Volume 56, Number 3 & 4 (May & July 2021)

1. REX IMMANUEL, R.*, G. B. SUDHAGAR RAO AND N. SENTHILKUMAR [Effect of irrigation management and organic manuring on the growth and physiological attributes of direct sown rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 75-82 (2021). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu-608002, India *(e-mail: rrximmanuel@gmail.com)


Aggressive water stress and low productivity of rice are driving the exploration for location specific feasible agronomic management practices to increase water productivity and yield potential in rice farming. Field experiments were conducted to study the rice production using modified methods of irrigation and integrated nitrogen management, at Annamalai University Experimental Farm, Tamil Nadu, India during Kuruvai (June-October) and Navarai (Jan-April) rice growing seasons of 2016 and 2017. Two irrigation regimes viz., alternate wetting and slight soil drying (when soil moisture content reaches 75% level of the field capacity) and alternate wetting and acute soil drying (when soil moisture content reaches 50% level of the field capacity) and four nutrient management practices viz., RDF as control, 50% N through legume based green leaf manuring (GLM), 50% N through non-legume based GLM and 50% N through mixture of legume and non-legume based GLM (1: 1 ratio). The results reveled that irrigation management involving alternative wetting with acute soil drying along with 50 per cent of recommended dose of nitrogen (60 kg/ha) as mixture of legume and non-legume GLM (1: 1 ratio) and remaining 50 per cent of nitrogen as inorganic source registered the higher values of plant height of 101.76 and 97.11 cm, number of tillers/m2 of 438.10 and 384.64, DMP of 11.34 and 11.39 t/ha, root volume of 22.07 and 18.39 cc, LAI of 5.32 and 4.71 and CGR of 15.26 and 14.56 mg/m2/day during Kuruvai and Navarai seasons, respectively. Therefore, this treatment combination is used for wet spot-seeded rice cultivation in coastal regions of Tamil Nadu.

2. PRAMOD KUMAR*, GHANSHYAM SINGH, PRASHANT DEO SINGH, TEJBAL SINGH, ANAND SINGH AND KAIROVIN LAKRA [Yield, nutrient uptake, quality and economics of rice (Oryza sativa) as influenced by crop establishment methods and nitrogen levels]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 83-89 (2021). Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture N. D. University of Agriculture and technology, Kumarganj-224229, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India *(e-mail: kpksingh101193@gmail.com)


The objective of this study was to develop options through different crop establishment methods and optimize nitrogen fertilizer to maximize yield and profit. In this regard, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2016 at Agronomy Research Farm, College of Agriculture, N. D. University of Agriculture and technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India to find out the best crop establishment method and the optimum nitrogen dose for obtaining higher yield of rice. The treatment consisted of three methods of establishment (M1 – transplanting, M2 – SRI and M3 – direct seeding) were kept in main plots and five nitrogen levels (N0 – 0 kg N/ha, N1 – 40 kg N/ha, N2 – 80 kg N/ha, N3 -120 kg N/ha and N4 – 160 kg N/ha) in sub plots with three replications on silt loam soils having low organic carbon (0.43 %) and nitrogen (160 kg/ha), medium in phosphorus (16.50 kg/ha) and potassium (260.0 kg/ha). The results revealed that the SRI Methods gives higher yield and profit as compared to other crop establishment methods. The highest number of panicle/m2, length of panicle, number of grains/panicle, test weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index, gross return, net return and benefit-cost ratio was recorded under SRI method of crop establishment with the application of 160 kg N/ha. The nitrogen uptake and its contents in rice (both in grain and straw) were found maximum with SRI method with the application of 160 kg N/ha while the lowest nitrogen uptake and its contents in rice (both in grain and straw) were found under direct seeding method with control. The highest gross return (Rs. 106698.4), net return (Rs. 72329.7) and Benefit-Cost ratio (1:2.1) were recorded with treatment combination SRI method with the application of 160 kg N/ha (M2N4). Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that SRI method is a better establishment method of rice because it produces more yield and gross monetary economic return with 160 kg N/ha than other methods and nitrogen levels. The crop establishment method and nitrogen management practices significantly influenced the yield of rice in this climate scenario.

3. IMAN AHMADI, ABDOLMAHDI BAKHSHANDEH* AND MOHMMAD HOSSEIN GHARINEH [Effect of different levels of urea and herbicide application on the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in competition with Sinapis arvensis and Avena ludoviciana Durieu]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 90-97 (2021). Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Iran *(e-mail: mahdebakhshandeh@gmail.com)


Understanding the interaction between crop-weed competition and herbicide doses may, in many cases, result in a recommendation to reduce the consumption of the herbicide, which is both environmentally and economically important. Nitrogen fertilizer also influences the competitive balance through changes in weed density and biomass, and also contributes to environmental pollution. Hence, the evaluation of the interaction of herbicide doses and nitrogen fertilizer application is necessary for proper management of weeds and achieving acceptable economic yield along with minimizing environmental negative impacts.Therefore, in order to Quantify wheat-weed competition to levels of urea and reduced dose of herbicide (mesosulfuron methyl + iodosulfuron methyl sodium + diflufenican + mefenpyr-diethyl) brand (othello OD) this experiment was conducted during 2019-20 at Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran. The experiment was laid out in split plots under randomized complete block design wherein urea fertilizer included five levels of 0, 45, 90, 180 and 330 kg/ha as the main plot and the herbicide dose of “othello OD” in six levels of 0, 0.32, 0.64, 0.96, 1.28 and 1.6 L/ha (1.6 L/ha the recommended dose) was considered as the sub plot. The results showed that wheat grain yield and weed biomass response to herbicide doses of sigmoid response and response dosage models and developed in response to an increase in urea fertilizer consumption. Based on the prediction of the combined model, The achieving a yield of about 500 g/m2 with the application of 140 kg of urea fertilizer per hectare with 1.04 L/ha of Othello OD herbicide or the application of 265 kg of urea fertilizer per hectare and 0.64 L/ha. Hectare of herbicide or application of 330 kg urea fertilizer per hectare with 0.72 L/ha of herbicide was possible.

