Volume 22, No. 2 (June, 2021)

1. SHAMS SHAILA ISLAM*, CHARASSRI NUALSRI AND AHMED KHAIRUL HASAN [Character association and path analysis studies in upland rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 239-245 (2021). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh *(e-mail : shaila.hmdstu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted during 2019-20 at Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai campus, Thailand to calculate the correlation coefficient, path analysis, direct and indirect effects of ten popular upland rice genotypes (Oryza sativa) to determine the nature of relation between grain yield with other yield contributing traits. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized block design with three replications with observations on the growth, grain yield, and yield components of rice. The result showed that plant height, effective tiller, panicle length, panicle number, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, harvest index, filled grain, unfilled grain, seed fertility, seed length and seed width was positively significant and phenotypically correlated with grain yield per genotypes (0.657, 0.166, 0.589, 0.778, 0.136, 0.538, 0.228, 0.816, 0.081, 0.424, 0.168 and 0.106, respectively). Path analysis indicated that plant height, effective tiller, panicle length, panicle number, internode length and filled grain exhibited positive direct effect on grain yield. Among these traits, filled grain, seed fertility, seed width, panicle number and effective tiller possessed high positive direct effects (10.96, 7.50,1.25, 0.4802 and 0.1665). Thus, selection of these traits like effective tiller, panicle number, filled grain, seed fertility can bring improvement yield performance of upland rice.

2. Jayanti Yomso, PrasannA Kumar and Anaytullah Siddique* [Effect of cadmium induced stress on morphological growth and yield attributes of rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 246-250 (2021). Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar-144411, Punjab, India *(e-mail: anaytullahsiddique@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Studies were planned to assess the detrimental effect of Cd induced stress on morphological growth and yield attributes of rice plant. Therefore, this experiment was conducted during 2019 at Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. The focusable part of the study were based upon the morphological and yield attributing characters like plant height, leaves numbers, total number of tillers and productive tillers, length of panicle, numbers of spikelets/ panicle, weight of spikelets/ panicle and test weight. Reduction in all the parameters were recorded as the externally imposed CdCl2 concentrations increased gradually from 100 to 300 ppm. Growth inhibition due to cadmium induced stress also expressed in terms of per cent reduction among the treatments and found that maximum reduction of plant height and number of leaves recorded at 30 days after sowing (DAS) was 28.39 and 44.53%, while the reduction in total number of tillers was 46.34% at 60 DAS. However, per cent reduction in length of panicle, number of spikelets/panicle and test weight were 25.1, 36.6, 4.68 and 18.06 %, respectively at 120 DAS. The externally induced stress of CdCl2 made remarkable changes into the morphological features as well as yield attributes of rice plant results yield loss. While further studies are essential to know the efficiency of partitioning of CdCl2 into the different parts of plant because it is a carcinogenic/mutagenic compound.

3. S. SOWMYA* AND M. GANAPATHY [Influence of different micronutrients on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in coastal sandy soils]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 251-255 (2021). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Chidambaram-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : sowmyakrish3@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The production potential of groundnut can possibly be attained through application of adequate quantity of micronutrients which enhances translocation of photosynthates and protein synthesis overall favouring the Indian edible oil economy. A field experiment was conducted during 2019 at Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India to study the Influence of micronutrients on growth and yield of groundnut in coastal soils. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The treatment schedule comprised of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) @ 25:50:75 kg/ha of NPK, respectively + FeSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, RDF + ZnSO4 @ 8 kg/ha, RDF + Borax @ 4 kg/ha, RDF + FeSO4 @ 1.0% as foliar spray, RDF + ZnSO4 @ 0.5% as foliar spray, RDF + Borax @ 0.2% as foliar spray and control (RDF). The results indicated that the RDF + ZnSO4 @ 8 kg/ha treatment produced significantly higher plant attributes viz., plant height (62.18 cm), number of branches/plant (11.28), chlorophyll content (34.61 g/l) and number of effective nodules/plant (45.17), yield attributes (100 kernel weight (35.51 g), shelling percentage (67.9 %), pod yield (2178 kg/ha), kernel yield (1479 kg/ha) and haulm yield (4081 kg/ha). Furthermore, this treatment had a positive result on growth, yield attributes and yield of groundnut. Therefore, application of RDF + ZnSO4 @ 8 kg/ha can be recommended for groundnut cultivation in coastal regions of India.

4. Swapan Kumar Paul*, Mouli Mondal, Uttam Kumer Sarker and Shubroto Kumar Sarkar [Response of yield and seed quality of faba bean (Vicia faba) to irrigation and nutrient management]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 256-264 (2021). Department of Agronomy Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail : skpaul@bau.edu.bd)

