1. O. D. Uke1,2,* and M. Haliru [Salinity study of the soils of Fadama farms, Sokoto, Nigeria]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 1-7 (2021). 1School of Agriculture Fertilizers and Environmental Science University of Mohammed VI Polytechnic, Benguerir, Morocco *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The wetland farms in the Wammakko region of Sokoto, Nigeria have been experiencing an increase in stunted growth of plants, reduced yield, burnt leaf tips and visible accumulation of whitish residues on the topsoil, all of which are pointers to a salt problem. This study was conducted during the dry season of August 2018 in the wetland Fadama farms, Nigeria to determine the salinity status of the soil. The experiment was conducted by dividing the chosen study area into 3 sites (based on topography, upper, middle and lower for sites A, B and C, respectively), from each site soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm. The collected samples were air-dried, crushed and sieved. The soil was then analyzed for particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable cations, soluble ions, cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) at 25oC, Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) to aid in the salinity assessment. The analytical result revealed that the soil was predominantly silt loam with a pH range between slightly acidic to neutral. The organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorous were low. The EC (25oC) was not >4, SAR was <13, ESP was >15 at 0-15 cm soil depth across sites. The soil was saline-sodic and Mg (HCO3)2 and CaCl2 were identified as major contributors to the absolute salt concentration in the study area.
2. SHABIKUN NAHAR1, MD. MASUDUL KARIM1, MOHAMMED ARIF SADIK POLASH2,**, SADIYA AREFIN JUTHEE1, MD. SOLAIMAN ALI FAKIR1 AND MD. ALAMGIR HOSSAIN1,* [Influence of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on the growth and seed yield of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Baily)]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 8-14 (2021). 1Department of Crop Botany Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Bangladesh (e-mail: *firstname.lastname@example.org; **email@example.com)
Owing to immense health benefits, now-a-days Chinese broccoli has gained special concern for its better growth, development and yield worldwide. Therefore, the present study was undertaken during 2019-20 at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh to investigate the influence of different sources of nutrients on the growth, yield contributing characters and seed yield of Chinese broccoli. Four fertilizer treatments were used as the sources of different nutrients, viz-litter (25 t/ha), urea (0.15 t/ha), manure (25 t/ha) and control (no fertilizer) with three replications in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Application of litter showed significantly the best performance in respect of growth and yield related parameters, like-root (12.8 cm) and shoot (50.26 cm) length; leaf area (1119.06 cm2/plant) and number (13.63/plant); fresh (130.35 g/plant) and dry weight (14.5 g/plant); length of main raceme (114.53 cm); number (7.5) and length (76.5 cm) of primary branch; total number of siliqua (182.92/plant); seed yield (12.72 g/plant and 0.59 kg/plot); husk yield (15.25 g/plant and 0.68 kg/plot); biological yield (1.27 kg/plot) and harvest index (46.53%) as compared to the other treatments. Meanwhile, all of these parameters were found lower under control (no fertilizer treated) condition. So, for obtaining the highest growth and yield of Chinese broccoli, organic source of nutrients, i.e., litter, was found the best treatment among the other sources of nutrients.
3. Worku Kebede1,* and Bulti Tesso2 [Principal component analysis of early generation drought tolerant tef genotypes for yield-contributing traits]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 15-20 (2021). 1Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
The current study used principal component analysis to evaluate the relationship and genetic variability among 49 tef genotypes for drought-prone areas. To improve tef productivity, farmers need high-yielding and drought tolerant tef cultivars. The objective of this research was to evaluate genetic diversity among drought tolerant tef inbred lines for yield, yield-contributing traits. Component I contributed 40% of the total variability in this report, with traits such as days to heading, days to physiological maturity, plant height, panicle length, culm length, number of spikelet per panicle, number of primary panicle branches per main shoot, lodging index, above-ground biomass, and harvest index. Component II total variability is 14 % due to grain filling time, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, days to maturity, peduncle length, number of florets per spikelet, and thousand-seed weight. Various traits such as days to seedling emergence, culm length, peduncle length, lodging index, above-ground biomass yield, grain yield, harvest index, number of total and fertile tillers per plant consolidated the remaining variability of 13, 7 and 6% in component III, component IV and component V, respectively. The first five axes explained 79 % of the total variation among 18 characters. As a result of the principal component analysis, it was revealed that the tef inbred lines have a lot of genetic variability. Drought-tolerant traits with a high genetic variability may result in a significant level of gene transfer during breeding programs.
