S. K. BADODIYA, O. P. DAIPURIA , M. YADAV AND S. K. RATHORE [Factors influencing adoption behaviour of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production technology among the cotton growers of Badwaha block of Khargone district (M. P.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 198-202 (2010). Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Gwalior (M. P.), India. Guava and papaya pulp was preserved in airtight glass containers by addition of potassium meta-bisulphite @ 2.5 g/kg of pulp. Both the pulps were stored at low temperature (6±1°C) for two months. After two months of storage, the guava pulp was found best in organoleptic and qualitative characters for the preparation of mixed fruit leather
A. K. PAL AND R. MAHUNTA [Growth of kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by age of seedlings and application of nitrogen fertilizer and farm yard manure]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 1-5 (2010). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India.
Field experiment conducted at BCKV Farm, W. B., with rice during kharif season (June to October) in split plot design with two cultivars (IET 4786 and IET 4094), two ages of seedlings (25 and 35 days old seedlings) and three fertility levels (40 kg N+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha, 80 kg N+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha and 15 t FYM+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha) revealed that for almost all the growth parameters, IET 4094 (Khitish) showed better performance over IET 4786 (Satabdi). Twenty-five days old seedlings were superior to 35 days old seedlings and FYM @ 15 t/ha gave best results over 40 and 80 kg N/ha. Maximum crop growth rate was associated with the plant height, number of tillers/m2, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, net assimilation rate and number of panicles/m2. For all the growth parameters, the best combination was for both the cultivars planted at 25 days age with FYM @ 15 t/ha.
A. K. PAL AND R. MAHUNTA [Effect of age of seedlings and application of nitrogen fertilizer and farm yard manure on kharif rice productivity]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 6-9 (2010). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
Field experiment conducted at BCKV Farm, W. B., with rice during kharif season (June to October) in split plot design with two cultivars (IET 4786 and IET 4094), two ages of seedlings (25 and 35 days old seedlings) and three fertility levels (40 kg N+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha, 80 kg N+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha and 15 t FYM+60 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha) revealed that IET 4094 (Khitish) showed better performance over IET 4786 (Satabdi) increasing grain yield by 20.47%. Twenty-five days old seedlings were superior to 35 days old seedlings resulting in increased grain yield by 4.90% and FYM @ 15 t/ha gave best result over 40 and 80 kg N/ha increasing grain yield by 18.41 and 5.89%, respectively. Maximum grain yield was associated with the highest number of tillers/m2, number of matured panicles/m2, length of panicle, filled grains/panicle and test weight. The decrease in yield as a result of transplanting aged seedlings (35 days old) for both the cultivars was associated with corresponding decrease in yield components. For maximum grain yield of 38.61 q/ha, the best combination was the cultivar IET 4094 (Khitish) planted at 25 days old with FYM @ 15 t/ha, giving next to highest net returns.
SANJAY SWAMI* AND KAPILA SHEKHAWAT [Effect of zinc and irrigation levels on productivity and nutrient uptake of rice in inceptisol]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 10-12 (2010). Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology-J, Main Campus Chatha-180 009 (Jammu), Inida *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was cond aw yield and the uptake of N, P and K by rice increased significantly with increasing levels of zinc upto 30 kg ZnSO4/ha. The relative uptake of zinc was higher at the first level of 15 kg ZnSO4/ha rather than respective higher doses. A slight increase in the grain and straw yields of rice was observed with higher irrigation levels. The productivity and uptake of various nutrients by rice were highest at 30 kg ZnSO4/ha and 75 mm of irrigation level.
SOLEYMAN MOHAMMADI*, AMIR YEZDANCEPAS, MOHAMMAD REZAIE AND TORAJ MIRMAHMODI [Study of response of different Iranian bread wheat genotypes to different sowing dates under full-irrigation and terminal drought stress conditions]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 13-19 (2010). Miyandoab Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station Miyandoab, P. O. Box-117, West Azerbaijan, Iran *(e-mail : soleyman_45 @yahoo.com)
Late seeding and terminal drought stress are two important factors of wheat grain yield loss in West Azerbaijan conditions. In order to study the response of different wheat genotypes of Zarrin, Alvand, C-81-4, C-81-10, C-81-14 and C-82-12 to different sowing dates of 10 October, 1 November and 21 November, under full-irrigation and terminal drought stress conditions, a field trial with three replications was carried out for two years. Results showed all of genotypes under full-irrigation condition will produce high grain yield. In general, from 10 October to 21 November grain yield decreased by 4432 kg/ha, each day of late seeding from 10 October to 21 November decreased mean grain yield by 122 kg/ha. Under terminal drought stress condition at three sowing dates, C-81-10 promising line had greater grain yield than Zarrin. Terminal drought stress condition compared with full-irrigation grain yield decreased by 1436 kg/ha and each day of late seeding decreased mean grain yield by 98 kg/ha. Decrease of growth period, number of spikes per area unit and grain weight were the main factors of grain yield loss in genotypes under delayed sowing and terminal drought stress condition. In late seeding and areas that face terminal drought stress, C-81-10 promising line is recommended.
S. RAHAMAN* AND P. K. MUKHERJEE** [Effect of herbicides on wheat (Triticum aestivum) productivity and weed flora in succeeding jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) crop under terai agro-ecological region of West Bengal]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 20-26 (2010). Department of Agronomy Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736 165 (West Bengal), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; **email@example.com)
A field experiment was carried out during winter seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07 to find out the bio-efficacy of herbicides in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol). Eight treatment combinations in which pre-emergence herbicides, pendimethalin 0.50 kg/ha and isoproturon 0.70 kg/ha were tested in conventional tillage. Post-emergence herbicide, 2,4-D 0.50 kg/ha at 35 DAS was tested alone both in conventional and zero tillage system as well as in combination with glyphosate 1.00 kg/ha only in zero tillage system. Weedy plot in both the tillage systems and complete weed-free condition only in conventional tillage system were included in the treatment. The dominant weeds in the experimental field were Polygonum pensylvenicum, Polygonum orientale, Polygonum persicaria, Stellaria media, Oldenlandia diffusa, Spilanthes paniculata, Hydrocotyl ranunculoids, Physalis minima and Eclipta alba, Cynodon dactylon, Setaria glauca and Digitaria sanguinalis. Among the treatments, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.50 kg/ha controlled weeds effectively (weed control efficiency 83.9 and 81.15% in 2005-06 and 2006-07, respectively) resulting in highest grain yield (22.4 and 26.7 q/ha) which was statistically at par with complete weed-free situation (23.04 and 27.19 q/ha) during both the years. Higher weed-crop competition resulted from shifting of weeds from Polygonum sp. to Physalis minima and re-emergence of Stellaria media against 2,4-D application in second year caused significant yield reduction of wheat (18.24 q/ha) which otherwise became significantly at par (21.95 q/ha) with weed-free condition (23.04 q/ha) in first year of experimentation. Among the chemical treatments, pendimethalin 0.50 kg/ha reduced N, P and K uptake by the weeds from soil and conserved the nutrients in soil to the tune of 42.39 and 32.84 kg N/ha, 6.06 and 5.50 kg P/ha and 37.40 and 29.21 kg K/ha in comparison to the weedy situation in conventional tillage in both the years.
