Volume 10, Number 2 (August, 2009)
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Nitumoni Gogoi, K. K. Baruah AND K. K. Das [Effect of low temperature hardening and growth hormone on growth and yield of summer rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 193-198 (2009). Soil Testing Laboratory Department of Agriculture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat (Assam), India.
An experiment was conducted in the farmers’ field at Jorhat during the year 2004-05 (Nov. to May) with an objective to study the effect of low temperature hardening and growth regulator to overcome the cold stress effect on growth and yield attributing character of summer rice. For the experiment four summer rice cultivars viz., Jyotiprasad, Bishnuprasad, Joymoti and Kolaboro were selected. Four different treatments were given to the seedlings before transplanting. The first set was kept as control (T1), second set was given 4°C cold hardening treatment in light for 48 h (T2), third set was given GA3-10 ppm treatment five days before transplanting (T3) and fourth set was given ABA-10 ppm treatment five days before transplanting (T4). Treatments were replicated four times in a split plot design. Forty days old seedlings of these varieties were transplanted in the field. Samples were collected during tillering and panicle initiation stage for various morphological, physiological and bio-chemical analyses. Parameters related to yield development were recorded at harvest stage of the crop. Various morphological and physiological parameters viz., plant height, tiller number, leaf number, leaf area, relative leaf water content, leaf chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content of shoot at harvest were significantly influenced by the treatments. Seedlings treated with GA3 exhibited better growth and plant vigour in comparison to control. Bio-chemical parameters viz., leaf proline content and total soluble sugar in stem also recorded significant increase due to GA3, ABA and 4°C hardening treatment. Yield attributing parameters such as panicle length, grains per panicle and sterility percentage were also found to be influenced significantly. From the above experiment it can be concluded that the adverse effect of low temperature on growth and development of summer rice can be reduced with suitable cold hardening treatments. Among the different treatments, GA3 was found to be most suitable in terms of growth and yield in summer rice.
Jagdish Kumar and M. P. Yadav [Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield, nutrient content and nutrient uptake in hybrid rice (oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 199-202 (2009). Department of Agronomy Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive years of kharif 2006 and 2007 at Students’ Instructional Farm of the University to see the effect of integrated use of different sources of nutrient on yields, nutrient content and nutrient uptake in hybrid rice. Data vividly showed that all the yield attributing characters of hybrid rice were significantly increased with the use of 100% SSNM+5 t FYM+BGA+Azatobacter than inorganic fertilizer application. Use of 100% SSNM+5 t FYM+blue green algae+Azatobacter produced significantly highest grain (80.9 q/ha) and straw (90.8 q/ha) yield of hybrid rice as compared to other treatments. Maximum nutrient contents (N, P and K) were observed in grain and straw of hybrid rice with the application of 100% SSNM+5 t FYM+BGA+Azotobacter over 100% RDF and farmers’ practice. Significantly highest total (grain and straw) nutrient uptake of N, P and K (152.9, 35.4 and 169.5 kg/ha, respectively) in hybrid rice was recorded with the application of 100% SSNM+5 t FYM+BGA+Azatobacter as compared to other treatments. farmers’ practice of nutrient management recorded minimum yield attributes, yield, nutrient content (%) and nutrient uptake (kg/ha) in hybrid rice.
YAO XIONG, LI WANG, WAN-JUN REN AND WEN-YU YANG [Introduction of optimized-broadcasting rice technique]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 203-205 (2009). College of Agronomy Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan, PR China *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Directed by the principle of agricultural production that high yield, excellent quality, highly efficient ecology and safety, the new technique for rice-optimized broadcasting has been applied widely in China. Through five years field experiments and extension activities, the high-yield mechanism of this new technique clearly has become a high efficient technique system. The research showed that optimized-broadcasting rice technique was not only beneficial to the root and tiller bourgeon, seed grouting, but also harmonize the panicle trait. So, the effective panicle and yield are remarkably higher than other transplanting method.
P. A. DESHMUKH, A. S. BONDE, S. K. BURGHATE AND S. B BAND [Long-term effect of organics and fertilizers on productivity and fertility of soil under sorghum-wheat sequence on vertisols]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 206-209 (2009). Department of Soil Science Shri Shivaji College of Horticulture, Amravati (M. S.), India.
The study on long-term effect of organics and fertilizers on productivity and fertility of soil conducted at Cropping System Research at Dr. PDKV, Akola revealed that application of 50% recommended NPK through fertilizers+50% N through FYM led to increase the fertility and productivity of the soil. The study also revealed that there was a significant positive correlation among the yield of soybean, wheat alone and together with organic carbon content and available P and K status of the soil.
M. R. BAZIAR*, F. BAZIARY, A. ZARE, E. KESHTKAR AND S. OHADI [Studying the effect of crop straw burning on germination and growth of weeds]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 210-221 (2009). Islamic Azad University, Fasa Branch, Fasa, Zip Code 74617-89818, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Recently different thermal methods are applied for the control of weeds. A knowledge of weed responses to these control methods is required to extend and increase the effectiveness of the methods. Thus, greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of burning treatments (burning wheat straw, burning+ash, ash only and control) on seedling emergence and growth of seven weeds. In laboratory, the effect of high temperatures (50 and 80°C) at two exposure times (4 and 8 h) on either dry or imbibed seeds of six weeds was studied. Burning wheat straw (with or without ash) reduced the seedling emergence of all weeds by 40 to 80%. However, the responses of weeds to the presence of ash varied from negative (wild barley, Jimsonweed) to neutral (common purslane, London rocket) or to positive (wild mustard). The seedling growth (height and dry weight) was not affected by burning treatments in canarygrass, common purslane and redroot pigweed but highly reduced the growth of others with 87% reductions in wild barley dry weight compared to untreated control. High temperatures caused drastic decreases in germination of all imbibed seeds but such an inhibitory effect on dry seeds was only seen in wild barley but not others.
C. U. SHASHIDHAR, H. K. VEERANNA, Y. M. RAMESHA, D. H. ROOPASHREE AND VIJAY MAHANTESH [Growth and yield parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by different nutrient management practices in Southern Transition Zone of Karnataka]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 222-226 (2009). Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Navile, Shivamogga during kharif 2007 to study the growth and yield parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by different nutrient management practices in Southern Transition Zone of Karnataka. The results revealed that application of 125% NPK+application of poultry manure on N equivalent basis of recommended (Rec.) FYM significantly recorded higher growth attributes viz., plant height (195.09 cm), number of leaves per plant (7.4), leaf area per plant (2214 cm2), leaf area index (1.23), dry matter production (365.16) and yield attributes viz., cob length (17.59 cm), cob weight (202.13 g), number of seeds per cob (605.20), seed weight per cob (159.01 g), test weight (37.08 g), grain yield (65.71 q/ha) and stover yield (9.16 q/ha) as compared to other treatments. While significantly lower growth and yield attributes were registered with application of only recommended NPK through inorganic fertilizers.