ABSTRACT

Faba bean is considered to be sensitive to moisture deficit and nutrient state in soils. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from November 2018 to March 2019 to assess the response of faba bean to different irrigation and nutrient regimes. The experiment consisted of four levels of irrigation viz., rainfed (no irrigation), one irrigation at the early-branching stage, one irrigation at the pod formation stage, two irrigations at early branching and pod formation stages and four nutrient managements viz., 0-0-0-0, 5-20-20-5, 10-40-40-10, 15-60-60-15 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-S/ha, respectively. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design assigning irrigation in the main plot and nutrient management in subplot with three replications. The highest number of nodules/plant (58.67), shoot dry weight/plant (1.20 g), number of filled pods/plant (50.33), seed yield (1.49 t/ha) and crude protein (31.55%) were found in two irrigations at early branching and pod formation stages while the lowest values of these parameters were recorded in rainfed condition (no irrigation). In case of nutrient management, the highest number of nodules/plant (60.00), shoot dry weight/plant (1.28 g), number of filled pods/plant (52.69), seed yield (1.70 t/ha) and crude protein (32.70%) were obtained when fertilized with 10-40-40-10 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-S/ha, respectively while the lowest values of these parameters were recorded in control nutrient management (0-0-0-0 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-S/ha, respectively). In case of interaction, the highest number of nodules/plant (65.33), shoot dry weight/plant (1.48 g), number of filled pods/plant (55.67), seed yield (1.99 t/ha) and crude protein (34.20%) were recorded in two irrigations at early branching and pod formation stages fertilized with 10-40-40-10 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-S/ha, respectively. Therefore, application of two irrigations at early branching and pod formation stages fertilized with 10-40-40-10 kg of N-P2O5-K2O-S/ha, respectively seems to be promising technique for faba bean cultivation.

5. Wiam Yahya Rasheed Al-Shakarchy* [Effect of planting dates on nature inheritance of some growth traits and yield of four varieties in faba bean (Vicia faba)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 265-272 (2021). Department of Field Crop College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq *(e-mail : weaam.yehya@uomosul.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted under the conditions of Nineveh Governorate, Iraq on the nature of the inheritance of some growth traits and the yield of four varieties of remnants viz., Aguadulce, Habas, Monarch and Rico, under the influence of two planting dates during the autumn growth season during 2019-20 at College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq. Aguadulce variety showed it’s significant superiority over the rest of the varieties for the green pods yield and seed yield. The first planting date (15th November) significantly outperformed compared to the second planting date (30th November) for the average weight of pods, green pods yield and biological yield. The phenotypic, genotypic and environmental variations were high for the plant height, 100 seed weight, green pods yield, seed yield and biological yield. Broad sense heritability was high for pod length, green pods yield and seed yield, and this was reflected in the high values of the expected genetic advance for the green pods yield and seed yield.

6. A. S. FASINA, W. O. J. KADIRI, T. S. BABALOLA*, A. O. A. ILORI, K. S. OGUNLEYE AND O. S. SHITTU [Influence of land-use and soil depth on the soil organic carbon in two agro-ecological zones of Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 273-278 (2021). 1Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria *(e-mail : pauloxti@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property which relates land-use activities, climate change and soil management to sustainable land-use management practice. But the information on the influence of changes in land-use on SOC stock is lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted during the onset of rainy season in 2017 to investigate the influence of land-use and soil depth on soil carbon stocks located on three land-use types (Arable, Oil palm and Wetland) in two agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected at various depths for soil carbon stock study and analysed for physico-chemical properties. The result of the study shows that land-use and soil depth significantly (P<0.05) influenced soil organic carbon stocks which impacted on the ability of the soils located in the different land-use types to sequester carbon. The highest SOC stock was obtained from the Arable land-use (A-LU1 – 24.97 t/ha) Ado-Ekiti, followed by Oil palm plot at Kabba (K-LU3 – 21.06 t/ha) and lastly wetland site at Kabba (K-LU3 – 20.48 t/ha). SOC stock decreased with depth and all land-use types stored higher SOC stock at 0-15 cm depth than any other depth. Soil depth was negatively correlated with SOC stock (r = 0.544) indicating that increase in soil depth is associated with decrease in SOC stock. This study instigated that SOC stock is a function of soil depth, land-use management, soil management practices and location.

7. Tamara Shakhparonova, Daria Sobianina and Kirill Karapetyan* [Development of a dissolution model of a vitreous phosphorus-containing fertilizer concerning interdiffusion applied for calculation of fertilizer doses]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 279-284 (2021). 1Saint-Petersburg Mining University 2, 21st Line, St. Petersburg 199106, Russia *(e-mail : kir64@list.ru)

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted during 2017 to 2019 at Saint Petersburg Mining University to create the dissolution model for the vitreous phosphorus-containing fertilizer AVA. The capillary electrophoresis study results confirm the significant influence of diffusion processes on the nature of kinetic dependencies of ion concentration profiles. For this reason, in the present work, along with the models of dissolution of vitreous phosphate fertilizers already considered by the authors, it was necessary to analyze the model of dissolution of spherical vitreous fertilizer granules taking into account interdiffusion. Previously unknown expressions for determining the time of complete dissolution of samples of glassy phosphate fertilizers were proposed. Equations have also been proposed for calculating the number of ions passing from the glass to the solution through 1 cm 2 of the surface of a spherical granule for any given time. Based on the above formulas, it is possible to calculate at a specific temperature the mass of nutrients that pass from the granules of vitreous phosphorous fertilizer to the solution for a certain time, which is very important for calculating the doses of fertilizers applied to various crops. Further, kinetic studies of the dissolution process of a vitreous phosphorus-containing fertilizer will make it possible to determine a relationship between the composition of the material and the dissolution rate, taking into account the temperature and acid-base characteristics of the soil.