MOHAMMAD REZA DADNIA, A. ASGHARZADEH AND M. ABEDZADEH [Effect of different Azospirillum species on yield and yield components in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 27-30 (2010). Research & Science Branch Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Three Azospirillum species (A. lipoferum, A. brasilense and A. irakiens) were applied in Ahwaz climatical condition and nitrogen treatments were applied at rates of 100 and 75%/ha, ,respectively.The effect of soil Azospirillum species population was ascertained. The application of Azospirillum brasilense also adversely affected the soil’s physical,chemical and biological properties and the barley yield, probably because high amounts of nitrogen were introduced into the soil by the vinasse, which destabilized its structure. Barley yield increased 24.5% with A. brasilense, 12.7% with A. lipoferum and 8.4% with A. irakiens at 75 and 100% nitrogen application than control treatments.These results suggest that the chemical composition of the three Azospirillum species notably influenced the soil properties and therefore the barley yield parameters. Of the three Azospirillum studied, alone the application of nitrogen originated a positive effect in the soil and in the barley yield parameters.
B. VAJANTHA, K. SREENIVASULU REDDY AND N. RAMAVATHARAM [Effect of integrated nitrogen management on soil enzyme activities in maize]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 31-36 (2010). Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati (A. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted in a sandy clay loam soil during rabi 2004-05 to study the effect of integrated nitrogen management [different organic N sources viz., Poultry manure (PM), Vermicompost (VC), Farm yard manure (FYM) and Sulfitation pressmud (SPM) with different levels viz., 100, 75, 50 and 25%] on soil enzyme activities in maize. The enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and aryl sulfatase) were significantly influenced by combined application of organic and inorganic N sources. The highest dehydrogenase (35.23 µg TPF/g soil/day), urease (488 µg urea hydrolysed/g soil/h), acid phosphatase (78.50 µg of p-nitrophenol/g soil/h), alkaline phosphatase (84.18 µg of p-nitrophenol TPF/g soil/h) and aryl sulfatase (82.22 µg of p-nitrophenol/g soil/h) were recorded by application of 100% N through poultry manure. The trend of enzyme activity with different organic N sources followed the order : PM > VC > FYM > SPM and in case of levels it followed the order : 100% > 75% > 50% > 25%.
B. A. KASAR AND K. R. CHAVHAN [Economics of different herbicides for weed control in groundnut in combination with cultural method of weed control]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 37-39 (2010). Zonal Agricultural Research Station Central Vidarbha Zone, Waghapur Road, Yavatmal-445 001 (Maharashtra), India.
Field experiment was conducted at the Farm of Agronomy Department, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during the kharif season of 2002 to study the economics of different herbicides for weed control in groundnut in combination with cultural method of weed control. Weed-free check as well as two hoeings+2 hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS recorded highest GMR, NMR and benefit : cost ratio. Among integrated treatments, these parameters were numerically highest in application of Acto Lactate Synthase (ALS) inhibitor @ 62.5 g a. i./ha at 5 DAS followed by 1 H + 1 HW at 35 DAS. Cost of cultivation was lowest in unweeded control, whereas highest in weed-free check.
FARZAD VEISI*, ALIREZA MOLAEI, MARYAM GOLABADI, ALI SOLEYMANI AND SAYYED MOHAMMED REZA HEJAZI-DEHAGHANI [Effect of different planting density on seed yield and yield components in promising white bean lines in Lordegan region, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 40-44 (2010). Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com).
This study was aimed at determining the best plant density for the promising white bean lines Karacasehiro, Goynok 98, Jules and College cultivar. The treatments were studied in a split plot design (once split plots) with three replications in 2008. Planting density included 15 × 15 cm (444444 plants per hectare), 20 × 15 cm (333500 plants per hectare), 25 × 15 cm (266666 plants per hectare) and 30 × 15 cm (222222 plants per hectare), which the plant spacing on a row was constant and equal to 15 cm. In this experiment, genotypes were regarded as the main factor and planting densities as sub-factor. The traits including seed yield and its main components were written and analysis of variance was performed for each one of traits. The results suggested that genotypes had a significant difference regarding the number of pods per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight, plant height and seed yield. Planting densities for the number of pods per plant, seed number per pod and seed yield were also significant. The interaction effect of genotype × density for seed yield was significant at the 1% level of possibility, indicating that the trend of changes in seed yield of different genotypes wasn’t similar. Although, the mean of traits such as the number of pods per plant, seed number per pod and 100-seed weight decreased, but due to the increment of plant number per surface area, seed yield increased.
S. MANICKAM, P. KALAISELVAN, K. SUBRAMANIYAN AND P. VEERMANI [Seed hardening techniques and weed management for productivity enhancement in groundnut+ castor intercropping system under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 45-48 (2010). T. N. A. U. Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Yethapur-636 119 (T. N.), India.
Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2003 and 2004 seasons to study the effect of seed hardening in groundnut (0.5% CaCl2 and normal seed) and weed management practices (unweeded check, hoeing and weeding on 20 and 40 DAS, weeding with star type weeder on 20 DAS+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS and pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS) for productivity enhancement in groundnut+castor intercropping system under rained conditions. The results revealed that seed hardening with 0.5% CaCl2 treatment recorded the highest speed of emergence, field emergence, vigour index, plant height, LAI, CGR, RGR, DMP, number of matured pods, pod yield and haulm yield of groundnut. The chlorophyll content, soluble protein, 100-kernel weight and oil content were, however, not influenced by CaCl2 seed hardening. Among the weed management practices studied, pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a .i. ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS recorded the highest weed control efficiency and lowest weed dry matter production at 20 DAS, while at 40 DAS hoeing and weeding on 20 and 40 DAS recorded the highest weed control efficiency. In the overall experimental results, it was concluded that groundnut seeds treated with 0.5% CaCl2 and pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a. i. ha followed by one hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS increased the yields of groundnut and castor crops during kharif season.