4. Abdulraheem Mukhtar Iderawumi1,*, Fudzagbo Joshua, Iderawumi Mubarakat Abiodun, Obene Shadrach Abiodun, Oluwaseun Wuraola Adebola, Akume Tivsoo and Jeje timilehin [Innovative techniques of operating school farm]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 21-28 (2021). 1Department of Agricultural Science Education Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Nigeria *(e-mail : email@example.com)
There have been many successful innovations in the field of agriculture to date, leading to increases in farmer productivity and production in many developed and developing countries. Agriculture plays an important role in the development of many developing nations; hence there is a need to focus on sustainability and increased agricultural productivity. Over the years school farms have been used as laboratories for agricultural practical training, for proving food crops for strengthening local economies and addressing food security issues in rural areas. School farms come in handy when it comes to teaching a variety of topics in agriculture, be it Crop Rotation, Mixed Cropping, Inter-Cropping, etc. and, whenever the school records bumper harvest, the pupils/students can be fed from the produce, while proceeds from the ones sold can be used to develop the school. The farm environment is homely and costly, steering away from the institutional set up of school and instead encourages togetherness and an escape from the challenges of normal life. There is a critical need to increase the rate of innovation success in agriculture and agrifood systems, to address the so-called wicked problems plaguing agriculture associated with climate change and sustainability, as well as to match expectations in terms of adoption and value creation. School farms have received some attention from researchers in recent times in developing and developed countries. In that, aside the numerous benefits, school farms have become useful tools for driving sustainable development as they reduce malnutrition in school children by improving child nutrition, reducing hunger by increasing food availability for students and the local communities and improving rural economy and livelihoods. Unfortunately, school farms have not been exploited enough to serve its purpose as desired due to a number of challenges such as lack of competent staff, lack of comprehensive policy framework, lack of infrastructural support and strategic partnership with concerned stakeholders. These set backs however, by observation should not be treated in isolation neither are they peculiar to individual schools or institutions. A holistic involvement of government and private institutions with local communities working in tandem with each other has a potential to incite interesting result-oriented techniques for school farms’ success. On this basis therefore this study seeks to discuss essential innovative techniques and relevant rudiments necessary to successfully operate school farms.
5. BELLEMOU A.1,*, FEDDAL MA.1, AMARA M.1 AND ZERKANI A.1 [Analysis of the mechanical behavior of the active surfaces of the working parts of the plow with a view to their optimizations]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 29-38 (2021). 1Management and Valuation Laboratory of Agricultural and Aquatic Ecosystems Department of Agricultural Engineering. National Higher School of Agronomy (ENSA), ES1603, Algeirs. Algeria *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Taking into account the spatial variability of Algerian agricultural soils, the choice of the form of agricultural tools for the establishment of a crop is often difficult to achieve. The wrong choice will have repercussions on the quality of tillage operations and indirectly on crop yields. Results on the effect of the shapes of the active surfaces of mouldboard plow bodies on the qualitative indices of plowing have shown the importance of this choice. Before choosing the appropriate shape, it is more than necessary to know how to characterize the active surfaces of the working parts of tillage implements. It is in this context that this work was carried out. The objective of this work is the analysis of the behavior of the active surface of two plow bodies most frequently used in Algeria (with movable plaice and duckbill) by the finite element method. The analysis was made by the finite element method, this method allows the understanding of the mechanical behavior of complex surfaces such as those of plow bodies at all points of the surface. The study was carried out in two differents places: the agricultural machinery laboratory at the national agronomic school of Algiers, and laboratory of manufacture of general industrial activities of Algiers. The results obtained showed that the active surface of the plow with blanket is more stressed, which makes it less stable during the execution of plowing. Indeed, the point of application of the resistant force of the ground on the point of the blanket creates a moment in relation to the axis of the plow. On the other hand, the plow is more stable when it is fitted with a duckbill-shaped share, because the resistance force is distributed over the entire length of the sharpened part of the share.