8. Dunsin Oluwagbenga*, Faronbi Opeyemi Abosede and Adesola Oluwanifemi Omowumi [Potential of Tithonia diversifolia and biofertilizers on soil physiochemical properties, growth, yield and mineral composition of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 285-291 (2021). Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara-State, Nigeria *(e-mail : dunsin.oluwagbenga@lmu.edu.ng)

ABSTRACT

Okra famers usually cultivate continually on the same location which has brought loss in the soil fertility, reduction in the uptake of nutrients leading to poor yield. The study was conducted during the late and early rainy season of 2016-17 at the Teaching and Research Farm of Landmark University Kwara State, to evaluate the effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray and Organo-Bio-Degradable fertilizer (OBD) on soil, development, yield, and mineral composition of okra. The treatment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four levels of T. diversifolia (0, 10, 20 and 30 t/ha) and three levels of OBD fertilizer (0, 10, 20 t/ha) replicated three times. The results indicated that T. diversifolia and OBD manure applied sole or in combination was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control, in terms of the growth, yield, and mineral composition of okra and physicochemical soil properties. The treatment combination of 30 t/ha of T. diversifolia and 20 t/ha of OBD had the highest yield in terms of pods number per plant harvested (14), fresh fruits weight (76 g/plant), and mineral composition (calcium magnesium, potassium, sodium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc) of okra fruits. Thus, T. diversifolia and Organo-Bio-Degradable fertilizer singly or in combination could be used in the cultivation of okra fruits with high mineral contents that are beneficial to the health of man when consumed.

9. A. S. FASINA*, G. O. AWE, A. O. A. ILORI, T. S. BABALOLA AND K. S. OGUNLEYE [Effect of drip irrigation frequency and n-fertilization on yield and water use efficiency of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 292-300 (2021). Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria *(e-mail : sundayfash2012@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The proper irrigation scheduling and nitrogen management are crucial for sustainable cucumber production. A field experiment was therefore, set up during the dry seasons of 2018 and 2019 at the Teaching and Research Farm Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ekiti State Nigeria to evaluate the effect of drip irrigation frequency and N-fertilization on yield and water use efficiency of cucumber. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (factors 3 × 2) in split-plot arrangement with three replications. The main block consisted of three levels of drip irrigation frequencies: twice a week (I2), three times a week (I3) and four times a week (I­4) while the subplots were nitrogen fertilization viz., no fertilization (N0) and N180 (180 kg N/ha through urea). The highest yield (186 t/ha) was obtained from three times a week irrigation with N at 180 kg/ha treatment which was 58.49% higher than the lowest yield (132 t/ha) obtained from two times a week irrigation without N fertilization. Drip irrigation frequency and N-fertilization significantly influence (P<0.05) number of fruits, yield and water use efficiency of cucumber. Irrigation water use efficiency was greatest with two times a week irrigation without N fertilization treatment. Reducing the frequency of water application to treatment I2 increased cucumber water use efficiency (WUE). Correlation was obtained (r = 0.51*, r = -0.42*) between water use efficiency and fruit yield, respectively for the two years of study. This study observed that WUE could be good criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of irrigation base on the results obtained and it was concluded that treatment of thrice a week water application with 180 kg/ha N as urea was adequate in terms of fruit yield and water use efficiency and hereby recommended for cucumber cultivation. Therefore, the three times a week irrigation with N at 180 kg/ha treatment could successfully be used to reduce water and fertilizer application for improving cucumber yield on the field.

10. Debashis Mandal* and Baanu Loya [Evaluation of physico-chemical attributes and shelf life of organic Mizo chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) as influenced by post harvest application of essential oils]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 301-308 (2021). Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Mizoram University, Aizawl-796004, Mizoram, India *(e-mail : debashismandal1982@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of essential oils on shelf life and physico-chemical qualities of chilli is least studied and therefore present investigation was performed during 2017-18 at Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India with organic Mizo chilli to test effectiveness of various essential oils viz., Cinnamon, Citronella, Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Lavender, Thyme, Rosemary, Basil oil enriched coconut oil emulsion on the storability at ambient condition (Temperature: 20±3ºC; Relative Humidity: 70±5%). Results highlighted that, Eucalyptus oil at 0.5% (v/v) caused significantly low physiological weight loss (11.09%), high fruit firmness (10.66 N/cm2), good colour (L: 54.43, a: 58.48, b: 42.41) and better retention of ascorbic acid (228.78 mg/ 100g), capsaicin (0.37%) and antioxidant capacity (47.06%) after 15 days of storage (DAS). At 15 DAS, fruit decay was drastically found lower (5-15%) in essential oil treated chillies compared with control (65%). Eucalyptus and Cinnamon oil had better extended shelf life (22.75, 19.75 days) compared with control (8.25 days). It could be concluded that post harvest application of Eucalyptus oil had effectively maintained quality and shelf life of Mizo chillies at ambient storage condition.

