Volume 9, No. 1 (June, 2024)

1. CAI Chengzhi*, CHEN Jidong and CAO Wenfang [Potential yields of two staple cereal crops worldwide under global warming]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 1-11 (2024). Economic Institute, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550025, China *(e-mail: caichengzhi@mail.gufe.edu.cn)


Most studies on model-estimated yield potential of crop under climate change are based on the principle of production function, for specific variety, from static biological dimension and at local or regional level, while few theoretically are based on time-series approach for world crop from dynamic evolutionary angle and on global scale. Therefore we conducted following research in 2019 to 2023 at Guiyang City of China: potential yields of rice and wheat worldwide by 2030 are projected creatively using Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average and Trend-regressed model based on their history since 1961, in which the projections are tested by actual yields in recent two years and further validated by Gray System model; the impacts of global warming on past production of rice and wheat worldwide since 1961 are analyzed using binary regression model in which global mean temperature is treated as the independent variable while the crop yield as the dependent variable. Our results show that: in the future between 2022 and 2030, average yield of world rice is projected to be from 4876 kg/ha to 5195 kg/ha whereas that of world wheat from 3548 kg/ha to 3817 kg/ha; top (national) yield of world rice is projected to be from 10148 kg/ha to 10269 kg/ha whereas that of world wheat from 9914 kg/ha to 10042 kg/ha; or the ratio between average and top yields of world rice will be from 48.05% to 50.59% whereas that of world wheat from 35.79% to 38.01%; since 1961, global warming exerts a negative impact on average yield of world rice less than on its top, and a positive effect on average yield of world wheat while a negative one on its top, which partially drives the gap between average and top yields of world rice slightly narrowed and that of world wheat gradually closed. These findings indicate that: given that top yield is considered potential limit of average yield, to improve global production of these two staple cereal crops by 2030, the priorities should be given to rice as well as wheat worldwide in their both high and low yield countries.

2. M. R. Poudel*, P. BHUSAL, K. Lamsal, K. Kafle, P. Ghimire, M. Ghimire, A. Rijal and N. Lamsal [Influence of drought conditions on yield attributing characters and yield of wheat genotypes]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 12-17 (2024). Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Tribhuvan University, Nepal *(e-mail: muktipoudel8@gmail.com / mukti@iaas.edu.np)


Drought stress remains a major environmental factor which decreases the yield and productivity of most cereals growing worldwide. The research was carried out to assess correlation and path coefficient among 20 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.  The treatments under drought conditions affected all agronomic traits, and the genotypes showed a significant difference. However, the results from the ambient tunnel were satisfactory, and some interesting observations were made. The present experiment was undertaken to estimate the correlation coefficient between grain yield and different yield contributing characters. The experiment was laid-out with two replications using an alpha lattice design. The study aimed to determine the degree of association between yield and yield attributing characters of drought-tolerant wheat populations using correlation and path analyses. The experiment’s results demonstrated a highly significant difference in all the attributes examined between the wheat varieties, and water restriction dramatically reduced those traits. Partitioning of correlation coefficients into direct and indirect effects revealed. strong positive direct effects of spike weight on grain yield under drought-stressed conditions. Spike weight expressed the highest positive correlation (0.696) with grain yield, whereas spikelet per spike showed the lowest positive correlation (0.2) with tiller/m2.

3. Suraj Singh Thagunna* [Exploring organic cultivation methods for black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper): A review]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 18-24 (2024). Nepal Agriculture Research Council Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal *(e-mail: surajthagunna22@gmail.com; sunb3550@gmail.com)


Black gram is vital in South Asia, with organic farming promoting sustainability by enhancing soil fertility, agro-ecosystem quality, and crop nutrition. However, limited research and complex cultivation methods hinder its widespread adoption. Overcoming these challenges is essential for expanding organic black gram production to meet the growing demand for sustainable agriculture. This review article deals with various techniques and prospects of organic black gram production by collecting important information spread across organic black gram production research articles published on the internet. It is found that the application of 3 percent Panchagavya foliar spray increases physiological growth, leaf area index, dry matter production, chlorophyll content, N content, yield, and yield attributes of black gram. It is also found that the proper and effective use of bio-fertilisers has more advantages over other fertilizers. Farmers can use a foliar application of Panchagavya, bio-fertiliser, and other non-chemical practices for efficient production of organic black gram. Through this review, it is concluded that the research for organic production of black gram is limited, so focus should be given to organic black gram production research for the development of efficient technologies and the instant dissemination of findings among farmers.

4. CLETUS C. NWAKPU* [Resource productivity and allocative efficiency in improved cassava (Manihot esculenta) -based mixed cropping system in Ebonyi State, Nigeria]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 25-32 (2024). Department of Agricultural Economics, Management and Extension Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria *(e-mail: cletakpus@yahoo.com)