S. MANICKAM, P. KALAISELVAN, K. SUBRAMANIYAN AND P. VEERMANI [Influence of seed hardening techniques and weed management practices on weed dynamics and yield of groundnut+castor intercropping system under rainfed conditions]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 49-52 (2010). T. N. A. U. Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Yethapur-636 119 (T. N.), India.
Field experiments were conducted at North-West and Western Zones of Tamil Nadu during kharif season to study the seed hardening techniques and weed management for productivity enhancement in groundnut+castor intercropping system under rainfed conditions. In kharif 2003 and 2004 the effect of seed hardening in groundnut (0.5% CaCl2 and normal seed) and weed management practices (unweeded check, hoeing and weeding on 20 and 40 DAS, weeding with star type weeder on 20 DAS+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS and pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a. i. ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS) in groundnut+castor intercropping system. In respect of groundnut, seed hardening with 0.5% CaCl2 treatment recorded the highest speed of emergence, field emergence, vigour index, plant height, LAI, CGR, RGR, DMP, number of matured pods, pod yield and haulm yield. Irrespective of the locations chlorophyll content, soluble protein, 100-kernel weight and oil content were, however, not influenced by CaCl2 seed hardening. Among the weed management practices studied, pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha+hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS recorded the highest weed control efficiency and lowest weed dry matter production at 20 DAS, while at 40 DAS hoeing and weeding on 20 and 40 DAS recorded the highest weed control efficiency. In the overall experimental results, it was concluded that groundnut seeds treated with 0.5% CaCl2 and pre-emergence application of metolachlor @ 1.0 kg a. i./ha followed by one hoeing and weeding on 40 DAS increased the yields of groundnut and castor crops during kharif season.
M.P.YADAV, U. S. TIWARI, J. RAI AND S. P. KUSHWAHA [Enhancing productivity and profitability through site specific nutrient management approach in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 53-58 (2010). Department of Agronomy Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India.
A field expriment was conductd during 2003-04 and 2004-05 on site specific nutrient management for maximization of yield and economics in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system. Fertilizer application in SSNM schedule showed significant improvement in grain yield of rice and wheat in comparison to farmers’ practice. Highest grain yield of rice (8.9 t/ha) was found 31.8% higher to farmers’ practice and 9.7% higher to state fertilizer recommendation and highest grain yield of wheat (6.2 t/ha) was recorded 28.1% higher to farmers’ practice and 16.6% higher to state fertilizer recommendation. Maximum system productivity of 14.8 t/ha in SSNM7 schedule was recorded 27.8% higher to farmers’ practice and 8% higher to state fertilizer recommendation. Maximum net return (Rs. 56,485/ha) and B : C ratio (2.28) were recorded in fertilizer schedule SSNM7 (150 N : 30 P : 120 K : 50 S : 40 ZnSO4 kg/ha) and found most profitable treatment over other treatments. Grain yield of rice showed significant improvement with the application of primary, secondary and micronutrient in comparison to their omitted plots. The direct application of N, P and K in wheat and residual effect of S and Zn applied in rice have shown significant increase in grain yield of wheat.
M.P.YADAV, U. S. TIWARI, J. RAI AND S. P. KUSHWAHA [Nutrient balance and system productivity influenced by integrated nutrient management in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 59-63 (2010). Department of Agronomy Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U. P.), India.
A long-term field experiment was carried out from 1983-84 to 2002-03 on permanent lay-out to monitor the ‘nutrient balance and system productivity influenced by integrated nutrient management in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol] cropping sequence under integrated nutrient management study. Maximum system productivity of 8892 kg/ha was recorded with application of 100% RDF to both the crops (T5) and found at par (8639 kg/ha) with 25% N substitution through green leaf manuring in rice and 75% RDF in wheat (T11). Thus, there was possibility of reducing NPK dose by 25% in both the crops if 25% N in rice was substituted by green manure. Highest value of agronomic efficiency in the system was noted 47.49 with 50% RDF to both the crops (T2) followed by 41.23 in 25% N substitution in rice through green leaf manuring and 75% RDF in wheat (T11). The study also revealed that maximum NP and K removal was noted in 100% RDF treatment (T5). It was also found that N and P balance was almost positive in all treatments except unfertilized plots, while K balance was noted negative in all treatments. After 20 cycles of experimentation, O. C. and available P status of soil enhanced with inorganic and integrated nutrient supply than its initial levels. Integration of green leaf manuring and FYM enhanced the organic carbon content in the soil.
LORESTANI BAHAREH*, CHERAGHIi MEHRDAD, HASSANZADEH NASRIN, YOUSEFI NAFISEH AND SOBHAN ARDAKANI SOHEIL [Effect of different phosphorus fertilizers on the soil available phosphorus]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 64-69 (2010). Department of Soil Science Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Concentration of phosphate in the solution of the majority of soils is important factor for plant nutrition. In agricultural practices, P is usually obtained from the applied fertilizer. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different content P added in fertilizers on Olsen-P and water-soluble P. The results from these studies were used to guide the rational phosphate fertilizer protecting the agricultural environment. The experiment was arranged into field soils that have received various quantities of P fertilizer. Application of phosphate fertilizer was at the rates of 167-870 mg/kg. There was no significant difference observed of yield response at the rates of 167, 328, 369, 432, 470, 750, 794 and 870 mg/kg phosphate fertilizers. Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer. The content of Olsen-P and water-soluble P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer. Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble P.
SAEED MORADI POUR, SAEED BOROOMAND NASAB AND MOHAMMAD ALBAJI* [Supplying both de-salifying and de-sodiumating curves of some parts of Mollasani arable land soils]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 70-76 (2010). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Science Postal Code : 61357-43311, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran
*(e-mail : email@example.com).
