/w (200 SC) was evaluated under laboratory conditions against two standard checks viz., fenazaquin 10 EC and spiromesifen 22.9% SC that are frequently used in vegetable ecosystems with water as control, in an effort to find more effective alternatives to the existing chemicals. Various doses of fenazaquin 18.3% w/w (200 SC) tested exhibited significant mortality. After 6 days of treatment, 100% mortality was recorded in fenazaquin 18.3% w/w (200 SC) @ 1.25 and 1.60 ml/l followed by 95% in fenazaquin 10 EC @ 2.5 ml/l, 92.5 % in fenazaquin 18.3% w/w (200 SC) @ 1 ml/l and 87.5% in spiromesifen 22.9% SC @ 0.80 ml/l.

11. R. Pungavi1,* and T. Nalini1 [Impact of extrafloral nectar of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae) on life history parameters and parasitization of Aenasius advena Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)]. Crop Res. 58 (5&6): 264-270 (2023). 1Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail: r.pungavientomology@gmail.com)


Studies were conducted to observe the effect of extrafloral nectar (EFN) on the life history parameters of Aenasius advena Compere in the Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India. Longevity of A. advena was found highest in females and males at 26.80 and 15.70 days when fed with EFN, respectively which was followed by 100% honey and glucose. Among the treatments EFN and 100% honey the number of female and male progenies produced per female ranged from (highest to lowest) 46.40, 22.00 to 6.00, 2.00 and 23.58, 26.00 to 1.00, 0.20, respectively during four weeks. The provision of EFN and 100% honey to mated female produced 40.45 and 24.44 eggs during four weeks, respectively. The sex ratio (female) of A. advena was recorded highest as 77.78 in EFN in 1stweek and 83.33 in 100% honey in 4thweek. Parasitization of A. advena on Ferrisia virgata was found highest for EFN (65.14 %) and 100% honey (47.22%) during the second week. Thus, providing EFN can boost parasitoid survival, fecundity, sex ratio (female) and parasitism rates.


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