1. Sharon Zulfiqar* and Muhammad Faheem Malik [Determine the role of enzymes to improve soil nutrition : A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 1-10 (2017). Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan *(e-mail : email@example.com)
This study was conducted at Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Pakistan during 2016-17 as a term paper for Master of Philosophy. The data regarding the role of enzymes in improving the soil nutrition were obtained and compiled through a thorough review of various published research articles of international reputed journals and relevant books. Enzymes are the vital activators in life processes, likewise in the soil they are known to play a substantial role in maintaining soil health and its environment. The enzymatic activity in the soil is mainly of microbial origin, being derived from intracellular, cell-associated or free enzymes. A unique balance of chemical, physical and biological (including microbial especially enzyme activities) components contribute to maintaining soil health. Healthy soils are essential for the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems to remain intact or to recover from disturbances, such as drought, climate change, pest infestation, pollution, and human exploitation including agriculture.
2. Sharon Zulfiqar* and Muhammad Faheem Malik [Neonicotinoids and sucking insect-pests : A review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 11-15 (2017). Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
This study was conducted at Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Pakistan during 2016-17 as a term paper for Master of Philosophy. The data regarding effects and treatment of various types of sucking insect-pests by neonicotinoids were obtained and compiled through a thorough review of various published research articles of international reputed journals and relevant books. Neonicotinoids are a class of neuroactive insecticides, which are similar to nicotine in their chemical composition. These are very effective against insects, some chewing insects, soil insects as well as fleas on domestic animals. Neonicotinoids are basically systemic with particular efficacy against sucking insects and have a long residual activity. Neonicotinoids basically interfere with the neural transmission in central nervous system. They act as agonists by binding to the nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). These neonicotinoids act as insect neurotoxin.
3. S. B. PAWAR, U. V. MAHADKAR, D. N. JAGTAP* AND M. S. JADHAV [Effect of different planting techniques and inputs on yield attributes and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) during kharif season]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 16-21 (2017). Department of Agronomy Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2015 to investigate the effect of different planting techniques and inputs on yield attributes and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (M. S.). The field experiment was laid out in strip plot design comprising 21 treatment combinations replicated thrice. Main plot treatment consisted of three planting techniques, flat bed seed sowing (P1), raised bed seed sowing (P2) and transplanting on wet unpuddled soil (thomba method) (P3). The sub-plot treatment consisted Control–No fertilizer (T1), RDF–Recommended dose of fertilizer (T2), STBFR- Soil test based fertilizer recommendation for N, P and K (T3), STBFR+WC (weed control) (T4), STBFR+WC+ MN (Zn and Cu) (T5), STBFR+WC+MN (Zn and Cu)+GM (Glyricidia) (T6) and STBFR+WC+MN (Zn and Cu)+GM (Glyricidia)+PP (Plant protection) (T7). On the basis of present investigation, it could be concluded that for obtaining higher grain yield of the rice, crop should be grown as direct seeding on flat bed along with adoption of all inputs viz., soil test based fertilizer recommendation, weed control, micronutrients (Zn and Cu), green manuring (glyricidia) and plant protection.
4. Neha Sharma*, N. S. Murty and S. B. Bhardwaj [An analysis of crop growth characters of rice in tarai region of Uttarakhand]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 22-29 (2017). 1Department of Agrometeorology G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Rice is an important and unsurpassed crop. India is regarded as the world’s largest producer of brown and white rice thereby accounting for 20% of the whole world’s rice production. It is the staple food of the people of eastern and southern parts of the country. India is said to have one of the largest areas under rice cultivation. In the current study, an attempt has been made to study various crop growth aspects like dates of planting, optimum leaf area, optimum leaf shape to maximize photosynthetic efficiency, deep, well-developed root systems, and leaf area index at flowering and during panicle in rice cultivation.
5. M. V. DANGARIYA, M. S. DUDHAT, V. G. BAVALGAVE* AND J. D. THANKI [Growth, yield and economics of rabi sweet corn (Zea mays L., var. saccharata Sturt) as influenced by different spacing and fertilizer levels under south Gujarat conditions]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 30-35 (2017). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2011 at College Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari to assess the response of rabi sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata Sturt) to spacing and fertilizer levels under south Gujarat conditions. The experiment comprising 16 treatment combinations consisting of four levels of plant spacing (60 x 15, 45 x 20, 30 x 30 and 60 x 30 cm) and four fertility levels (60-30, 90-45, 120-60 and 150-75 kg N-P2O5/ha). Plant spacing of 60 x 30 cm, 45 x 20 cm and 60 x 15 cm attained significantly higher plant height compared to 30 x 30 cm. While stem diameter and number of leaves per plant were not influenced by different spacing levels. The sweet corn plants exhibited significantly maximum values of yield attributes viz., cob length, cob girth, under spacing of 45 x 20 cm. Number of cobs per plant and cob yield per plant were higher under spacing of 60 x 30 cm. Highest green cob yield was recorded at spacing of 45 x 20 cm closely followed by 30 x 30 cm. The highest net returns (Rs. 60568/ha) and BCR (5.52) were recorded under plant spacing of 45 x 20 cm. The growth of sweet corn in terms of plant height, number of leaves per plant and stem diameter were maximum with application of 150-75 kg N-P2O5/ha. The sweet corn plants exhibited maximum values of yield attributes viz., number of cobs per plant under 150-75 kg N-P2O5/ha and found at par with those recorded under 120-60 kg N-P2O5/ha. Whereas cob length and cob girth were under 120-60 kg N-P2O5/ha and found at par with those recorded under 150-75 kg N-P2O5/ha. Application of 150-75 and 120-60 kg N-P2O5/ha significantly increased green cob yield over 90-45 and 60-30 kg N-P2O5/ha. Economic evaluation of fertility levels revealed that the highest net returns of Rs. 59509/ha and BCR of 5.46 were recorded with application of 120-60 kg N-P2O5/ha. Thus, from the present study, it seems quite logical to conclude that higher production and net returns from rabi sweet corn (var. Madhuri ) can be secured by sowing the crop at 45 x 20 cm spacing and fertilizing with 120-60 kg N-P2O5/ha on clayey soil under south Gujarat conditions.