C. U. SHASHIDHAR, H. K. VEERANNA, Y. M. RAMESHA, P. R. SOMASHEKHARAPPA AND VIJAY MAHANTESH [Effect of different nutrient management practices on yield, economics and nutrient uptake in maize (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 227-230 (2009). Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Navile, Shivamogga during kharif 2007 to study the effect of different nutrient management practices on yield, economics and nutrient uptake in maize. The results indicated that higher grain yield (65.71 q/ha), net returns (Rs. 31667/ha), B : C ratio (2.6) and uptake of nutrients viz., nitrogen (185.86 kg/ha), phosphorus (64.13 kg/ha) and potassium (180.24 kg/ha) were registered with application of 125% NPK+poultry manure on N equivalent basis of recommended (Rec.) FYM which was found at par with application of 125% NPK coupled with various organic sources of nutrients through FYM, pressmud and in situ incorporation of sunhemp besides FYM. While significantly lower grain yield (47.33 q/ha), net returns (Rs. 21467/ha), B : C ratio (2.1) and uptake of nutrients viz., nitrogen (102.18 kg/ha), phosphorus (17.92 kg/ha) and potassium (95.52 kg/ha) were registered with application of only Rec. NPK through inorganic fertilizers.
B. PRATHAP, G. KRISHNA REDDY AND D. SUBRAMANYAM [Yield and quality parameters of sweet sorghum under varied genotypes and planting pattern]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 231-233 (2009). Department of Agronomy Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Tirupati (A. P.), India.
An experiment was conducted to assess the performance of sweet sorghum cultivars under different planting patterns yield and quality parameters of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) during kharif 2005. Among the genotypes tried, SSV 84 and AKSSV 22 recorded significantly higher grain and juice yield over rest of the genotypes. However, the quality parameters like non-reducing sugars, total sugars and ethanol (%) were significantly higher in RSSV 9. The highest grain and juice yield was recorded with planting pattern of 30 x 30 cm; however, the juice quality parameters like non-reducing sugars, total sugars and ethanol (%) were significantly higher in wider planting pattern of 90 x 10 cm.
ASHA C. MEHTA *, H.R.. KHAFI, B.D. BUNSA, C. J. DANGARIA AND B. K. DAVADA [Effect of different drought ameliorating agro-chemicals and cultural practices on productivity and profitability of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 234-236 (2009). Main Millet Research Station Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar-361 006 (Gujarat), India*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The field experiment was conducted on a medium black soil of Main Millet Research Station, J. A. U., Jamnagar during three consecutive kharif seasons (2005-07) to study the effect of different drought ameliorating agro-chemicals and cultural practices on productivity and profitability of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). The experiment consisting of 10 treatments, in which two drought ameliorating agro-chemicals i. e. 6% kaoline spray at flowering stage and 0.1% thiourea spray at three different times (at tillering, at flowering and at tillering & flowering stages) was tested and five different cultural practices i. e. dust mulching, removal of alternate row at pre-flowering stage, removal of one row after every two rows at pre-flowering stage, paired row planting at 30/60 cm and ridge and furrow method of sowing compared with control (normal planting of pearl millet at 60 cm). The results revealed that spraying of 0.1% thiourea at tillering and flowering stage produced maximum grain and fodder yield and yield increase was about 18.95% with the 1.25 B : C ratio. Among different cultural practices, paired row planting of pearl millet proved superior to other cultural practices than normal planting of pearl millet at 60 cm and obtained highest B : C ratio of 1.40.
A. T. Krishnamurthy, V. B. Sanath Kumar, Y. S. Ramesha, B. A. Pradeep Kumar, B. Zaheer Ahamed and N. Arun [Different farming systems and cropping pattern under irrigated farming system in Chikmagalur district, Karnataka]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 237-239 (2009). Department of Agricultural Extension College of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132, Chikmagalur District (Karnataka), India
The study was conducted during 2006-07 in Chikmagalur district of Karmataka with the sample size of 90 respondents. The aim was to know the farming system, distribution of area under different crops and cropping pattern practised by the farmers in the irrigated system. It was found that majority of the respondents (30.0%) practised production+coconut+arecanut farming system. Whereas 25.55% of the respondents were practising crop production+dairy. Vegetables occupied major portion of the area which accounted for 28.33% with an average holding of 1.44 acres. Sunflower, ragi and jowar were the major crops grown by the farmers during kharif season, whereas jowar and sunflower were grown in rabi and maize and vegetables during summer season.
Y. ASHWINI, P. K. BASAVARAJA, B. N. DHANANJAYA AND P. N. NARASIMHA REDDY [Evaluation of STCR targeted yield approach on finger millet crop yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency in comparison with other approaches]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 240-245 (2009). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2006 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Bangalore, Karnataka to evaluate different approaches of nutrients application in comparison with the STCR targeted yield approach on finger millet (var. GPU 28) crop yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency under irrigated conditions on Alfisols. The results revealed that application of organics and inorganics to supply 50% N from each source and balance of P and K through fertilizers for a targeted yield of 50 q/ha recorded maximum grain (3639 kg/ha) and straw (5741 kg/ha) yields alongwith higher values of total N and P uptake by finger millet crop, whereas total K uptake was maximum when nutrients were applied for a targeted yield of 60 q/ha through conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients. However, the nutrient use efficiency was highest where recommended doses of manures and fertilizers were applied as per package of practice followed by nutrients applied for a targeted yield of 50 q/ha through conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients.
ANAND CHAURASIA, S. B. SINGH AND K. N. NAMDEO [Integrated nutrient management in relation to nutrient contents and uptake of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 246-249 (2009). Department of Botany Government Model Science College, Rewa-486 001 (M. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted on the clay-loam soils of the private Agricultural-cum-Research Farm, Beenda-Semariya Road, Rewa (M. P.) during rabi seasons of 2006-07 and 2007-08. The N, P, K and S contents were, in general, two-fold higher in seed than in stover. Particularly N and then P contents were higher both in seed and stover, whereas S content was found in the lowest range. Among the organic sources of nutrients, poultry manure registered almost significantly higher N, P, K and S contents in grain as well as in stover. This was followed by vermicompost and then FYM. The increasing fertility levels from 50% NPK to 100% NPKZnS increased all these nutrients’ contents almost significantly both in grain and straw. The uptake of N, P, K and S was found significantly higher in seed and stover with poultry manure over other organic sources of nutrients. This was, however, followed by FYM and then vermicompost. Application of 100% NPKZnS enhanced the N, P, K and S uptake by Ethiopian mustard in seed and stover. At the highest fertility level of 100% NPKZnS, the total biomass (seed + stover) produced was 6193 kg/ha which removed 102.77 kg N, 23.34 kg P, 53.0 kg K and 19.27 kg S/ha.