Soil salinity and alkalinity problem in arid and semi-arid area is one of the main obstacles of developing and achieving to sustainable agriculture. Leaching solutes from soil profile are among those important measurements to control soil saturated extract solutes particulary in salt and sodiumated lands. A research plan in completely random block formats with five leaching treatments : pre-leaching, applying 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm water to leaching in two repetitions was performed in order to improve salt and sodiumated soils in parts of Mollasani arable lands. First, five plots of 16 square metres dimensions were supplied based on test plan and treatment pertinent to leaching and after achieving humidity to farm caring capacity soil sample was provided to analyze solute level changing involved in soil. Soil testing results from pre-leaching and post-leaching represent that pre-testing soil class was S4A4 and was changed to S1A2 class after applying 1 metre leaching water. Exactly changing water level required for leaching of each soil depth is possible through de-salinating and de-sodiumating curves provided. Average electrical conductivity (EC), exchangble sodium percentage (ESP), acidity average (PH) in soil 60 cm depth pre-leaching were changed 66.77(dS/m), 63.61%, respectively and post-leaching was changed 7.4 (dS/m), 21.9% and 7.78, respectively. The research results showed that there was no need to utilize improving material to improve and optimize these soils with respect to exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) procedure and soluble bivalent solutes in both water and soil.
G. P. CHAUHAN, V.P. CHOVATIYA , J. J. SAVALIYA, D. R. MEHTA AND A. G. PANSURIYA [Genetic architecture of grain yield and yield attributing traits in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 77-81 (2010). Department of Agricultural Botany Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001 (Gujarat), India.
The combining ability studies for 13 characters in pearl millet were carried out in half diallel crosses of eight diverse lines. General as well as specific combining ability variances were significant for all the characters except earhead girth and dry fodder yield per plant, respectively. The gca : sca variance ratio indicated the preponderance of additive genetic variance for plant height, number of grains per square cm, dry fodder yield per plant and harvest index, whereas non-additive genetic variance for days to flowering, days to anthesis, days to maturity, number of effective tillers per plant, earhead length, earhead girth, earhead weight and grain yield per plant, while both the variances were equally important for 1000-grain weight. The parent J-2340 was found to be good general combiner for days to anthesis, earhead weight, grain yield per plant, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Likewise, the parent J-2454 was a good general combiner for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per square cm and 1000-grain weight. While the parent J-2495 was a good general combiner for days to maturity, earhead weight, grain yield per plant and harvest index. While the parent J-2480 was a good general combiner for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height and number of grains per square cm. The three hybrids J-2454 x J-2340, 253-SB-07 x J-2495 and 276-SB-07 x J-2480 were found promising ones on the basis of per se performance, heterobeltiosis and sca effects, which could be exploited commercially for heterosis breeding in pearl millet.
ABHAY DEEP GAUTAM, O. P. VERMA, K. KUMAR, R. B. SINGH AND K. N. MAURYA [Comparative studies on combining ability and heterosis for seed yield and its components in yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson) under normal and partially reclaimed soils*]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 82-86 (2010). Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U. P.), India.
The nature and magnitude of combining ability and heterosis were studied for yield and its components in yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson) following 10 x 10 diallel analysis on normal and partially reclaimed soils. Significant differences for gca and sca components were observed for all the traits under both the conditions. Among the parents, NDYS-132 and NDYS-2018 showed significant desirable gca effects for early maturity under normal as well as partially reclaimed soils, respectively. Pusa gold for length of main raceme, EC-414293 and EC-414291 for number of siliquae/plant, EC-414299 and EC-414291 for seed yield/plant and NDYS–117 for oil content exhibited significant positive gca effects under both the soil conditions. The crosses Pusa gold x EC-414293 and Pusa gold x EC-414295 showed significantly negative sca effects for early maturity under both types of soil. NDYS-107 x EC-414299 on rormal soil and Pusa gold x EC-414301 on partially reclaimed soil were identified for higher seed yield, whereas Pusa gold x NDYS-117, NDYS-132 x EC- 414299 and EC-414295 x EC-414299 showed significant sca effects on both the soils. However, NDYS-132 x EC-414299 with higher per se performance and significant sca effects for seed yield were also notable for significant desirable sca values for early maturity under both the soil conditions. The crosses NDYS-132 x EC-414291 (63.30%) and EC-414299 x EC-414293 (53.30%) showed maximum heterotic effects for seed yield under normal soil. However, on partially reclaimed soil EC-414299 x EC- 414293 (53.30%) and NDYS-2018 x EC- 414291 (33.30%) showed maximum heterotic effects for seed yield. EC-414299 x EC- 414293 showed best heterotic effect for seed yield under normal as well as partially reclaimed soils (53.30%).
K. ROUT , T. K. MISHRA, D. N. BASTIA AND B. PRADHAN [Studies on heterosis for yield and yield components in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 87-90 (2010). Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa), India.
A study was carried out to estimate the magnitude of heterosis over mid and better parent for yield and yield components. Six parents viz., TARM-1, OGG-12, LGG-460, LGG-460, OGG-57, OUM 11-5 and Pant-M-4 were crossed in a 6-parent half diallel fashion to obtain 15 crosses. The six parents and their 15 hybrids were evaluated during rabi 2007. Data on nine quantitative characters including yield were recorded. Heterosis over mid parent and better parent for all the characters were recorded for all the 15 hybrids. Significant positive heterotic effect over mid parent and better parent was observed for grain yield/plant in hybrids OGG-12/LGG-460, LGG-460/Pant-M-4 and LGG-460/OGG-57. The heterosis for grain yield was found to be associated with heterosis for clusters/plant and pods/plant. The cross OGG-12/LGG-460 was the top heterotic cross which manifested 79.19 and 72.33% of higher yield over better parent and mid parent, respectively, whereas LGG-460 x Pant M-4 was the best performing hybrid which recorded the highest single plant yield of 6.85 g.
S. S. PRASAD, P. K. GUPTA AND U. S. YADAV [Comparative efficacy of certain new insecticides against yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) in semi-deep water rice]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 91-94 (2010). Crop Research Station, Ghaghraghat, Bahraich-271 901 (U. P.), India.