11. Rana Samara* [Biological activity and chemical characteristics of essential oils from the indigenous plant in Palestine]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 309-318 (2021). 1Department of Horticulture and Agricultural Extension Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie, Tulkarm, Palestine *(e-mail : r.samara@ptuk.edu.ps)

ABSTRACT

New pesticides based on plant extracts and essential oils (EO) are the modern approach to control insect pests and diseases and replacing synthetic pesticides. Therefore, a preliminary screening of nine indigenous plants containing essential oil for antifungal and insecticidal impacts on selected microorganisms and insect pests was evaluated during 2018-19 at Kadoorie Agricultural Research Center (KARC), Palestine Technical University. The biological properties of the plant extracts and EO were tested in vitro. Results showed that clove, thyme and eucalyptus oil significantly inhibited the growth of A. niger, B. cinerea, A. flavus, P. ultimum, P. digitatum and F. oxysporum 24 and 48 hr post-application. EC50 and EC90 values were significantly the lowest for eucalyptus, thyme then clove. LC50 and LC90 values against green peach aphid and two-spotted red spider mite were calculated from log-dose probit mortality regression. EO bioassay on aphid showed no significant impact of aphid mortality among all the EO, but a significant effect on the two-spotted red spider mites mortality. Mustard, sage and bitter-cucumber oil applications have high mortality on aphid, while mustard, mint and sesame oil application have high mortality on the two-spotted red spider mite. EO showed no significant impact on plant enzyme activities as in expression values of PPO and POX. The biological activity of the EO investigated on several microorganisms, and insect pests suggested that clove, eucalyptus and thyme showed the highest antifungal activities, while mint, mustard and sesame have the highest insecticidal and acaricidal activities.

12. Mohamed Saied Ali Khalil, Mokhtar Mohamed Abdel-Kader*, Nehal Samy El-Mougy and Nadia Gamel El-Gamal [Foliar application with organic acids for suppressing the severity of wheat powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici under field conditions]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 319-326 (2021). Plant Pathology Department National Research Centre, El-Behoos St., Giza, 12662, Egypt *(e-mail : mokh_nrc@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Powdery mildew disease is one of the most deleterious diseases affect wheat reflecting in serious grain yield losses. Control of such disease is important in view of the wheat is the main crop for population consumption in Egypt. Therefore, this study was conducted during 2019-20 at Kafr-El-Dawar region, El-Behira governorate, Egypt to evaluate the suppressing effect of some organic acids applied as foliar spray against disease severity of wheat powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici under field conditions. Field experiments performed with cultivation of three wheat cultivars at two different fields on two successive sowing dates. During the growing season, wheat plants were sprayed with salicylic, oxalic, benzoic, humic and malic organic acids and the fungicide Topsin M70 twice with one-month interval started at one month after seedlings emergence. No disease symptoms were observed for all cultivars which sown early. The wheat cultivar Giza 171 showed the lowest disease severity (6.2 – 7.8%) followed by Misr 1 (7.5 – 11.5%) and Gemmiza 12 (20.0 – 30.8%) at all applied treatments. High suppressing effect on the severity of powdery mildew was recorded at wheat plants sprayed with salicylic acid (7.8, 7.5 and 21.7%) followed by humic (6.2, 8.3 and 24.2%) and malic acids (6.7, 8.3 and 20.0%) compared with oxalic acid (7.0, 11.5 and 30.8%) and finally the fungicide Topsin M70 (16.3, 23.3 and 27.0%), respectively. An opposite trend for the increase in produced grains yield in parallel with reduction in disease severity was observed. The present results demonstrated that early sown date, suitable resistant varieties in addition to utilize plant resistance inducers are important factors for escaping from disease infection and subsequently its development.

13. MASHELA, T. S., K. G. SHADUNG*, T. P. MAFEO AND P. W. MASHELA [Non-phytotoxic concentration of cucurbitacin containing phytonematicides on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. Cicla) under greenhouse conditions]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 327-333 (2021). 1Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : kagiso.given349@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The cucurbitacin containing phytonematicides have possibility to be developed as an alternative to withdraw synthetic chemical nematicides, with sensitivities to crops that are plant-species specific. Although, the products have been tested on other Beta species, their sensitivities on Swiss chard (cicla) remain undocumented, necessitating such tests since the plant is highly susceptible to root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. Therefore, a study was conducted during 208-19 at Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence (GBRCE), University of Limpopo, South Africa with an objective of the study being to determine the non-phytotoxic concentration of Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides for use on Swiss chard in managing population densities of M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings were inoculated with 3000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and subjected to weekly geometric concentration of the two phytonematicides in separate experiments. At 56 days after inoculation, plant variables against increasing concentration of the products exhibited positive quadratic relations, whereas nematode population densities and the products exhibited negative quadratic relations. In conclusion, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides can be used in managing population densities of M. incognita on Swiss chard.

14. Roshni R. Samarth*, Dinesh Shetty, Sujoy Saha and Indu Sawant [Leaf micro-morphological diversity in Vitis species and its association with resistance to Plasmopara viticola]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 334-341 (2021). ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes Manjari Farm, P.O. Box 3, Solapur Road, Pune 412307, Maharashtra, India *(e-mail : sroshnir@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted during 2017-18 at ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune (Maharashtra) to study leaf micro-morphological traits such as leaf trichome density, leaf thickness, stomatal density, stomatal length, stomtal breadth, guard cell area, stomata opening and association of these traits with various scale of downy mildew resistance in twenty grape genotypes. Among the traits studied, the presence of leaf trichomes have justified downy mildew resistance partially only. But all the susceptible genotypes had lower trichomes density. The lower leaf trichomes are reported to be control by locus located on LG5. Traits like leaf thickness, stomatal density and time of stomatal opening have not shown significant relation with resistance. The moderate positive correlation was recorded for stomatal length (R = 0.708), stomatal breadth (R = 0.544) and guard cell area (R = 0.661) with resistance. Enlarge stomatal size provides larger area for zoospores to encyst and favours rapid spread of infection. The identification of such physical indicators responsible for resistance will be benefial in resistance breeding programmes for parental selection and progeny selection.