S. rathika*, c. jayanthi and t. ramesh [Effect of recycled organic manure on yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility status of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 250-253 (2009). Department of Agronomy Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2004 under farmers’ holding to study the effect of organic manure which was obtained from livestock components of integrated farming system (IFS) on the productivity of irrigated sunflower. The livestock components of IFS were milch cows (2+1), goat (10+1) and guinea fowl (20 Nos.). Treatments consisted of 100% recommended dose of NPK (40 : 20 : 20 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha), 100% recommended dose of NPK (40 : 20 : 20 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha) + FYM (12.5 t/ha), 100, 75 and 50% recommended dose of NPK (40 : 20 : 20, 30 : 15 : 15 and 20 : 10 : 10 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha) alongwith 100 and 50% available organic manure (AOM) (5.8 and 2.9 t/ha) obtained from livestock components of the farm. Organic manure obtained from the livestock components of IFS was 3.8, 1.9 and 0.1 t from milch cows, goat and guinea fowl, respectively, on dry weight basis. Results revealed that higher seed yield (1591 kg/ha), nutrient uptake and soil fertility status were noticed with 40 : 20 : 20 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha + 5.8 t/ha of organic manure obtained from IFS components. The recommended dose of fertilizers alone (40 : 20 : 20 kg N : P2O5 : K2O/ha alone) produced the lowest yield, nutrient uptake and post-harvest soil fertility status of sunflower.
S. aruna-geetha, p. s. senthil kumar and m. govindaswamy [Validation of the effect of different sulphur treatments on the nutrient composition of blackgram in a Vertisol using diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) based on protein content]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 254-259 (2009). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India.
In the study on the effect of S at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg S/ha) and amendments [Sulphur Rich Material (SRM) alone, SRM+Thiobacillus spp., SRM applied one week before sowing and SRM+FYM (12.5 t/ha)+Thiobacillus spp.] on blackgram in a Vertisol, higher N, P, K and S concentration has been observed for FYM+Thiobacillus among the amendments and at 20 kg S/ha among levels. Amendments and S levels interacted significantly which brought out an additive effect for FYM+Thiobacillus at 20 kg S/ha in all the plant parts. The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu indicated considerable influence for sulphur addition in improving their concentration in plant parts even upto higher levels. The validity of the various treatments effect on the protein content has been assessed using the DRIS and MDRIS nutrient diagnosis models. The S at 60 and 80 kg/ha showed a better effect on the balanced nutrient concentration in the haulm based on DRIS model and in the seed of the crop based on MDRIS. Based on the NII value of DRIS, it has been the 80 kg S/ha treatment exhibiting occurrence of severe imbalance in the crop due to the higher level of S. The treatment 40 kg S/ha revealed its better performance over all other treatments based on the NII value. In the case of amendments based on NII value of DRIS, SRM+FYM (12.5 t/ha)+Thiobacillus spp. was found to be within the balance nutrient range in the seed nutrient concentration. Whereas in the haulm, all the amendments have improved the nutrient concentration of the crop from severe nutrient imbalance exhibiting in the control.
Amir Akbari*, Eskandar Zand, Hadi Ahmadi, Seyed Karim Mousavi and Seyed Mohammad Javad Mirhadi [Effects of row spacing and weed management on weed density, the percentage of bi-seed pods and biomass yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 260-266 (2009). Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
For the purpose of investigating the effect of row spacing and management on weed population, chaff yield and the per cent of chickpea binodule pods, an experiment was conducted factorially in the frame of random complete blocks layout with three replications in the experimental field of Lorestan university agricultural college during 2006. Experimental factors included row spacing in four areas including 15, 20, 30 and 40 cm row spacings with 50 bushel constant density perimeter sq and weed management per five areas including weedy control single and double weeding, pyridate post-emergence application and Fomesafen pre-emergence application. By increasing cultivation row spacings, chaff yield and per cent of chickpea bi-seed pods decreased but weed density increased. Between managarial treatments, the less weed density related to treatment of two-stage weeding and most of it related to marker without control. The process area of the per cent bi-seed functions in the weeding treatment was affected by the main factors of experiment relative to the other treatments which were in priority. There was no significant difference in the pyridate common herbicide.
RAJENDER KUMAR AND V. P. SINGH [Effect of N and P fertilization on seed quality of mungbean genotypes grown in summer]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 267-269 (2009). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.
The study carried out for two seasons revealed that mungbean genotypes MH 85-111 and T-44 did not differ significantly with each other in relation to germination (%), root, shoot and seedling length, seedling dry weight and vigour index. N and P fertilization did not alter the germination (%) in mungbean. However, root, shoot and seedling length, dry weight of seedling and vigour index in mungbean seeds were significantly increased upto 20 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha applied to the crop.
R. C. Bais, S. K. Burghate, A. S. Bonde, A. S. Zape and S. B. Band [Effect of foliar application of animal urine and pachagavya on growth parameters in desi cotton]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 270-274 (2009). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India
Investigation carried out at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. PDKV, Akola indicating that amongst all the treatments of different concentrations of animal urine and panchagavya, foliar application of 6% cow urine (T7) was found to be a superior in increasing the leaf area index (LAI) at 40 to 160 DAS but showed non-significant deviation at 120 DAS. As regards to relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), there was no any significant difference shown by all the treatments at different growth stages except cow urine 6% (T7) at 20-40 DAS and control (T10) at 60-80 DAS in case of RGR and NAR, respectively. These results showed that the foliar application of animal urine and panchagavya did not affect adversely the growth functions like RGR and NAR.
C. B. PANDYA AND V. R. BHATT [Effect of different nutrient levels on release of non-exchangeable potassium from continuous cropping land]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 275-276 (2009). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India.
A pot experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil (Typic Ustochrept), collected from ongoing long term experimental site to study the effect of different nutrient levels on release of non-exchangeable potassium. Different 18 treatments were superimposed on that soil and fodder cowpea cv. EC-4216 was taken as a test crop. Application of 100% recommended dose of NPK with farm yard manure proved to be the best to release non-exchangeable K followed by 150% NPK in conjunction with FYM. The lowest release of non-exchangeable K was recorded from the control treatment. The highest release of non-exchangeable form of potassium was recorded as evidenced by proportionate removal of K with added quantity of K.
Payam Najafi* and Shrareh Nasr [Comparison effects of wastewater on soil chemical properties in three irrigation methods]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 277-280 (2009). Soil Science Department, Agricultural Faculty Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, P. O. 81595-158, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The increasing need for water in arid areas of the world has resulted in the emergence of wastewater application for agriculture and landscape. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of treated wastewater on soil chemical properties, which was conducted in Khorasgan region in Isfahan (Iran) with three treatments of wastewater under SDI, DI and FW system. Soil samples were collected from a depth of 60 cm to determine EC, pH, OM, Na, Cl, SO4 and Ca. This investigation was fulfilled due to an analysis of the effect of sewage on some physical and chemical properties of soil in irrigation treatment condition. The results showed that the application of wastewater in DI caused an increase in EC, OM, SO4, Ca, Na and Cl and a decrease in hydraulic conductivity, porosity, pb and moisture point of soil DI and FW treatments. It was observed that the soil porosity especially on the surface was clogged with organic and suspended matter in sewage through the influence of physical features. The results revealed that if there was some suspended solid matter (142 mg/l), BOD5 (114 mg/l) physical features would bring about more decrease in irrigation treatment and this reduction depended upon the location where wastewater was injected. As conclusion, SDI system showed better condition based on EC and other salt solution in comparison with other treatments.