Field experiments were conducted on a semi-deep water rice variety, Jalpriya during kharif seasons of 2004-05 and 2005-06 to test the efficacy of certain new insecticides against yellow stem borer (YSB). Altogether, 10 treatments including five insecticides viz., flubendiamide 20 WDG @ 25 g a. i./ha, flubendiamide 480 SC @ 24 g a. i./ha, lambda cyhalothrin 5 CS @ 12.5 g a. i./ha, indoxacarb 15 EC @ 30 g a. i./ha, endosulfan 330 CCS @ 500 g a. i./ha, three combinations of insecticides viz., acetamiprid 0.4%+cypermethrin 2% (2.4 EC) @ 60 g a. i./ha, acetamiprid 0.4%+quinalphos 20% (20.4 EC) @ 510 g a. i./ha, acetamiprid 0.4%+chlorpyriphos 20% (20.4 EC) @ 510 g a. i./ha besides insecticidal check monocrotophos 36 SL @ 500 g a. i./ha and untreated control. The YSB infestation i. e. white ears varied from 1.86 to 7.13% over the kharif seasons. The results on YSB infestation and yield indicated that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior to untreated control. However, flubendiamide 480 SC @ 24 g a. i./ha was most effective followed by indoxacarb 15 EC @ 30 g a. i./ha and lambda cyhalothrin 5 CS @ 12.5 g a. i./ha with 1.96, 2.86 and 3.33% average YSB infestation and 2.32, 2.14 and 2.08 t/ha average grain yields in comparison to 6.34% average YSB infestation and 1.48 t/ha average grain yields in untreated control. The insecticidal check monocrotophos 36 SL @ 500 g a. i./ha was superior to untreated control with 4.04% average YSB infestation and 1.83 t/ha average grain yields. The combination of acetamiprid 0.4% and chlorpyriphos 20% (20.4 EC) @ 510 g a. i./ha was also effective with 3.55% average YSB infestation and 1.96 q/ha average grain yields.
A. S. YADAV* AND R. C. SHARMA [Evaluation of IPM components against pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) in chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 95-98 (2010). J. N. K. V. V. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Harda-461 331 (M. P.), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the IPM components against Helicoverpa armigera at farmers’ fields during 2007-08 crop seasons. The components of IPM package viz., placement of bird perches @ 50/ha to encourage predatory birds, BTk @ 1.0 kg/ha and endosulfan 35 EC @ 0.07% were undertaken in plots of at least 4000 sq. m. The minimum population of H. armigera was recorded in IPM block (1.38 larvae/m row length) over farmers’ practice (3.27 larvae/m row length). H. armigera incidence was reduced to 57.80% in recommended practice. The grain yield was increased (26.24%) in recommended practices over farmers’ practice and also Rs. 7245/ha additional net return was obtained.
VIRENDRA SINGH, B. S. CHHILLAR AND RAM SINGH [Antibiosis and antixenosis mechanisms of resistance in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) to melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 99-105 (2010). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India.
Forty-eight genotypes of bitter gourd were screened against melon fruit fly under natural field conditions during kharif 2003-04. The average fruit infestation and number of larvae per fruit ranged from 11.05 (IC-213311) to 76.22% (IC-85619-A) and 3.01 (IC-213311) to 9.24 (IC-44410). None of the genotypes was found highly resistant, while six genotypes viz., IC-213311, IC-256185, IC-248256, IC-248282, MC-58 and HK-127 were categorized as resistant. Thirty-five genotypes were medium resistant, six genotypes were susceptible and genotype IC-85619-A was categorized as highly susceptible. Less oviposition (12.8-21.0 eggs/fruit) was observed in fruits of resistant genotype when compared with susceptible ones (61.1-75.2 eggs/fruit) under no choice conditions. The expression of the degree of resistance in fruits of resistant genotypes was very high in the presence of susceptible and highly susceptible genotypes. Less number of eggs was deposited by the flies in resistant genotypes (2.6-14.9) than in susceptible one (67.6-97.0). The prolonged larval and pupal periods, high larval mortality, reduction in length and weight of larvae and pupae, low growth index and adult longevity, development of more number of males and reduced fecundity of B. cucurbitae constituted the antibiosis effect of resistant genotypes of bitter gourd.
U. S. YADAV [Resistance behaviour of olitorius jute germplasm against their pests]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 106-108 (2010). Crop Research Station, Bahraich-271 801 (U. P.), India.
A total of 49 newly identified olitorius jute germplasm alongwith standard check varieties JRO-128 and JRO-524 were evaluated against semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guen), stem weevil (Apion corchori Marshall), yellow mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) and grey weevil (Myllocerus discolor) during kharif seasons of 2002-03 and 2003-04 to identify resistant/multiple resistant donors under field conditions. The olitorius jute genotype OIJ-151 against semilooper, stem weevil, yellow mite and grey weevil and OEX-018 and OIN-209 against semilooper, yellow mite and grey weevil were identified as highly resistant donors. However, olitorius jute genotype OIN-209 against stem weevil has been identified as moderate susceptible donor.
ISMAIL CIMEN*, VEDAT PIRINC AND ABUZER SAGIR [Determination of long-term effects of consecutive effective soil solarization with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) on white rot disease (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) and yield of onion]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 109-117 (2010). Department of Plant Protection Agricultural Faculty, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 1280, Turkey *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The aim of this study was to increase the yield in the fields solarized two years earlier (2007) by reducing the white rot disease in onion resulted from Sclerotium cepivorum caused by Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM), Glomus intraradices fungus. Study was conducted in two different experiments (the first experiment where tomato was grown after solarization; the second experiment where lettuce and pepper in previous growing seasons were grown after solarization). Pearl bulb onions were grown with four repetitions according to split-split plot design (2008). In the experiments, the consecutive effects of solarization were considered as main and of sub-VAM and S. cepivorum as mini plots. With the artificial inoculation of S. cepivorum, sufficient disease symptoms were not detected in the onion bulb; however, it reduced the thickness of leaves and stems. And for these two development parameters, results were found significant (P<0.01). Bulb onion yield decreased by 11% in the first experiment and 16% in the second experiment with the S. cepivorum inoculation. The effect of solarization on yield in the second year was higher than in the third year. In the second consecutive season (experiment 1), both of shallot and bulb onion yield increased by 25%, and in the third season (experiment 2), yield increased by 18% for bulb onion. Leaf and stem thickness increased with VAM, but decreased by S. cepivorum. Results were found to be significant (P<0.01) for both the experiments. Consequently, thanks to VAM, product yield increased in both the experiments, and the increments were determined as 22% for shallot; as 25% for bulb onion yield in the second experiment. The effects of solarization combined with VAM increased bulb onion yield by 50%, compared to without both of them. Among the combinations, the highest yield was achieved with the Sol-VAM-non-S. cepivorum application in comparison to non-solarized-non-VAM-S. cepivorum, through this application provided an increase of 54.41% for the first and 91.13% for the second experiment. In conclusion, the effect of solarization, gradually became less effective, in the second and third production seasons. Development of onion alternating in these seasons and loss of yield caused by S. cepivorum could be reduced with artificial VAM inoculation. However, this effect must have depended on the relation between plant species and mycorrhizal colonization in earlier seasons.