15. MEHRNOUSH AMINISARTESHNIZI* [Evaluation of three isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens, bacterial antagonist to Meloidogyne incognita associated with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 342-346 (2021). Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, Private Bag x1106 Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : mehrnoush.aminisarteshnizi@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes are the most important causes of reduced tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yield. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted during 2017 at Shahrekord Laboratory to study the effects of three Iranian isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (M1, M2 and M3) on the juvenile’s mortality and egg hatching of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions. Each isolate’s inoculum was prepared by transferring one loopful of the test isolate from a pure culture growing on nutrient agar. After 48 hr of exposure, cell suspension containing 109colony forming units per mL of P. fluorescens, obtained Bacterial isolates did different significant in their effect on mortality of the root-knot nematode. Isolates M1 and M3 caused significantly (P  0.01) more nematode juvenile mortality than the other isolates and the control. Most of the isolates produced hydrogen cyanide and protease, which are probably involved in nematode mortality and inhibit egg hatching. In the greenhouse study, P. fluorescens isolate M1 significantly increased the plant growth parameters and reduced the nematode reproductive factors for M. incognita associated with tomato. Conclude The results suggest that P. fluorescence M1 can be suitable candidates for use in biological control of M. incognita, which is auspicious for a forward way to achieve sustainable agriculture.

16. Aqeel N. AL-Abedy*, Jamal H. Kadhim, Rajaa G. Abdalmoohsin and Duraid K. A. AL-Taey** [Genetic diversity of tomato yellow leaf curl virus isolates and the effect of virus on the hormones content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 347-355 (2021). Plant Protection Department Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq *(e-mail : *aqeel.n@uokerbala.edu.iq; **duraidaltaey@agre.uoqasim.edu.iq)

ABSTRACT

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most economically important plant viruses globally and due to its continuing quick spread, now it afflicts many tomato growing countries in the Mediterranean basin, Africa, southern Asia, as well as South, Central and North America. Infection of tomato plants with TYLCV can reach 100% causing a severe reduction in tomato production, especially when plants are infected in the early stage of growth. Therefore, this study was conducted, during the growing season 2018-19 at the college of Agriculture, Kerbala University, Iraq, to isolate and diagnose three different isolates of TYLCV, infecting tomato, using the polymerase chain reaction technology (PCR) and determining the nucleotide sequences of PCR- amplified products and the effect of TYLCV infection on the plant contents of some hormones (gibberellin, cytokinin, and Indole acetic acid). Results of PCR amplification showed the possibility of amplifying a 789bp PCR product from each virus isolate (1, 2, 3, and 4). Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of PCR products using BLAST showed that all the diagnosed isolates belong to TYLCV. By comparing the sequences of nucleotide sequences, there was a genetic similarity of 100% among these isolates. However, all tomato genotypes tested in this study were found to be susceptible to TYLCV with different degrees of infection. TYLCV infection also had a significant effect in reducing the level of the hormone gibberellin in the infected genotypes. Increased levels of the cytokinin and indole acetic acid hormones were also observed in the TYLCV-infected genotypes.

17. MEHRNOUSH AMINISARTESHNIZI* [Effect of fish oil on multiplication of Halicephalobus (Nematoda: Rhabditida)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 356-359 (2021). Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, Private Bag x1106 Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : mehrnoush.aminisarteshnizi@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Laboratory mass rearing of nematode is a low-cost method to provide a good source for laboratory analysis. Laboratory mass rearing of free-living nematode provide a significant source for genetic, phylogenetic and physiological analysis of the nematode and animal-based study. This investigation was conducted during 2017 at North University of South Africa to find out the best condition for mass rearing of free-living nematode. The Media, including Water Agar 1.5%, WA 1.5% + fish oil, WA 1.5% + K2HPO4, and Nutrient Agar + fish oil was used for their evaluation for multiplication of Halicephalobus in the laboratory condition. One mL fish oil extracted from milk was added to the media WA 1.5% + fish oil and NA + fish oil and incubated at room temperature. The nematodes number four, seven, and fourteen-day after inoculation in WA 1.5% amended with fish oil, and the other media were counted. These results showed that the multiplication of nematodes in WA 1.5% + fish oil (612.3 ± 36; after 7 days) was much more than other media for multiplication of Halicephalobus. Therefore, fish oil is a good option to add to the media to multiply the free-living nematodes in laboratory conditions.

18. K. G. MALEKA, K. M. POFU AND P. W. MASHELA* [Interference of sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari) with sugar content in sweet stem sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and its resistance to Meloidogyne species under microplot conditions]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 360-368 (2021). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727 Republic of South Africa *(e-mail : wmashela@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Both root-knot nematode and sugarcane aphid are economic pests of sweet stem sorghum. In most cases, these pests are economically managed through plant resistance. Nematode resistant sweet stem sorghum cv. ‘Ndendane-X1’ is highly sensitive to sugarcane aphid, with limited information on how it would perform under aphid infestations. This study was conducted during 2018 at Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence, University of Limpopo, South Africa with an objective to investigate the effects of sugarcane aphid on sucrose in sweet stem sorghum and its resistance to Meloidogyne species. Three separate trials, each for M. incognita race 2 (Trial 1), M. incognita race 4 (Trial 2) and M. javanica (Trial 3), were initiated under microplot conditions, using 2 × 2 factorial experiment arranged in randomised complete block design (RCBD). At 150 days after planting, in Experiment 1, 2 and 3, nematode × aphid interaction significantly reduced sucrose from 17 to 74%, increased nematode reproductive potential from 152 to 320%, reduced plant growth from 20 to 48% and nutrient elements in leaf tissues from 40 to 52%, respectively. In conclusion, the sugarcane aphid broke resistance to Meloidogyne species in sweet stem sorghum cv. ‘Ndendane-X1’ and therefore, aphid population densities should be managed if growers have to benefit from the nematode resistance of the test cultivar.