M. SHIVANNA, H. M. CHIDANANDAPPA, G. N. THIPPESHAPPA AND C. RAMACHANDRA [Forms and distribution of potassium in some hilly zone soils of Chikkamagalur district in Karnataka under paddy land use cover]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 281-285 (2009). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry College of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132, UHS, Bagalkot (Karnataka), India.
The different forms of potassium viz., water soluble-K, exchangeable-K, non-exchangeable-K, lattice-K and total-K were measured in some hilly zone paddy soils of Karnataka. Correlation coefficients were calculated. Results showed that maximum amount of K content in soils was in the non-exchangeable form. The variation in the distribution of potassium depends upon the mineral present, particle size and degree of weathering. The available K (water soluble K plus exchangeable K) was low to medium and better crop performance, need for application of K fertilizers in splits to avoid leaching loss due to course textured soils and heavy rainfall condition were discussed.
P. K. BASAVARAJA*, S. D. SHARMA, B. N. DHANANJAYA AND M. S. BADRINATH [Amelioration of degraded sodic soils by afforestation of Acacia leucophloea in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka, India]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 286-292 (2009). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
Amelioration of sodic soils requires the supply of Ca2+ to replace the excess Na+ present on the soil exchange complex. Tree planting on sodic soil produces CO2 through root respiration which in turn produces carbonic acid that enhances the solubility of CaCO3 present in the sodic soil, and thus releases an appreciable amount of soluble Ca2+ that replaces Na+ from the exchange complex. A study was carried out in 10-year old rehabilitated plot in the Challakere taluk of Chitradurga district, Central Dry Zone of Karnataka, India, to evaluate the potentiality of Acacia leucophloea plantation to reclaim the sodic soil. The ten years of reclamation through A. leucophloea plantation had achieved a marked reduction in exchangeable sodium content (from 234.0 to 72.5 meq/l) in the surface layer (0-15 cm) of the soil profile, whereas the levels of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium had increased. The CO32- and HCO3- anions decreased in the saturation extract, which reveals favourable changes in the ionic composition of soil solution. Due to reduction in Na+ concentration and increase of Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) also declined in the soil profile. Thus, A. leucophloea proved more efficient in improving soil properties through reduction in the pHs, ECe, ESP and SAR and by increasing the organic carbon, CEC and available major nutrients content of soil.
CH. SREENIVAS AND G. NARAYANASAMY [Role of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and phosphate solubilising microorganism (Aspergillus awamori) in vermi-phosphocomposting]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 293-300 (2009). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India.
Earthworm, Eisenia fetida and phosphorus solubilising microorganisms, Aspergillus awamori were used in the preparation of enriched phosphocomposts. Prepared phosphocomposts were analysed for C, N, C : N ratio, total P, inorganic P, organic P, acid as well as alkaline phosphatases and microbial biomass carbon. Maturity indices for compost quality like C : P ratio, C : N ratio, organic carbon to organic P ratio and microbial biomass carbon as per cent in organic carbon were evaluated. Introduction of earthworm increased the organic carbon content, nitrogen content and alkaline phosphatase activity. A. awamori was effective in increasing the total P, organic P and inorganic P and further it increased acid phosphatase activity. Strong positive interaction exists between PSM and earthworm.
R. Chakraborty* AND S. Chakraborty [Heterosis for yield and physiological characters in bold grained rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Barak Valley, Assam]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 301-307 (2009). Department of Biotechnology Assam University, Silchar-788 011 (Assam), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Moderate to high heterosis was observed in bold grained rice for grain yield and eight morpho-physiological characters viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf breadth, effective branch tillers per hill, panicle length, grains per panicle and sterility percentage from the study of 28 F1 hybrids generated from 8 x 8 diallel cross excluding reciprocals. The maximum heterobeltiosis for early flowering was recorded in the cross Bar Madhava/Hathi Sali (-3.75%). Most of the crosses showed significant standard or economic heterosis for delayed flowering but no cross showed standard heterosis for early flowering. The significant heterobeltiosis for dwarfing was recorded in the cross Mala/Hathi Sali (-7.78%). Most of the crosses showed significant standard heterosis for tall stature and the cross Monohar Sali/Ranjit (-2.55%) showed standard heterosis for dwarfing. The highest heterobeltiosis for high grain yield per hill was reflected by the cross Dhola Mula/Mala (4.23%) followed by the crosses Matonga/Hathi Sali (3.85%), Dhola Mula/Chandmoni (1.76%), etc. No cross showed standard heterosis for more grain yield per hill and most of the crosses showed significant standard heterosis for less grain yield.
S. NEELAVATHI AND R. GOVINDARASU [Character association and component analysis in rice fallow blackgram]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 308-310 (2009). Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute Karaikal-609 603, U. T. of Puducherry, India.
Seventy-four blackgram genotypes were studied in rice fallow condition for correlation and path analysis. The characters biological yield and harvest index were identified as selection criteria for improving seed yield in rice fallow blackgram as these characters recorded strong positive correlation as well as high positive direct effects with seed yield. The component analysis of seed yield, biological yield and harvest index indicated that a plant having more number of clusters per plant, pods per plant and seeds per pod may be considered as suitable ideotype for improving the yielding ability of rice fallow blackgram.
S. KUMAR, R. R. GUPTA AND KULDEEP SINGH [Selection parameters for some metric and quality traits related to productivity in spring wheat]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 311-316 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding C. S. A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India.
A set of 10 parents/genotypes, from which developed 45 F1 and F2 populations, was planted in randomized block design with three replications at Kanpur location. Observations on 10 plants in each parent and each F1 and 20 plants in F2 were randomly selected to record data on plant height, number of grains/spike, length of spike, number of productive tillers/plant, days to 50% flowering, number of spikelets/spike, days to maturity, grain yield/plant, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, protein and tryptophan content, seed hardness and penol colour reaction. Highly significant differences were recorded in all the three generations for all the traits except days to 50% flowering in F1 and F2. High estimates of heritability were noted for spike length, number of spikelets/spike in both F1 and F2, while it was high for days to 50% flowering in F1 and tryptophan content and phenol colour reaction in F2. Genetic advance in respect of various characters ranged from 2.00 to 13.50 in F1 and 2.05 to 18.61 in F2 generation. Almost all the attributes showed low genetic gain as per cent of mean except phenol colour reaction symbolizing that hybridization coupled with selection will be highly useful for improvement purposes in the present investigation. Genetic associations were higher than those of phenotypic ones in both F1 and F2 generations for all the character combinations. Significant association was observed in 21 and 24 character combinations in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Out of which, 18 character combinations were common in both the generations. Grain yield/plant showed significant positive corrleations with spike length, number of spikelets/spike, days to maturity and number of grains/spike, negative association with most of the quality attributes was observed.
P.J.M. RAO [Genetic architecture of yield and its components in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 317-318 (2009). A. N. G. R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Madhira-507 203 (A. P.), India.