6. Kushal Bhattarai1,* and bhuparaj bhattarai [Mechanism of DNA methylation and its role in biotic and abiotic stress response in plants: A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 39-46 (2021). 1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Tribhuvan University, Kritipur-44618, Kathmandu, Nepal *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Field crops and plants are adversely affected by biotic stress like pests and pathogens and abiotic stress including heat, drought, salt, cold. These conditions adversely reduce plant growth, development, and yield. Animals move from one place to another to cope with biotic and abiotic stress but plants are fixed to one position. Plants cope with these stresses by the mechanism of epigenetic modification. Various epigenetic modifications help plants to respond to various stress. DNA methylation is one of the most important and conserved epigenetic modifications that regulate, stabilizes, and maintains genomic integrity. Loss of DNA methylation or aberrant patterns of DNA methylation causes abnormalities in the gene regulation of plants. DNA methylation in plants is regulated by the combined action of de novo methylation, maintenance of methylation, and demethylation. In plants, DNA methylation is established via RNA directed DNA methylation pathway. In plants de novo methylation in all sequences is mediated by an enzyme – Domain Rearranged Methyltransferase 2. The enzymes that regulate DNA methylation in plants are different but have some homology to that of mammalian DNA methylation enzymes. Maintenance of methylation during the semiconservative DNA methylation is done by MET1 whereas asymmetrical methylation is maintained by constant de novo methylation by DRM2 and RdMD pathway. DNA demethylation is done actively by DNA glycosylase in combination with the base excision pathway. DNA methylation helps to develop adaptation mechanisms towards various biotic and abiotic stresses. Still, the exact mechanism of DNA methylation is not known fully. In de novo methylation by RdDM pathway, small RNAs guide the target specificity for methylation but this small RNA is also involved in demethylation at several ROS1 dependent genomic regions. How this small RNA guides both methylation and demethylation is still the subject of study. The DNA methylation in the promoter region inactivates genes where some other genes are activated, the mechanism underlying activation and deactivation is the key point for further study of DNA methylation in plants.
7. RAHIL GOLFAM1, KHADIJEH KIAROSTAMI1,*, TAHMINEH LOHRASEBI, SHABNAM HASRAK AND KHADIJEH RAZAVI [A review of drought stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 6 (1) : 47-57 (2021). 1Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : kh.kiarostami @alzahra.ac.ir)
Environmental stresses cause a wide range of reactions such as changes in gene expression, changes in cell metabolism, changes in function and growth rate. Among environmental stresses, drought stress is the most critical ecological constraint that affects productivity and product quality and limits plant growth at different stages such as germination, seedling establishment, etc. Wheat is the third-largest producer in the world after corn and rice. In nature, after cellulose, starch is the most important known organic compound. The functional behavior of starch is complexly related to its structure and morphology. Various experiments have shown that starch biosynthesis and accumulation are affected by external environmental factors such as drought. Due to the interference of physiological and biochemical processes of starch producing and storing cells, drought stress accelerates the onset and filling time of the grain and reduces the accumulation of starch, which changes the productivity of wheat production. Soil dryness affects starch synthesis by regulating starch biosynthesis enzymes. Drought also reduces the content of amylose, fat, grain size and increases the peak viscosity and final viscosity of the starch. Investigation of morphological and physicochemical properties of starch granules in wheat varieties under drought stress, can provide insight into the mechanisms and regulation of wheat starch biosynthesis and provide potentially helpful information for growing drought-resistant wheat varieties with good starch properties and high yield potential.