N. DIKBAS, EYUP BAGCI, RECEP KOTAN, RAMAZAN CAKMAKCI, HAKAN OZER, EBRU METE AND GULSUM ERDOGAN [Comparative antibacterial activities and chemical composition of some plants’ oils against Salmonella enteritidis]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 118-124 (2010). Department of Biology Plant Products and Biotechnology Research Laboratory Art & Science Faculty Firat University, Elazig, Turkey *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com).
It is known that many plant essential oils have been shown to possess antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative antibacterial activities of the essential oils from seven different plant species collected from Turkey and two pure compounds against S. enteritidis at 25° and 35°C to determine the major compounds of the tested oils, and to test for sensitivity of S. enteritidis to a total of 12 antibiotics. Antibacterial activity assays were carried out by disc diffusion method with a minor modification. The main compounds of tested oils were analyzed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The results showed that all tested essential oils, pure compounds and 10 antibiotics showed antibacterial activity against pathogen. The oil of Satureja hortensis showed the strongest antibacterial activity, and its antibacterial activity was much stronger than that of seven antibiotics tested. GC and GC-MS results showed that carvacrol and thymol were the major compounds in all tested plant species. Consequently, this study indicated that especially the essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Origanum rotundifolium and Melissa officinalis had a potential to be used for medical purposes and as a food preservative.
M. BEHZAD, M. FARASATI AND S. BOROOMAND – NASAB [Performance evaluation of several types of pressure compensating emitters]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 125-132 (2010). Department of Irrigation & Drainage Water Sciences Engineering Faculty
Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
One of the most important factors in trickle irrigation system is selecting the emitter. This is due to the fact that the drip irrigation function depends on the emitter type and design method. In the present study, performance of 11 types of pressure compensating emitters available in the market has been investigated regarding their uniformity of discharge. For this purpose, 18 samples of each kind of emitters with nominal discharges 2, 4, 8 and 24 l/h, were chosen randomly and different discharges were examined in various operating pressures. The experiments were conducted according to ISO 9261, in the Water Sciences Engineering Lab of Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran. The emitters were coded from A1 to M4, respectively. Ten operating pressure levels of 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, 35 and 40 m were used in each sample. Emitters used in the study were classified based on the three indexes, emitter exponent (x) in the emitter function (q=khx), determination coefficient (R2) and relative error (Er). The emitter exponent (x) ranged from -0.0067 to -0.4969 which the minimum belonged to C2 and the maximum belonged to C1. The determination coefficient (R2) varied from 0.0007 to 0.609 where the lowest range belonged to M4 and the highest range belonged to D1. The variation of Er was between 0.1 and 34.6 corresponding to E2 and A2, respectively. The results indicated that regarding pressure compensation, emitter J ranked the best, while emitter D1 ranked last.
M. BEHZAD, M. ALBAJI* AND K. PAYANDEH [An investigation of land characteristics for different irrigation methods in Raymakan plain, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 133-141 (2010). Department of Irrigation and Drainage Faculty of Water Science Postal Code 61357-43311, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The main objective of this research is to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 3058 ha in the Raymakan plain located in the Khuzestan Province, in the south-west of Iran. The soil properties of the study area such as texture, depth, electrical conductivity, drainage, calcium carbonate content and slope were derived from a semi-detailed soil study carried out on the Raymakan plain on a scale of 1 : 20000. Once the soil properties were analyzed and evaluated, suitability maps were generated for surface, sprinkle and drip irrigation methods using Remote Sensing (RS) Techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). The obtained results showed that for 162 ha (5.3%) of the study area surface and drip irrigation methods were highly recommended, whereas for 632.2 ha (20.7%) of the study area a sprinkle irrigation method would provide to be extremely efficient and suitable; moreover, for all irrigation systems the unsuitable lands did not exist in this zone. The results demonstrated that by applying drip irrigation instead of sprinkle and surface irrigation methods, the arability of 1748.8 ha (57.2%) in the Raymakan plain will improve. In addition by applying sprinkle irrigation instead of drip and surface irrigation methods, the land suitability of 1105.8 ha (36.2%) of this plain will improve. The comparison of the different types of irrigation techniques revealed that the drip and sprinkle irrigation methods were more effective and efficient than the surface irrigation methods for improving land productivity. It is of note, however, that the main limiting factors in using either surface or/and sprinkle irrigation methods in this area were soil texture and calcium carbonate content and the main limiting factor in using drip irrigation method was soil calcium carbonate content.
Saeid Hamzeh*, Abd Ali Naseri, Heydar Ali Kashkuli and Mohammad Albaji [Evaluation of water table fluctuations and discharge of bi-level drainage system in a three-layered soil : Case study in the south-west of Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 142-151 (2010). Department of Irrigation & Drainage Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
Two subjects in drainage topics that lesser practiced are drainage in the layered soils and bi-level drainage and there is incumbency to more researches and filed experimental in these cases. Therefore, the present study was accomplished under above specific conditions in the Imam Khomeini Farming and Industrial Lands. In the Imam Khomeini Farming and Industrial Lands based on initial study lateral spacing was estimated about 70 m and laterals were installed at a depth of 2.1 m. But two years after establishment of these drainage systems observed that due to existence of a limited layer with very low infiltration rate at the depth of 110 to 160 cm, drainage system in the 500 ha of these fields had low performance. Afterward bi-level drainage was suggested to overcome the problem. So, a new drain line was installed at the depth of 1.2 m between the old drain lines. One of the farming fields was selected to conduct supplementary studies and evaluation of the performance of bi-level drainage system. In experimental farm three rows of observation wells were installed. After equipment of observation wells and soil studies, water table fluctuation and inflow and discharge values of field were conducted in three irrigation periods. Field observations indicate that farm problems with the installation of new drains are fully resolved. But considering the specific conditions of the field existing equations were not able to simulate and predict the exact profile of the water table and outflow from a farm. In Iran, irrigation projects should be implemented on the basis of field experimentation and regional experiences under different soil conditions.
ZAHRA ARZJANI, M. AHMADI, F. ASADIAN, S. PARTANI and R. PIRMORADI [Water resource planning in desert areas using operational research approaches–A case study of Halvan region, Yazd, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 152-157 (2010). Faculty of Geography Islamic Azad University, Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com).
Water resource management faces a lot of problems in desert area because of water crisis and lots of problems in finding water and extracting it, traditional irrigation and irrational use of water resource. With the use of linear planning in allocation of water resource and considering water extraction limitation and suitable planting pattern, we can achieve an optimized pattern of an optimized water extraction from its resources. This research tries to prepare a suitable linear pattern of consumption in order to make the optimized pattern of planting with regard to the amount of available water, and determines water need, operation, costs and product income. This research uses data such as information of water extraction from its resources, existent limitation of water extraction, product operation and the costs and benefits of production. With solving simultaneously all the gained equations, an optimized planting pattern with regard to optimized pattern of water extraction will be emerged.