Ten elite line and their 45 F1’s were studied under pre-rabi situations and nature and magnitude of gene effects were estimated in two environments. Both additive and non-additive components of genotypic variance were found to be significant. Dominance gene action was observed for all the traits except for plant height where it was partial dominant.
K. JHANSI RANI and S. S. RAO [Relationship between heterosis and genetic divergence in rabi sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 319-322 (2009). Maize Research Centre ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (Andhra Pradesh), India.
Genetic divergence was estimated in 41 sorghum genotypes comprising tropical land races, derivatives of temperate and tropical lines (B and R lines), varieties and hybrids, by multivariate analysis. Based on D2 values, seven clusters were formed. Eight diverse genotypes were selected for heterosis studies, which were crossed in all possible combinations. Relationship between heterosis for important yield components and genetic divergence between parents was analysed in five top heterotic crosses and also in five commercial hybrids. There was no perfect correspondence between level of heterosis expressed in a cross and genetic divergence between parents. Hence, this study established importance of even within group divergence for obtaining high heterosis.
JYOTI KUMARI*, R. N. GADAG, G. K. JHA AND H. C. JOSHI [Combining ability and gene action of grain yield and kernel quality traits in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 323-332 (2009). Division of Genetics Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Inheritance studies on five kernel quality traits, flowering parameters, field emergence and grain yield were conducted in a half diallel of six sweet corn inbred lines. The parents and their crosses showed significant genetic variation for the traits studied. Hayman analysis revealed non-allelic interaction or epistasis for days to tasseling, field emergence, plant height and grain yield. Prevalence of overdominance was observed for most of the traits, whereas partial dominance was observed in reducing sugar and complete dominance in non-reducing sugar. Both additive as well as non-additive gene action was important for all the traits as gca and sca variances were significant. Dominant alleles were more frequent in parental lines for plant height, grain weight and all quality traits. The cross SCI 301 x SCI 306 was identified as best specific combiner with highest mean value for grain yield with 13.74% total sugar content, hence, can be advocated for evaluation under different environment for its suitability and adaptability.
ASISH K. BINODH* AND P. VINDHYA VARMAN [Stability of sunflower hybrids for oil yield over environments]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 333-339 (2009). Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics
An understanding of the causes of genotype x environment interaction can help in identifying traits and environments for better cultivar evaluation. Hence, an investigation was made to develop stable hybrids in sunflower. Nine high yielding sunflower heterotic hybrids alongwith three check hybrids were tested for eight traits over three environments to assess their relative performance. Genotype x environment interaction was significant for plant height, head diameter, volume weight, seed yield and oil yield indicating different genotypes responded differently to changing environments. The environmental indices revealed that environment (E2) (kharif 2006) was found to be favourable environment for expression of characters viz., seed yield, oil content, oil yield and days to 50% flowering. Stability analysis showed that significant differences existed among the genotypes for all the eight characters studied. The phenotypic stability parameters viz., mean regression coefficient and deviation from regression indicated that the hybrids viz., CSFH 6008, CSFH 6037, CSFH 6039 and CSFH 6058 were stable for seed yield in all environments. Based on the per se, stability and responsiveness to environments, the hybrids CSFH 6045 could be identified as best hybrid which had black seed colour. Hence, it could be concluded that hybrid CSFH 6045 be the superior stable hybrid and may be recommended for cultivation in different environments.
NUPUR MALVIYA, K. KUMAR AND O. P. VERMA [Detection of epistatic, additive and dominance variation for seed yield, its components and oil content in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.]*]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 340-342 (2009). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 (U. P.), India.
Thirty-six progenies were produced by crossing 12 Indian mustard varieties/strains with three testers viz., Basanti, NDRE-4 and their F1 (Basanti x NDRE-4) in a triple test cross fashion to detect epistasis and test of additive and dominance components of genetic variation. Epistasis was evident for days to maturity and siliquae on main raceme.
S. C. MALI, A. I. PATEL*, D. U. PATEL AND C. L. PATEL [Variability, correlation, path analysis and genetic divergence in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)1]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 343-350 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Genetic variability, correlations and path coefficients were studied in sugarcane taking 21 phenotypically diverse genotypes, which were planted in randomized block design. The study revealed highly significant differences among the 21 genotypes for all the characters studied. All the characters under study indicated the ample variation of these characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance observed for number of tillers and single cane weight indicated the presence of additive gene action and direct selection may be highly effective. Correlation coefficient revealed that cane yield was found to be significantly and positively correlated with number of internodes at harvest, cane diameter at harvest, single cane weight, C. C. S. (kg/plot) at 360 DAP and NMC/plot. Path coefficient analysis indicated the highest positive direct effect of sucrose % juice at 360 DAP on cane yield. D2 analysis in 21 genotypes of sugarcane revealed considerable diversity, on the basis of which they were grouped into eight clusters. Germination % at 45 days, single cane weight at harvest, number of tillers at 120 DAP, NMC/plot and C. C. S. (kg/plot) at 360 DAP contributed maximum to the total genetic divergence. The genotypes of clusters II and VI can be used as parents in hybridization programme to develop high yielding sugarcane varieties.
A. I. PATEL*, S. C. MALI, U. G. PATEL AND D. U. PATEL [General and specific combining ability in gms based intra and interspecific diploid cottons1]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 351-356 (2009). Department of Agricultural Botany Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The material consisted of 62 (48 intra and interspecific crosses+14 parents) genotypes of Asiatic cottons grown at three locations viz., Surat, Bharuch and Hansot of Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) using Line x Tester analysis to obtain gca and sca. The observations were recorded on characters to plant morphology and yield of seed cotton and its component characters. The pooled analysis of variance indicated significant differences due to females x males and females and males, suggesting both dominance as well as additive variance are involved in the traits. Among the parents, 4011 was found to be best combiner for seed cotton yield per plant and its contributing traits. 35N, 824 and G. Cot. 17 were also good general combiners for yield and its contributing traits. Four hybrids viz., 4011 x GShv 1012/90 (intra herbaceum), 378 BK x 824, 35N x G. Cot. 17 and 8401 x G. Cot. 17 (interspecific) recorded higher per se performance alongwith higher sca effects.
R. S. BHAKTA, D. U. PATEL, S. J. PATEL, N. K. PATEL AND V. C. KODAPPULLY [Hybrid vigour in egg plant (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 357-361 (2009). Regional Sugarcane Research Station Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India.
Thirty-six hybrids of egg plant in a diallel set involving nine parents (excluding reciprocals) were studied for manifestation of better parent and economic heterosis for yield per plant and eight other attributes. Two hybrids over better parent and six hybrids over standard check showed significant positive heterosis for fruit yield per plant. The heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis ranged from -37.35 to 26.86% and -36.63 to 54.21%, respectively. Significant values of heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis were also observed for other attributes, indicating their contribution for fruit yield. Two outstanding hybrids viz., AB 03-3 x GOB-1 and GOB-1 x Surti Ravaiya showed better performance.