Over 60% of the cassava-producing households in Nigeria have adopted the cultivation of improved cassava varieties resulting in increased cassava yields and output. Yet, the attainment of domestic production level that would cope with the domestic consumption and the needs for the export market can only be achieved if the technical efficiencies of smallholder farm resources are upgraded and the cassava farmers become more efficient in the allocation of these resources. This study examined the resource productivity and allocative efficiency in improved cassava-based mixed cropping system in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was employed to select a total of 120 respondents (comprising 60 adopters and 60 non-adopters of improved cassava-based mixed cropping system) on whom structured questionnaires were administered during the 2022/2023 cropping season. Inferential statistics involving the Cobb-Douglas production function and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The regression results revealed that all the five resource inputs for the adopters and four inputs excluding agrochemicals for non-adopters of the improved cassava-based mixed cropping system positively contributed to output of the respondents in the area. The results further showed that most of the resource inputs were of higher productivities under the adopters than the non-adopters. The result of the deviation from unity of the ratio of the Marginal Value Product (MVP) to Marginal Factor Cost (MFC) revealed that the adopters were more efficient in the allocation of land, cassava stem cuttings and miscellaneous variable capital inputs than the non-adopters. Constraints to increased cassava production in the area include lack of finance, high cost of farm inputs, among others. Policy measures aimed at liberalization of agricultural credit schemes to enhance farmers’ access to essential farm inputs, introduction of labour-saving techniques to farmers among others were recommended towards increased production and profitable cassava value chain business in Nigeria.

5. Kajal G. Makwana, J. R. Talaviya*, K. D. Shah, V. A. Savaliya and S. V. Lathiya [Effectiveness of plant extracts against cumin blight (Alternaria burnsii)]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 33-36 (2024). Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh- 360 201 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail: jrtalaviya@jau.in)


Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important seeds spice crop at world level and India is the leading producer (70% of world production), consumer and exporter of cumin in the world. Almost 80% of the crop cultivated is consumed in India. This crop is affected by major three fungal pathogens (viz., wilt, blight and powdery mildew), among them blight (Alternaria burnsii) is considered as most important one. Among the phytoextracts tested, the majority were found effective in inhibiting the radial growth of test fungus and highest inhibition was in tulsi, akda and garlic extract at 10 per cent concentration which recorded 73.76, 70.63 and 70.09 per cent inhibition, respectively.

6. Kajal G. Makwana, J. R. Talaviya*, K. D. Shah, V. A. Savaliya and S. V. Lathiya [Evaluation of non-systemic fungicides for growth inhibition of Alternaria burnsii causing blight in cumin]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 37-40 (2024). Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-360 201 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail: jrtalaviya@jau.in)


Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an important seed spice crop at world level and India is the leading producer (70% of world production), consumer and exporter of cumin in the world. Almost 80% of the crop cultivated is consumed in India. The crop yield is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors, among them, blight caused by Alternaria burnsii (Uppal, Patel & Kamat) is one of the most dreaded diseases and a major production constrain for the successful cultivation of cumin crop. Among the non-systemic fungicides tested, captan 75% WP, chlorothalonil 75 % WP and mancozeb 75 % WP were most effective with 95.67, 95.62 and 94.86 per cent growth inhibition, respectively whereas hexaconazole 5 % EC was most effective in systemic fungicides with 99.98 per cent inhibition followed by Tebuconazole 25.9 % EC 87.40 per cent inhibition.

7. Kajal G. Makawana, J. R. Talaviya*, K. D. Shah and S. V. Lathiya [Identification, phylogeny, pathogenicity and management of Alternaria burnsii (Uppal, Patel & Kamat) causing blight of cumin]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 41-47 (2024). 1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture Junagarh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail: jrtalaviya@jau.in)


Alternaria blight is one of the important diseases of cumin. The disease initiation was observed at nearly one month age of the crop during warm humid weather in the epidemic form at flowering stage and seeds could not mature to full size. The pathogen was isolated by tissue isolation technique. Pathogenicity test was proved by following Koch’s postulates. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria burnsii based on morphological characters and ITS sequencing. The sequence was submitted to gene bank NCBI and it was accepted by NCBI with accession number MT856660. For effective control of cumin blight with fungicides a field experiment was conducted. Efficacy of eight fungicides was tested under field condition for disease intensity and yield of cumin. Among the eight combined and single fungicides, Azoxystrobin 11% + Tebuconazole 18.30% SC at concentration 0.044% was most effective with 14.76% least mean disease intensity and highest yield of 907 kg/ha followed by Metiram 55% + Pyraclostrobin 5 % WG at concentration 0.18% with 18.27% least mean disease intensity and yield of 889 kg/ha.

8. I. B. Kapadiya* and K. Jagadeesha [Evaluation of different biocontrol agents against collar rot (Sclerotium rolsii Sacc.) of chickpea under pot condition]. Farming & Management 9 (1): 48-51 (2024). Wheat Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India *(e-mail: ibkapadiya@jau.in)


Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) family fabaceae is one of the most important leguminous crops grown all around the world. The crop was found to suffer from collar rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolsii Sacc. in severe form in many regions of Gujarat where groundnut-chickpea cropping sequence is present. So, for its management different biocontrol agents were evaluated under pot condition. Among them antagonists found best in inhibition in dual culture experiment were selected for pot culture experiment. The seed treatment of Trichoderma spp. isolate 3 was found most effective with incidence of 22.79 per cent. Pseudomonus fluorescence was observed as second most effective bioagent in reducing disease incidence with 61.76 per cent followed by Bacillus subtilis with 74.85 per cent disease incidence. Similarly, organic amendments viz., farm yard manure, neem cake, vermicompost and poultry manure enriched with effective bioagents were evaluated in pot culture experiment and found that all were effective in reducing per cent disease incidence. Among them farm yard manure enriched with Trichoderma spp. isolate 3 showed maximum reduction of disease incidence of 5.09, followed by neem cake, vermicompost and poultry manure enriched with Trichoderma spp. isolate 3 by recording disease incidence of 8.08, 8.91 and 31.54 %, respectively.


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