HOUSHANG HASSUNIZADEH [Land suitability evaluation for different irrigation systems in the Shahid Rajaee Plain, Iran]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 158-165 (2010). Department of Civil Engineering College of Sceince and Water Engineering Azad Shushtar University, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
The main objective of this research is to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 2250 ha in the Shahid Rajaee plain located in the Khuzestan Province, in the south-west of Iran. The soil properties of the study area such as texture, depth, electrical conductivity, drainage, calcium carbonate content and slope were derived from a semi-detailed soil study carried out on the Shahid Rajaee plain on a scale of 1 : 20000. Once the soil properties were analyzed and evaluated, suitability maps were generated for surface, sprinkle and drip irrigation methods using Remote Sensing (RS) Techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results demonstrated that by applying sprinkle irrigation instead of drip and surface irrigation methods, the arability of 2240 ha (99%) in the Shahid Rajaee plain will improve. In addition by applying drip irrigation instead of sprinkle and surface irrigation methods, the land suitability of 8 ha (0.5%) of this plain will improve. The comparison of the different types of irrigation techniques revealed that the sprinkle irrigation systems were more suitable for most of the study area. Moreover, the main limiting factors in using surface and sprinkle irrigation methods were salinity, alkalinity and drainage. Also, the major limiting factors in using drip irrigation methods were salinity, alkalinity, drainage and the soil’s calcium carbonate content. Irrigation methods were more effective and efficient than the drip and surface irrigation methods for improving land productivity. Moreover, the main limiting factors in using surface and sprinkle irrigation methods were salinity, alkalinity and drainage. Also, the major limiting factors in using drip irrigation methods were salinity, alkalinity, drainage and the soil’s calcium carbonate content.
R. VIGNESHWARIi AND P. NATESAN [Biochemical deterioration and loss of viability in hardened and pelleted seeds of finger millet cv. CO 13]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 166-174 (2010). Department of Seed Science and Technology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : email@example.com).
This investigation was conducted in order to determine the effect of biochemical changes that occurs during natural ageing of hardened and pelleted seeds of finger millet cv. CO 13 on their storability. The hardened and pelleted seeds of finger millet were stored in cloth bag and 700 gauge polythene bag separately. The seeds were evaluated for electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, free amino acid content, protein content and also for storage fungal infection (seed health) at monthly intervals. The results of the biochemical tests conducted during the storage period revealed that the deterioration of hardened and pelleted seeds was at a faster rate compared to untreated seeds. After six months of storage, the hardened and pelleted seeds recorded higher value for all the parameters which have negative correlation with germination like electrical conductivity, free amino acid content, protein content and storage fungal infection, whereas lower value for dehydrogenase activity which has positive correlation with germination.
SAJJAD FATEHI, MOHAMMAD REZA NADERI, MAJID SHAMS, SAYYED MOHAMMAD REZA HEJAZI-DEHAGHANI AND MAHDI SHAYANFAR [Study of qualitative and quantitative traits of some forage crops in two sowing dates as second cultivation]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 175-181 (2010). Department of Agronomy Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
In Iran, since there is the limitation of water and soil and a scarcity of forage, planting the forage crops as second yield is one of the necessities for the agricultural researches. For this reason, an experiment was conducted on forage species in two sowing dates, coincident with the post-harvest times of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Research Station of Isfahan Islamic Azad University in 2008, to study the compatibility of forage and determine its growth properties and yield. In this study, forage species of hybrid corn 704, sorghum of speedfeed cultivar and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) were evaluated in two sowing dates–6 June and 7 July–using the experiment of once split plots in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The sowing date was considered as a major factor and plant species regarded as a secondary factor.The results suggested that the effect of sowing date on all measured traits, including plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf dry weight, fresh forage yield, protein percentage and crude fiber percentage was meaningful. The highest plant height, leaf dry weight, fresh forage yield and crude fiber percentage were obtained with sorghum. Furthermore, Sudan grass had the maximum number of leaf and protein percentage and corn species possessed the greatest stem diameter. The interaction effect of sowing date with plant species on all measured traits at final harvest stage was meaningful. According to the results, planting sorghum and Sudan grass species in the first sowing date (6 June, concurrent with the time of barley harvesting) and corn planting in the second sowing date (7 July, concurrent with the time of wheat harvesting) might be appropriate for achieving the high yield of forage in situations similar to the present study.
K. H. PATEL, N. K. KALYANASUNDARAM, D. B. PANCHAL, B. T. SHETA AND J. C. PATEL [Effect of FYM and Fe-Zn-S supplementation on yield and quality of multicut forage sorghum (cv. SSG-59-3)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 182-186 (2010). Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat), India.
Eighteen treatments comprising combination of three levels of FYM [0, (F0), 10 (F1) and 20 (F2) t/ha] and six nutrient management treatments [control (M0), Fe (M1), Zn (M2), S (M3), Fe+Zn (M4) and Fe+Zn+S (M5)] were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications in field experiments conducted during kharif and summer seasons of 2003 and 2004. Fe, Zn and S were applied @ 10, 5 and 40 kg/ha as FeSO4, ZnSO4 and gypsum, respectively. Initial available S, Fe and Zn contents in the soil were low. Yields of green and dry forage were increased by the treatments F2 and F1 (8.5 and 5.3%, respectively) over treatment F0. The treatments M5 and M4 significantly increased the green fodder yield by 13.0 and 8.5%, respectively, over that of M0 (731.5 q/ha). The study of quality parameters viz., crude protein content, neutral detergent fiber and sugar content revealed that application of FYM at F1 and F2 as well as Fe-Zn-S treatments favourably influenced the quality parameters in comparison to their respective control.
NURE FERDOUSEE , ROMEL AHMED , MD. ALAMGIR KABIR , A.T.M. RAFIQUL HOQUE AND M. MOHIUDDIN [Growth and yield performance of growing seedlings of Acacia auriculiformis (Acacia) under limitation of soil water]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 187-194 (2010). Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh *(e-mail : email@example.com).