R. S. BHAKTA, D. U. PATEL, S. J. PATEL, N. K. PATEL AND V. C. KODAPPULLY [Diallel analysis for combining ability studies in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)*]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 362-365 (2009). Regional Sugarcane Research Station Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India.
Combining ability variance using 9 x 9 diallel set in egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) excluding reciprocals revealed additive and non additive genic variances in the inheritance of all the nine characters studied. Additive genetic variance was predominant for days to flowering, days to first picking, plant height, plant spread, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant, whereas non-additive genetic variance was predominant for primary branches per plant, fruit volume and average fruit weight. A study of sca effects has shown that crosses with good x good or good x poor parents will be better for hybridization programme.
SÜLEYMAN KIZIL*, FIRAT PALA, MENSURE OZGUVEN AND K. MAHMOOD KHAWAR [Cultural possibilities of some economically important geophytes under semi-arid ecological conditions of the south-east Anatolia, Turkey]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 366-373 (2009). Department of Field Crops Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Turkey, hosts a variety of around 11000 plant species including indigenous bulbous plants of importance. There is lack of scientific research regarding their unique pharmacological compounds and cultivation techniques. Flower industry as cut flowers, indoor, outdoor and garden plants is becoming more important in modern-day Turkey. There is need to develop techniques for multiplication of flowering geophythes by encouraging scientific research and protecting them from extinction by introduction into new areas. The study reports cultivation possibilities of some important Turkish bulbous plants, Sternbergia clusiana, Fritillaria imperialis, F. Persica, Crocus sativus, Amaryllis sp., Galanthus woronovii, Hyacinthus orientalis, Iris sp., Narcissus tazetta, N. pseudonarcissus and Tulipa sp. widely exported abroad under arid conditions of Diyarbakýr, south-eastern Anatolian Turkey. Analysis of results for various growth parameters showed that all of these plant species could be successfully cultivated and grown under arid conditions profitably with good economic outturn.
Neeraj Pawar and Anil Rathee [Comparative economics of vegetable crops in Sonepat district of Haryana state]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 374-377 (2009). CCSHAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jagdishpur, Sonepat (Haryana), India.
The study on comparative economics of vegetable crops was conducted in Sonepat district of Haryana state. Sonepat district was purposely selected because it had maximum area under vegetable crops. It falls under the National Capital Region and is located near to Delhi which is very important vegetable market. Multistage random sampling design was adopted for the selection of ultimate units of respondents. The required information pertaining to the various inputs used, input-output prices and production of vegetable crops was collected by personal interview of the selected respondents. Budgeting techniques was used for studying the comparative economics of different vegetable crops. The study revealed that the okra was the most profitable crop as compared to potato and bottle gourd. In okra, the cost of prouduction per hectare was also highest. It was suggested that there was a need of liberal credit facilities as vegetable cultivation was capital intensive enterprise.
H. A. ESECHIE* AND S. A. AL-HINAI [Morphological and agronomic variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm in Oman]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 378-384 (2009). Department of Crop Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 34, Al Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Experiments were carried out in two consecutive cropping seasons at Sultan Qaboos University Agricultural Experiment Station to investigate morphological and agronomic variation in 15 alfalfa accessions collected from five regions in the Sultanate of Oman. Plants were evaluated for their heights, green and dry matter yields and regrowth rate after first cut. Sur accession had the largest green and dry matter yields per hectare, while Sohar accession had the least. Salalah accession produced the tallest plants, and Saham had the most number of leaves per plant. Generally, all accessions were taller and produced larger green and dry matter yields in the second cut than the first cut. Plant regrowth rate was higher in the second week after first cut than in the subsequent weeks. Bahla II and Yanquol II had the highest regrowth rate following harvest, while Manah had the least.
Farhad Narimani*, Reza Mamghani and Payman Hassibi [Effect of planting method and planting proportion on forage yield and growth indices in barley and broad leaf vetch (Vicia narbonensis) mixture in Ahvaz climatic conditions]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 385-391 (2009). Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran *(e-mail : farhad.narimani@ yahoo.com).
Most of the time, the total yield of crops in intercropping is more than sole-cropping as a result of optimal use of the available growth resources. In order to investigate the effects of planting method and proportions of planting on forage yield and growth indices in barley and broad leaf vetch mixture, this experiment was conducted during 2007-08 cropping season in Experimental Farm of Agricultural College of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz. The experiment was as split plots based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Planting method had three levels (row intercropping, mixed intercropping and intercropping on row) as the main factors. Planting proportions had four levels (sole-cropping of barley and vetch, 2 to 1 proportion of barley to vetch and 1 to 2 proportion of barley to vetch) as the sub-factors. In order to make the mixtures, the replacement series technique was used. The results indicated that interaction effect of planting method and proportions of planting for dry forage yield of barley, vetch and total dry forage yield was significant. The maximum and minimum dry forage yield of barley belonged to pure stand of barley in row planting (13.99 t/ha) and 1 to 2 proportion of barley to vetch in row intercropping (8.09 t/ha), respectively. Maximum and minimum dry forage of vetch was obtained from sole cropping of vetch (8.24 t/ha) and 2 to 1 proportion of barley to vetch in row intercropping (2.51 t/ha), respectively. Maximum and minimum of total dry forage yield obtained from 1 to 2 proportion of barley to vetch in intercropping on row (18.35 t/ha) and pure stand of vetch in row planting (7.73 t/ha), respectively. The highest crop growth rate in barley was seen at 120 days after planting date and then decreased. 120 days after planting date, pure barley had more crop growth rate (CGR) but in the final growth stage, barley in intercropping had more CGR than the pure barley. At all growth stages of vetch, the CGR was higher in pure vetch, while at intercropping, the CGR of vetch was decreased. The relative growth rate (RGR) of barley and vetch showed decreasing trend over the time. At the end of growth stages, pure barley had lower RGR and pure vetch had a higher RGR, compared to other plant proportions.
VARAPRASAD BOBBARALA*, D. BINDU MADURI AND D. ARYAMITHRA [Medicinal plants as alternatives for the management of Pennisetum diseases]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 392-397 (2009). Biosciences, A/4A, Park Lane Residency, East Point Colony, Visakhapatnam-530 017 (A. P.), India
In this study, different solvent extracts of 25 South Indian medicinal plants were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against four important phytopathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas campestris, Pantoea agglomerans and Erwinia carotovora) and five fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Ustilago maydis, Rhizoctonia solani and Tiarosporell phaseolina) associated with different diseases in Pennisetum. The collected ethno medicinal plants were used in folk medicine in the treatment for curing several ailments and diseases. Among the 25 plants tested methanolic extracts of three plant species Acacia farnaciana, Bridilia montana and Grewia arborea recorded highly significant antimicrobial activity against all pathogens. Phytochemical analysis of methanol extract suggested that presence of phenolic, tannin and acidic compounds was responsible for the claimed antimicrobial activity. The results suggest that A. farnaciana, B. montana and G. arborea are potential medicinal plants for the management of phytopathogenic microorganisms which are known to cause diseases on many crop plants.