19. N. E. CHIUTA, K. M. POFU AND P. W. MASHELA* [Nematode resistance technologies for managing thermophilic Meloidogyne species on potato (Solanum tuberosum): A review]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 369-379 (2021). Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(email : phatu.mashela@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

Commercially available potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars are highly susceptible to root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes, without known genotype with resistance to the genus. This review shall provide an overview on some reasons where using nematode resistance technologies in crop rotations intended to manage nematode population densities results in inconsistent outcomes. The latter is primarily due to the existence of survival strategies in nematode stages and the existence of pre-and post-infectional nematode resistance mechanisms with different capabilities for reducing nematode population densities. Generally, plants with pre-infectional nematode resistance do not allow nematode juveniles to penetrate the root systems, but exude chemicals into the rhizosphere, which repel nematodes, with many entering cryptobiosis as a survival strategy. In contrast, in post-infectional nematode resistance, juveniles penetrate the root system, thereby triggering nematode resistance chemicals, which trap and kill nematodes. Between the two, post-infectional nematode resistance mechanism is well-suited for reducing nematode population densities from the soil for the successful production of nematode susceptible potato cultivars as successor crops in crop rotation systems.

20. Shestakov Lev Sergeevich* and M. Philippova [Perspectives of using vibrational communication data to develop safe methods for insect population size control]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 380-385 (2021). 1Institute for Information Transmission Problems Kharkevich Institute, 127051 Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, build.1, Moscow, Russia *(e-mail : zicrona@yandex.ru)

ABSTRACT

The transition to organic farming requires the development of new methods of population pest control without using insecticides. Accumulating evidence of insect vibrational communication indicate that the use of natural and modified signals pests may impede their successful communication on the plant, thereby reducing their population. Therefore, this study was conducted during 20 August to 16 October 2020 at Kharkevich Institute and discusses the effectiveness of using impetuses on the example widespread species Pentatoma rufipes which can damage large range of plants. Artificial models of stimuli, which were based on calling songs and rival signals of P. rufipes changed the behavior of female insects authentically in compared with control variant. The differences between duration of latent periods and number of successful approaches to the source of stimuli were discovered. There were shown, that artificial stimuli were attractive for females, wherein the difference of preferences between calling song and rival signals were more likely qualitative, i.e., stimuli were attractive equally. This fact explains by the way that agonistic behavior of males was directed only on the representatives of the same gender, not on females. We suppose that these signals can be used to increase efficiency of traditional methods of pest control, for example for attract insects to glue or pheromone traps. Both calling song (N = 16) and rival (N = 15) signals were used as stimuli. Two main behavioral responses of females to the stimulus were assessed – the latency period from the beginning of the stimulus application to the start of active movement of the female, % of successful approaches to the stimulus source. Control – no stimulus (N=15). The latency periods with and without stimulation differed significantly. The percentage of positive responses to stimuli was significantly higher than in the control (U-Mann-Whitney test; * p <0.05). On the contrary, the latency period before the onset of activity in the absence of a stimulus was significantly longer (Mann-Whitney U-test; p <0.05). No significant differences were found in the number of approaches to the stimulus between calling songs and rival signals. However, there is a noticeable tendency to an increase in the number of approaches when playing the calling song (62 and 48%, respectively). Differences in the latent periods of the activity of females in control and during stimulation show that the vibrational signals of males have a communication value. In future, the authors plan to show that when used together, vibration stimuli will increase the effectiveness of traditional glue and pheromone traps for P. rufipes.

21. Sapna Gupta*, Ruchi Seth and Anima Shrama [Molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizospheric soil of soybean (Glycine Max) in Hadoti region of Rajasthan]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 386-393 (2021). Department of Biotechnology JECRC University, Jaipur-303905, Rajasthan, India *(e-mail : gsapna309@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizers is an alternative sustainable agricultural practice to improve soil health, grain quality, increase crop productivity, and conserve biodiversity. In the present study, eight PGPRs were isolated from the soybean fields of the Hadoti region, Rajasthan, out of which five were proved to be potential PGPR for various plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the potentials PGPRs belong to species of Ochrobactrum sp., Achromobacter sp., were proved Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis. Seed bacterization with the isolated cultures in the current study ensures that isolated PGPRs can serve as a sustainable alternative to enrich soil quality and promote crop production. Plant growth-promoting the potential of the isolated cultures can be analyzed further for agricultural benefits on a larger scale.