6. B. J. Prajapati, Nitin Gudadhe*, V. R. Gamit and H. J. Chhaganiya [Effect of integrated phosphorus management on growth, yield attributes and yield of chickpea]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 36-40 (2017). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com)
An experiment was conducted at College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, NAU, Navsari with five levels of phosphorus fertilizers and three levels of phorphorus biofertilizers to study the effect of integrated phosphorus management on chickpea. Application of 75% RDP (Recommended dose of phosphorus) through SSP (Single super phosphate)+25% RDP through RP (Rock phosphate) (F4) recorded significantly higher plant height, number of branches, plant spread, dry matter production (24.13 g/plant), nodule count (27.38), number of pods/plant (53.11), 100-seed weight (21.69 g/plant), seed yield (19.34 q/ha), straw yield (27.65 q/ha) and harvest index (41.01) which was at par with 100% RDP through SSP (F1). Among different bio-fertilizers, PSB (Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria)+AM (Arbascular mycorrhiza) (B3) recorded significantly highest plant height, number of branches, plant spread, dry matter production (23.65 g/plant), nodule count (25.19), number of pods/plant (52.50), 100-seed weight (12.28 g/plant), seed yield (18.94 q/ha) and straw yield (26.48 q/ha). The integrated use of 75% RDP through SSP+25% RDP through RP and combined use of AM with PSB can be for better yield of chickpea.
7. V. G. BAVALGAVE* [Yield, water use and economics of sugarbeet as influenced by different irrigation levels and nutrient management]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 41-44 (2017). Department of Agronomy Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2007-08 and 2008-09 at Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Parbhani, Maharashtra to evaluate the effect of irrigation levels and nutrient management on root yield and water use of sugarbeet. Sugarbeet irrigated at four levels of IW : CPE ratio i. e. 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 and four doses of nutrient management i. e. 100 : 50 : 50 NPK kg/ha, 150 : 75 : 75 NPK kg/ha, NPK on soil test basis and 100 : 50 : 50 NPK kg/ha+10 t FYM/ha. The results revealed that the irrigation scheduled at 1.2 IW : CPE ratio with application of 150 : 75 : 75 NPK kg/ha recorded the highest root yield (70.81 t/ha), consumptive use (622 mm), water use efficiency (114 kg/ha mm), net returns (Rs. 62150/ha) and B : C ratio (3.08 : 1).
8. Sharon Zulfiqar* and Mubashar Hussain [Investigations on the predation of Coccinella septempunctata on Macrosiphum rosae under laboratory conditions*]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 45-53 (2017). 1Department of Zoology University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus (Gujrat), Pakistan *(e-mail : email@example.com)
To evaluate the predatory efficacy of Coccinella septempunctata on rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae), a lab experiment was escorted at 27C at laboratory of Systematics and Entomology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat during 2016. C. septempunctata is one of the most common indigenous predators of the sucking insect-pests such as aphids. Effect of some commonly used insecticides like imidacloprid and clothianidin (telsta) was tested. Mortality of adult C. septempunctata at 24 and 48 h was observed. Clothianidin was a bit more toxic insecticide as compared to imidacloprid with LC 50 value of 0.039593 ppm and LC 90 value of 0.145805 ppm. Results showed that maximum mortality i. e. 100.00% occurred at 48 h by using 0.7% concentration of telsta. While mortality rate was 75.00% at 48 h by using 0.7% concentration of imidacloprid. So, we can say that telsta is more toxic. Minimum mortality i. e. 8.3333% occurred at 24 h by using 0.1% concentration of telsta. While mortality rate was 12.500% at 24 h by using 0.1% concentration of imidacloprid.
9. R. P. KHULE* AND G. R. PATEL [Development of scale for measuring attitude of tribal beneficiaries towards Wadi project]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 2 (1) : 54-56 (2017). Department of Extension Education Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A scale was constructed to measure the attitude of tribal beneficiaries towards Wadi project in Navsari, Valsad and Dang district of South Gujarat region of Gujarat state. Likert’s summated rating scale technique was followed for construction of attitude scale. The final 32 statements were selected from total 50 statements according to ‘t’ values equal to or greater than 2.13 ‘t’ table value. The spilt half method was followed for testing reliability of the scale. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.8019 which was found to be significant at 1% level. The validity of the scale was examined with content validity. The final 32 statements’ scale was administered for judging the attitude of 200 tribal beneficiaries of Wadi project.