EUNICE OKOROAFOR*, CHRISTOPHER IWUMENE AMATOBI, STEPHEN MADUJOS MISARI AND ISAH ONU [Field assessment of yam beetle (Heteroligus meles Billb) damage on yam cultivars (Dioscorea spp.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 398-401 (2009). Institute for Agricultural Research Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
The trials were conducted in 2004, 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons in Mbagune, Makurdi LGA and in 2004 and 2005 in Mbaikyor Sati, Ushongo LGA both in Benue state, Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The level of damage caused on the varieties of yam was studied in field experiment at two locations. The results obtained show that the number of damaged tubers, number, depth and diameter of feeding holes on Diocorea rotundata cultivar ‘Tamenyo’ were significantly (P<0.05) low compared with other cultivars at the two locations in two years. Significant (P<0.05) increase in H. meles feeding depth and diameter was recorded on cultivar Amula, Pepa and Ogoja at Makurdi in three years’ trial and at Ushongo in two years’ trial. Tamenyo cultivar is considered promising in managing yam beetle damage in resource poor farmers’ field.
S. IRULANDI*, A. RAVIKUMAR and R. RAJENDRAN [Induced systemic resistance to coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari through organic farming]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 402-406 (2009). Coffee Research Station, Chikmagalur-577 117 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Application of organic sources of nutrients and amendments [Farm yard manure, neem cake, mahua cake, pungam cake and biofertilizer (Azophos)] significantly enhanced the production of defensive chemicals viz., silica, phenol and tannin leading to induced resistance in terms of antibiosis by means of reduction in feeding rate, oviposition, population build-up and prolonged larval duration in berry borer. Coffee plants, which received organics, registered less content of reducing sugars and enzymes such as peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity when compared to NPK as straight fertilizer applied plot, thus making the plants less prone to berry borer attack.
R. Vashist and C. K. Yadav [Effect of NPK application on seed yield of tobacco]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 407-408 (2009). CCSHAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jhajjar (Haryana), India.
In a field experiment conducted during 2002-03 and 2003-04 on sandy loam soil, three levels of nitrogen (0, 50 and 75 kg N/ha) and three phosphorus levels (0, 50 and 75 kg P2O5/ha) were tested in tobacco. Results revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus significantly increased the seed yield. There was significant increase in the yield with potash application also. The plots with N75, P75 and K100 recorded maximum and significantly higher seed yield as compared to other treatment combinations.
C. T. Subbarayappa, U. D. Bongale, N. Srinivasa and B. R. Jagadeesha [Genotypic variability of nutrient profiles and uptake estimations in six improved varieties of mulberry]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 409-413 (2009). Department of SS & AC V. C. Farm, Mandya-571 405 (Karnataka), India.
The study was carried out using six important mulberry varieties, namely, M5, DD, S-36, S-1, S-799 and S-1635 in order to understand the genotypic variabilities of leaf nutrient profiles and nutrient uptake levels under normal irrigated cultivation with recommended dosage of fertilizer inputs. Five harvests were taken covering one annual crop schedule and nutrient uptake values were calculated using the leaf yield data on dry weight basis. The results indicated that majority of the nutrients were recorded higher in M5 and DD varieties. Uptake efficiency of nutrients was more in S-1635 variety compared to other genotypes. The details of the experimental results are discussed.
T. VIJAYA* [Correlation studies in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as a monocrop and under coconut shade condition]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 414-419 (2009). Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
The correlation study was established among the 36 genotypes of turmeric evaluating them for 18 characters under open and shade condition. It was observed that the traits like height of the plant, number of leaves, length of the leaf, breadth of the leaf, weight of mother rhizomes, girth of mother rhizomes, number of primary rhizomes, number of secondary rhizomes and weight of secondary rhizomes were positively correlated with yield under coconut shade. These characters are amenable for the simultaneous improvement of the turmeric genotypes under coconut shade condition.
M. R. GURURAJA RAO*, S. RAMESH, A. MOHAN RAO AND E. GANGAPPA [Genetic diversity in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 420-425 (2009). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), an exotic non-edible oil seed bearing shrub and traditionally cultivated as a hedge plant, is widely considered as a potential feed stock crop for bio-diesel production in India. Low seed and oil productivity of the available Jatropha genotypes not only makes its cultivation uneconomical to the growers, but also renders unattractive to the bio-diesel industry. Genetic management is the only and the best sustainable option for enhancing seed and oil yielding potential of Jatropha given that Jatropha is being promoted for cultivation in marginal and waste lands. Considering that success of Jatropha genetic enhancement programmes hinges on the availability of diverse genetic resources, three-year old germplasm collected from southern Karnataka was evaluated during 2007 at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore for assessing genetic diversity among the accessions and classifying them into clusters for identifying genetically divergent accessions based on D2 statistics for use in Jatropha breeding programmes. Results indicated substantial variability for most of the traits. The wide range of D2 values and segregation of the accessions into as many as 12 clusters is a clear evidence for high degree of genetic divergence among Jatropha accessions. Ten out of 12 clusters contained one to four accessions indicating their uniqueness and substantial genetic divergence among them. Oil content followed by 100-seed weight and seed yield/plant contributed most in discriminating the accessions. It was suggested to select the representative accessions from the clusters having intermediate inter-cluster distance for use in hybrid development for harnessing maximum heterosis.
R. AMBIKA RAJENDRAN AND DIJEE BASTIAN [In vitro plant regeneration from seed callus cultures of rice cultivar of Ptb26]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 426-429 (2009). Tissue Culture Lab Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur (Kerala), India
Mature, dehulled, surface sterilized seeds of variety Ptb26 were raised in MS medium with difference combination with 2,4-D and kinetin. Callus induction studies revealed that MS+2, 4-D 2 mg/l + kinetin 0.5 mg/l was the best to induce callus in rice. The same media was used for callus proliferation. Three weeks old sub-cultured calli were transferred to regeneration shooting media MS+NAA 2 mg/l + kinetin 4 mg/l+BAP 0.5 mg/l. The shoots obtained were transferred to rooting medium MS+NAA 2 mg/l+ kinetin 0.5 mg/l. The percentage of success of hardening was 85.20%.
ASHISH OJHA*, NISHA VERMA and AMIT KUMAR [In vitro micropropagation of economically important edible bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) through somatic embryos from root, leaves and nodal segments explants]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 430-436 (2009). Rice Biotechnology Lab.Crop Improvement Division Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India
Protocol for the regeneration of bamboo from roots, leaves and nodal segments explants for in vitro micropropagation of economic important edible bamboo sp. (Dendrocalamus asper) was developed. Optimal callus initiation was done after four weeks on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS) medium supplemented with 30 µM/l 2, 4-D and 91.6% embryogenic callus formation in this media. Shoot was initiation of bamboo, D. asper in 20 µM/l BAP than elongated shoots transferred in rooting medium (IAA and NAA 5-25 µM/l) and D. asper rooted. Rooted shoot transferred to the medium with BAP showed plumule development, followed by complete plantlet formation on MS basal medium without any growth regulators after four weeks. These plants shifted to mist chamber having related humidity of 80-90% with a temperature of 30±2°C with a mixture of sand, farm yard manure and soil in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1. After one month, the plants were transferred to big size pots (height size 14¢¢) containing same soil composition.