22. MEHRNOUSH AMINISARTESHNIZI* [Molecular characters of parasitic-nematode (Longidorus pisi) from regions of South Africa]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 394-397 (2021). Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, Private Bag x1106 Sovenga, 0727, South Africa *(e-mail : mehrnoush.aminisarteshnizi@ul.ac.za)

ABSTRACT

This molecular study was conducted in 2018 at the Limpopo University to identify the plant-parasitic nematodes identified from South Africa’s soils causing yield loss in crops. The recovered nematode was extracted using the tray method, and then its DNA was extracted using chelex method. Afterward, 18S rDNA was amplified using specific primers to identify the nematode. The Nblast analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA showed 99% similarity with a population of Longidorus pisi (MK172049) from Bulgaria. In addition, phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method as implemented in mega x software was done. The phylogenetic analysis put the South African populations of L. pisi together with other L. pisi with a 99 bootstrap value. In conclusion, this species’ diversity needs to be investigated to find out the impact of this nematode on the yield loss of the crops associated with it.

23. MOHAMMAD AL SHHAB, MOHAMAD SHATNAWI*, SAEID ABU-ROMMAN, MAJDI ALMAJDALAWI AND NIDAL ODAT [Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of Ruta graveolens plants]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 398-409 (2021). Department of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Al-Balqa Applied University, 19117 Al-Salt, Jordan *(e-mail : mshatnawi1@yahoo.com.au)

ABSTRACT

Ruta graveolens is a widespread plant in moderate and semiarid regions with several medicinal properties that are overturning and is threatened due to destruction and overuse for the pharmaceutical and food industry. Moreover, conventional propagation through seeds is not sufficient enough to produce due to seed dormancy and poor seed viability for which clonal propagation is the need of the hour. Therefore, the current study outlines a simple approach for clonal propagation and germplasm conservation of R. graveolens. Seeds were firstly surface decontaminated and germinated on agar water media, then micro shoots were cultivated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium contains 3% sucrose. The addition of 1.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) produced a maximum multiplication rate (4.2 shoots per explant). Root formation was developed at the base of micro shoot on MS containing Indole-3- Butyric acid (IBA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), or Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Maximum root number and root length produced at 0.9 mg/L NAA (2.25 roots per explants, and 2.69 mm length). The survival rate after acclimatization reached 90% under the greenhouse conditions when rooted plantlets were adopted to ex vitro employing in 1 soil: 1 perlite: 1 peat mixture. Micro shoots were kept for up to 16 weeks without serious losses at 6 ± 2 °C utilizing MS medium supplemented with sucrose, glucose, fructose, or sorbitol at different concentrations. Media supplemented with 6% sucrose resulted in the maximum number of shoots (2.69 shoots per explants) in the two methods of conservation. Further studies are still needed on medium-term conservation to enhance the survival percentages of different plant material types.

24. Rahil Golfam, Khadijeh Kiarostami*, Tahmineh Lohrasebi, Kasra Esfahani and Habibollah Ghazvini [Application of molecular farming based on barley plant (Hordeum vulgare L.) platform: A Review]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 410-424 (2021). 1Department of Plant Physiology Faculty of Biological Sciences, Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : kh.kiarostami @alzahra.ac.ir)

ABSTRACT

Historically, humans have used plants as a source of medicine since ancient times. But the use of transgenic plants in molecular farming is a major source of molecular drugs. The use of molecular farming offers a promising prospect for producing of large-scale, low-cost pharmaceutical and industrial compounds. The results of this research include the production of plasma proteins, enzymes, growth factors, vaccines and antibodies. As plants can offer an inexpensive and convenient platform for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins with various functions, the driven force from the giant market for recombinant protein pharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes makes this subject grow and advance very quickly. With an increased demand for biopharmaceuticals, high costs, and inefficiency of current production systems, transgenic plants have received more attention as a new generation of bioreactors; but determining the best plant platform for the expression of recombinant proteins is one of the critical issues in molecular farming. So far, several expression platforms on this basis for the production of foreign proteins have been evaluated. Among these, the use of dry cereal seeds is one of the most efficient methods used to accumulate recombinant proteins. On the other hand, barley is a right candidate for recombinant protein expression platforms due to its easy cultivation management, high protein content, and low protein diversity, high adaptability to climatic conditions and low production costs. Besides, the highly self-pollinating nature of barley, along with its inability to produce fertile hybrids with related crops or wild species, creates a genetic mechanism, which practically prevents the unwanted dispersion of genetically modified germplasm under field conditions. Iran is also one of the centers of barley diversity in the Middle East, and the vast genetic variety, and nativeness of barley in this region is of particular importance to breeders.

25. Gayathry G.*., Shanmuganathan M., Ravichandran V., Anitha R. and Babu C. [Evaluation of quality attributes of powdered jaggery from promising sugarcane varieties (Saccharum sp. hybrid)]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 425-432 (2021). Sugarcane Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Cuddalore-607001, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : gayathryg@tnau.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

Farmer adoption for newly released variety is primarily based on the sucrose content, quality and market value of powdered jaggery. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted during 2019-20 at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India to explore the opportunities for higher powdered jaggery production from two varieties viz., CoC 13339 and CoC 25 which were recently released from this station and compared with the quality attributes of the ruling variety Co 86032 (Control variety). Among the varieties, CoC 13339 recorded Total Soluble Solids (TSS) of 92°Brix with Jaggery Recovery Percentage (JRP) of 10.12% while TSS (95°Brix) and JRP (9.71%) were noted in CoC 25. The moisture content was recorded as 6.51% in CoC 13339, 6.90% in CoC 25 and 6.82% in Co 86032 (control). The reducing sugar content was higher in the variety Co 86032 (7.73%) followed by 7.52% in CoC 25 and 6.51% for CoC 13339, respectively. The most important parameter, the sucrose content was comparatively higher in CoC 13339 (89.1%) and in the control variety Co 86032 (87.4%). The total phenolic content of the powdered jaggery were 3.12, 3.20 and 3.59 mg GAE/g for the varieties CoC 25, Co 86032 and CoC 13339, respectively. Therefore, the variety CoC 13339 yielded good quality powdered jaggery which is of commercial preference and would serve as an alternative to the existing cane varieties for jaggery production. With regard to jaggery colour, the variety CoC 25 appeared deep straw yellow colour while CoC 13339 in dark yellow colour with high organoleptic score of 98%.