The present study reports growth and yield performance of Acacia auriculiformis (acacia) seedlings grown under two different soil water supply regimes. This study analyzes the effect of water limitation on growing seedlings of A. auriculiformis at the nursery stage. Seedlings were grown in black polythene tube containing a compost of nursery soil and cow dung in a proportion of 3 : 1. The experiment was conducted in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), University of Chittagong. Growth and yield of the seedlings declined under limitation of soil water alongwith the reduction of shoot water content. Strong relationship between soil moisture content and shoot water content was detected. Under limitation of soil water, the total biomass production in acacia was affected due to the significant reduction in stem elongation and leaf expansion which eventually influenced root, stem and leaf biomass. Moreover, a considerable linear relationship between soil moisture content and root dry weight was detected. The un-watered seedlings showed significant recovery in stem elongation and leaf expansion with simultaneous influence in total biomass, root biomass, within few days of re-watering.
O. P. DAIPURIA , S. K. BADODIYA , S.B. TAMBI AND S.K. GARG [Constraints experienced by tribal farmers in adoption of improved cotton production technology]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 195-197 (2010). Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Gwalior (M. P.), India.
Cotton is one of the most important commerical crops playing a key role in economic, political and social affairs of the world. The present study was conducted at Manawar block of Dhar district due to the maximum tribal population lives. A list of cotton growing villages of Manwar block was prepared and five villages will be selected randomly. After the selection of the villages, a village-wise list of the cotton growing tribal farmers of the selected five villages was prepared and 25 farmers from each village will be randomly selected. Thus, the total sample consisted of 125 tribal farmers spread over five selected villages. In adoption of improved cotton production technology, the tribal farmers experienced many constraints, namely, lack of eduction, lack of knowledge of improved technology, lack of knowledge in right time, agriculture literature contained with difficult words, lack of interaction with extension officers, lack of training/demonstration, lack of irrigation, demotivation of extension workers, lack of cooperation in extension work and lack of fertilizer and manures availability in right time were the points on which they laid emphasis and desired for reprisal.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop playing a key role in economic and social affairs of the world. The study was conducted in Badwaha block of Khargone district. Badwaha block of Khargone district was selected purposively due to the maximum area and highest production of cotton amongst the blocks. A list of cotton growing villages of block was prepared and 10 villages were selected randomly and 12 cotton growers were selected randomly in each selected village. The total sample consisted of 120 cotton growers spread over 10 selected villages. In this study, nine package of practices were included for knowing the adoption behaviour among the cotton growers and the practices were improved varieties, seed treatment, culture treatment, method of sowing, balanced use of fertilizers, irrigation management, weed control, insect control and disease control and four major categories of factors, namely, (a) Socio-personal factors : (1) Age, (2) Education, (3) Caste, (4) Size of family, and (5) social participation, (b) Economic factors : (1) Size of land holding, (2) Credit availability and (3) Annual income, (c) Socio-communicational factors : (1) Source of information, (2) Contact with extension personnel and (3) Extension participation and (d) Psychological factors : (1) Innovativeness, (2) Cosmopoliteness, (3) Agriculture belief and (4) Knowledge about cotton production technology.
K. P. THAKAR, D. A. PATEL AND V. B. DARJI [Role of co-operative in horticulture marketing : A case study of Amalsad co-operatives in south Gujarat]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 203-207 (2010). Department of Economics S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar-385 506 (Gujarat), India.
Co-operatives have been argued to be one of the best systems in agricultural produce marketing. There are 26224 Agriculture Co-operative Societies in the state among them many co-operatives are engaged with horticulture sector in Gujarat state. Amalsad Co-operative works in a highly competitive market. There are more than 15 private traders in the Amalsad market. But the co-operative accounts for 60% of the total market arrivals of fruits. With a paid up capital of Rs. 9.16 lakh and reserve funds of the order of Rs. 5.53 crore, the Amalsad Co-operative shows a robust financial performance. The co-operative made a profit of Rs. 46.89 lakh in 2006-07. Besides, the co-operative owns a petrol pump and a cloth store at Amalsad, though there is also a departmental store in the compound of the co-operative. The farmer members are given advance credit and many other input and consumption loans and facilities for the crop. Co-operatives were the main channel used to sell chickoo than regulated market. Highest price was received by farmer members of co-operative society during the corresponding year as compared by APMC and pre-harvest contractor. The main reason for the selection of cooperatives as marketing channel was higher price payment, the quality based and timely payment. Amalsad Co-operative Society had got two awards for the year 2006-07 i. e. National Productivity Award, 2006 and NCDC Award, 2006. Amalsad Co-operative is able to provide a sustainable solution to the marketing problems in horticulture as it is professionally organized and managed under the able supervision and direction of share holders. In many ways, Amalsad Co-operatives come close to the New Generation Co-operatives. Due to their better marketing abilities, they have been able to gain member loyalty as well as overcome capital constraint which so often is a major problem for co-operative organizations. The role of Amalsad Co-operative is not only to develop the society but also increase the economic condition of the farmers.
S. S. PINJARI, T. S. BHONDAVE, J. S. SURYAWANSHI AND M. S. Talathi [Effect of panchagavya on crop growth–A review]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 208-214 (2010). Agritech School Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (M. S.), India.
The literature on panchagavya spraying on maize and different crops has been well documented. In this article, efforts have been made to review the literature available on application of panchagavya on different crops.
A. B. DHANGA, J. J. PATEL AND H. K. PATEL [Effect of dates of sowing and spacing on growth and yield attributes and yield of rabi greengram (Vigna radiata L.) cultivar Co-4 under middle Gujarat condition]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 215-216 (2010). Department of Agronomy Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 ( Gujarat), India.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2005 at Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, AAU, Anand to evaluate the performance of greengram at different dates of sowing and spacing. For securing higher grain, dry fodder yield and net realization from rabi greengram crop raised on loamy sand soils of middle Gujarat. It is advisable to sow crop on 10 October with 30 x 15 cm spacing.
PRIYANKA JAIN [Effect of preserved guava and papaya pulp on the quality of mixed fruit leather]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 217-218 (2010). College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India.
S. K. BADODIYA, O. P. DAIPURIA , M. YADAV AND S. K. RATHORE [Factors influencing adoption behaviour of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production technology among the cotton growers of Badwaha block of Khargone district (M. P.)]. Res. on Crops 11 (1) : 198-202 (2010). Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Gwalior (M. P.), India.
Guava and papaya pulp was preserved in airtight glass containers by addition of potassium meta-bisulphite @ 2.5 g/kg of pulp. Both the pulps were stored at low temperature (6±1°C) for two months. After two months of storage, the guava pulp was found best in organoleptic and qualitative characters for the preparation of mixed fruit leather