S. R. KULKARNI, G. L. CHUNALE AND B. S. JADHAV [Performance study of local grasses for soil and water conservation in watershed]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 437-440 (2009). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Sub-montane Zone, Kolhapur-416 012 (M. S.), India.
Thirteen different grass species collected from the Kaneri watershed under National Watershed Development Programme (NWDP) from Karveer tahasil of Kolhapur district were studied during 2003 and 2004 for their soil binding abilities, fodder yield potential, regeneration performance on shallow and lighter types of soils. The soil binding ability of grass roots indicated by binding factor, W/r2 was found highest in Tripogon lisboe (289.71 kg/cm2) followed by Dichanthium annulatum (140.92 kg/cm2) and Panicum maximum (126.63 kg/cm2). The two years pooled data revealed that the D. annulatum recorded the highest green fodder yield (30.83 t/ha) followed by P. maximum (23.58 t/ha), Themeda triandra (22.50 t/ha) and Sorghum halepense (22.08 t/ha) indicating better fodder potential. The highest (99.00%) regeneration capacity was observed in D. caricosum followed by D. annulatum (86.30%), Panicum maximum (82.00%), Cenchrus ciliarus (80.00%), S. halepense (79.00%) and Tripogon lisboe (78.50%). As regards to fodder value, the highest percentage of palatability was recorded in D. annulatum (97.00%).
P. NAJAFI* AND S. H. TABATABAEI [Comparison of different Hargreaves-Samani methods for estimating potential evapotranspiration in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 441-447 (2009). Soil Science Department, Agricultural Faculty P. O. 81595-158, Khorasgan Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
For calculating potential evapotranspiration (ET0), this is necessary that standard models be designed for different climate. Among the numerous methods, the Hargreaves-Samani is one that having a global validity and estimating ET0 accuracy in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, different Hargreaves-Samani models were compared which were developed since 1982 right now. For this purpose, grass evapotranspiration from lysimeters and climatologically data for nine locations in 1988 to 1997 were used. The results of this research show that if the climatology data are measured in irrigation field, it’s better to use average minimum temperature; else it must replace this parameter with dew point temperature (Td). In addition, initial Hargreaves-Samani (1985) method estimated potential evapotranspiration accurately when average wind speed was equal or less than 1 m per second, while it’s more than 1 m per second Modified Hargreaves-Samani by Droogers and Allen (2002) calculated better than other methods. Also, if potential evapotranspiration was being over than 6 millimeter per day, when Td adjustments of these equations were used, the MARE and RMSD were decreased.
R. K. Srivastava* and R. M. Shukla [Probabilistic approach of rainfall data for irrigation planning]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 448-452 (2009). Division of Agricultural Engineering Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu-181 133 (J&K), India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Rainfall is one of the important hydrological events, which plays an important role in many of the agricultural operations. Rainfall varies not only with time but also with geographical area and altitude. The present study was conducted for Kharagpur Hydrological Station of district Midnapur (W. B.). The rainfall and evaporation at different probability levels were estimated. The excess deficit of rainfall showed deficit in the whole year except in kharif season. The overall evaporation rate was significantly high and reasonable amount of water was lost due to evaporation. The large deficit, in most of the periods, calls for planning of irrigation.
V. K. UPADHYAY* AND S. P. UPADHYAY** [Statistical analysis of rainfall distribution and trend of rainfall anomalies district-wise during monsoon period over eastern
Uttar Pradesh]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 453-460 (2009). Gandhi Mahavidyalay, Mirdha, Beruarbari, Ballia (Uttar Pradesh), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; **email@example.com).
The statistical analysis of rainfall distribution in different districts of eastern U. P. during monsoon period for 48 years (1953-2000) has been made in this paper. The statistical parameters such as moments, coefficient of skewness and kurtosis have been computed to understand the nature of rainfall distribution in each district. The rainfall anomalies during monsoon period (June-September) have also been examined for each district by fitting regression lines through ‘Least Square Method’ and results for rainfall trends for each district of eastern U. P. have been presented in this paper.
A. T. Krishnamurthy, V. B. Sanath Kumar, Y. S. Ramesha, B. Zaheer Ahamed, B. A. Pradeep Kumar and N. Arun [Extension strategy and constraints in implementing integrated disease management programme by extension functionaries of Chikmagalur district]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 461-464 (2009). Department of Agricultural ExtensionCollege of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132, Chikmagalur District (Karnataka), India
The present study was conducted during the year 2007 to know the personal profile, preferred extension methods and constraints in implementing integrated disease management practice by the extension functionaries of agriculture department, Chikmagalur district with the sample size of 60. Majority of the participants were in age group of 41-50 years followed by 51 years and above, having graduation qualification and in the cadre of agricultural officers and agricultural assistants. Major chunk of respondents preferred method demonstrations (96.6%), group discussion (91.6%), training (88.3%), as most effective teaching methods. Lack of sufficient staff, non-availability of the bio-agents, lack of mobility, lack of credibility about programme, no timely supply of inputs are the constraints faced in implementing integrated disease management practice.
R. Golya Naik, M. T. Lakshminarayan and C. Narayanaswamy [Production technologies adopted by cashew growers]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 465-468 (2009). Sericulture College, Chintamani (Karnataka), India.
The present study was carried out in 10 villages of Chintamani taluk in Karnataka state during 2008 to know the production technologies adopted by cashew growers. One hundred cashew growers were interviewed using schedule. The results revealed that as high as 77% of the cashew growers were low/medium adopters of recommended cultivation practices. Education, mass media participation, extension participation and extension agency contact of cashew growers had significant relationship with the adoption level. Agriculture Research Station, Chintamani and Horticulture Department were major sources consulted by cashew growers. Non-availability of grafts and lack of technical know-how were the major constraints faced by cashew growers.
DHARAM PAL, V. K. PHOGAT* AND RITA DAHIYA [Effect of deep tillage and gypsum on oil and protein content of mustard]. Res. on Crops 10 (2) : 469-471 (2009). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
A field experiment was conducted at Soil Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the rabi season of 2000-01 with an objective to study the effect of deep tillage and gypsum application on oil and protein content of mustard. The experiment consisted of two tillage treatments [conventional tillage (CT) comprising one discing (10 cm depth) and one run of cultivator followed by planking; and deep tillage with disc plough comprising 20-25 cm sub-soiling followed by CT] and two gypsum treatments (control and gypsum @ 250 kg/ha i. e. 45 kg S/ha). The study clearly illustrates that a plough sole in a sandy loam can be alleviated by deep ploughing with disc plough and oil yield of mustard can be increased by 41% over conventional tillage practice. The addition of gypsum further increased the oil yield by 84%.
*(e-mail : email@example.com).
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
*(e-mail : email@example.com).
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).