26. KUMAR A., HOLKAR S. K.*, SINGH R., SINGH P. K., MITRA S., KUMAR S., BASAVARAJ Y. B. AND PATHAK A. D. [Molecular identification of 16SrXI-B subgroup of phytoplasma related strain with yellow leaf disease of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in India]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 433-444 (2021). ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research Biological Control Centre, Pravaranagar, Maharashtra – 413 712, India *(e-mail : somnathbhu@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

In India, yellow leaf disease (YLD) is known to be caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Sugarcane yellows phytoplasma (SCYP; 16SrI-B). Therefore, present study was conducted to confirm the association of specific phytoplasma with YLD in Co 0238 and CoS 510 sugarcane genotypes during 2019-2020 at Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow. The YLD affected genotypes were characterized by yellowing of leaf mid-ribs and leaf-lamina, leaf-tip necrosis, bunching of leaves at crown region and drying of plants with an incidence ranged from 28.26-35.81%. YLD symptomatic leaf samples were collected from the two genotypes and subjected to genomic DNA extraction by DNeasy Plant Mini Kit followed by nested PCR assay using universal phytoplasma primers (16S rDNA region). The nested PCR assays of samples from both the genotypes showed specific amplification. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses of CoS 510 isolate (MN913611) revealed 100% identity with Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (SCWLP) belongs to 16SrXI-B subgroup. Similarly, virtual RFLP analyses revealed 1.00 similarity coefficient with 16SrXI-B subgroup. Thus, present study first time reports the association of SCWLP related strain with YLD of sugarcane in India. Phytoplasma infecting sugarcane are more diverse and needs systematic studies on their single or mixed infections in different varieties in India.

27. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Tragacanth gum coating on postharvest quality of mabolo (Diospyros philippensis) fruit]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 445-450 (2021). Faculty of Biotechnology Binh Duong University, Vietnam *(e-mail : npminh@bdu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

The shelf life and quality of Mabolo an ethnobotanical fruit rich in aroma with different volatile compounds is yet to be tested using natural edible coating using Tragacanth gum a versatile hydrocolloid widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industry. This intervention can possibly increase the commercial interest of the fruit. In order to evaluate the possibility of Tragacanth gum in preserving Diospyros philippensis fruit, a study was conducted at Soc Trang Nanotech laboratory in 2020 using different concentrations (0-2.5% w/v) of Tragacanth gum on the firmness, weight loss, ascorbic acid content, total plate count and overall acceptability of the coated fruit kept under ambient temperature for 8 days of storage. Results showed that 2.0% of Tragacanth gum would be appropriate to preserve the highest firmness (4.02 N), ascorbic acid content (28.97 mg/ 100g), sensory score (8.17); the lowest percentage of weight loss (0.86%), aerobic microbial load (1.47 log cfu/g). Tragacanth gum will be an excellent candidate for commercial development.

28. Nguyen Phuoc Minh* [Microencapsulation and spray drying on physicochemical and phytochemical attributes of lakum (Cayratia trifolia) dried powder]. Res. on Crops 22 (2) : 451-458 (2021). Faculty of Biotechnology Binh Duong University, Vietnam *(e-mail : npminh@bdu.edu.vn)

ABSTRACT

Lakum (Cayratia trifolia) berry is underutilized herbaceous climber containing a huge content of anthocyanin greatly contributing to health benefits. In order to increase its commercial value via deep-processing, this research was conducted at Soc Trang Nanotech laboratory in 2020 to evaluate the microencapsulation of anthocyanin from lakum extract by spray drying under various wall materials (whey protein, soy protein isolate, maltodextrin, cyclodextrin, gum Arabic, xanthan gum, inulin), inlet/outlet air drying temperatures (160/50, 165/55, 170/60, 175/65, 180/70, 185/75, 190/80, oC/oC). The anthocyanin retention, total phenolic content, hygroscopicity and wettability was verified. Results showed that gum Arabic as wall material with inlet/outlet temperature 175/65 oC/oC induced the most desirable attributes of lakum dried powder to achieve the highest anthocyanin retention (74.19%), total phenolic content (197.81 mg GAE/ 100 g), hygroscopicity (12.04%), wettability (0.74 minutes). Meanwhile the lowest anthocyanin retention (57.42%) and total phenolic content (134.20 mg GAE/ 100 g); the highest hygroscopicity (15.78%) and wettability (3.24 minutes) was noticed at whey protein. These findings proved the impact of wall material and inlet/outlet air drying temperature during microencapsulation under optimised spray drying circumstance.

*******************************

error: Content is protected !!