4. SHRAVAN KUMAR PANDA, SAGAR MAITRA*, PRITAM PANDA, TANMOY SHANKAR, ARUNABHA PAL, MASINA SAIRAM AND SUBHASHISA PRAHARAJ [Productivity and competitive ability of rabi maize and legumes intercropping system]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 98-104 (2021). Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology and Management Odisha, Paralakhemundi-761 211, India *(e-mail: sagar.maitra@cutm.ac.in)


The intercropping system involves two or more crops coexist for some period of their cycles and ensure multifaceted benefits. As maize is a widely spaced crop, it offers enough scope for adoption of intercropping and legumes are known as good companions in intercropping. Considering the facts, an experiment was carried out at Bagusala Farm of Centurion University of Technology and Management on intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with legumes, namely, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata L.). Paired row maize was sown during first week of January 2020 and in between two pairs of maize rows, one, two and three rows of groundnut and green gram seeds were sown. The results revealed that the grain and straw yields of maize were not influenced significantly by intercropping system. However, total biomass yield was differed among the treatments and maize + groundnut (2 : 3) produced maximum biomass yield and it was closely followed by maize + groundnut (2 : 2) and maize + green gram (2 : 3). The land equivalent ratio (LER) clearly showed advantages of intercropping and maximum LER was obtained with maize + groundnut (2 : 1) and it was followed by maize + green gram (2 : 3). But maximum area time equivalent ratio (ATER) was noted with maize + groundnut (2 : 3). Aggressivity values indicated that maize was more aggressive compared to legumes. Maize equivalent yield (MEY) was maximum with maize + groundnut (2 : 3) and it was followed by maize + groundnut (2 : 2). The results suggest that intercropping of maize + groundnut either in 2 : 2 or 2 : 3 proportions can be adopted under south Odisha conditions for greater productivity than pure stand of maize.

5. REX IMMANUEL R.* AND G.B. SUDHAGAR RAO [Production potential of groundnut under palmyra (Borassus flabellifer) based agroforestry system in coastal red soils of Tamil Nadu]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 105-110 (2021). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: rrximmanuel@gmail.com)


Borassus flabellifer commonly known as ‘palmyra’ has great economic and ecological significance, helps in biodiversity conservation and is climate resilient. Conversely, nowadays, due to longer gestation period and lack of skilled persons it has been rapidly vanishing from the landscape. Intercropping with groundnut augment the productivity of Palmyra based agroforestry system. A field investigation was undertaken during 2015-16 at Vilathikulam Taluk of Thoothukkudi district in Tamil Nadu to assess the performance of groundnut under palmyra trees as intercrop. An experiment consisted of four tree density levels corresponds to 976 trees/ha (3.2 x 3.2 m spacing), 730 trees/ha (3.7 x 3.7 m), 567 trees/ha (4.2 x 4.2 m) and 453 trees/ha (4.7 x 4.7 m), respectively. Interception of photosynthetic photon flux density was significantly highest under 453 trees/ha (1207.92, 1186.65 and 1248.19 µmol/m2/s, respectively) and it was on par with density of 567 trees/ha. Significantly maximum plant height (48.56 cm), LAI (4.51), dry matter production (3.46 t/ha), effective nodules/plant (65.84) and pod yield (876 kg/ha), and post harvest soil nutrients such as N, P2O5 and K2O of 226.75, 11.95 and 264.81 kg/ha, respectively were registered in 453 trees/ha. However, it was on par with the density of 567 trees/ha. It could be concluded that the palmyra trees up to the density of 567 trees/ha is the optimum population for intercropping.

6. NEHA RAHANGDALE, NARENDRA KUMAWAT*, M. L. JADAV, MAHENDER SINGH AND D.V. BHAGAT [Effect of liquid bioinoculants and straw mulch on health of Vertisols and productivity of soybean (Glycine max)]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 111-117 (2021). 1Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Indore-452 001, Madhya Pradesh, India *(e-mail: kumawatandy@gmail.com)


Now-a-days use of machinery for crop harvesting leave behind large quantities of crop residues, which is burnt by farmers as cheap and easiest method with misconception that, burning of crop residues enhances soil fertility and helps in control weeds, insects and pests. The burning of crop residues result in heavy loss of soil nutrients emits large amount of submicron aerosols and trace gases and smoke, thereby posing problem to environment and human health hazards. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2019 at Research Farm, College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Indore, India to study the effects of liquid bio-inoculants and wheat straw mulch on yield attributes, productivity and nutrient content of soybean grown in Vertisols. The soil of experimental site was clay loam in texture and alkaline in reaction (pH 7.8). The treatments were laid out in RBD in three replications with ten treatments. Among the various treatments, significantly higher yield parameters were recorded in Rhizobium + PSB + wheat straw mulch @ 5.0 t/ha + foliar spray of PGPR @ 20 ml/L water at 35 DAS and flowering stage as compared to other treatments. Similarly, highest seed yield (12.32 q/ha) and biological yield (27.68 q/ha) was also recorded with the application of Rhizobium + PSB + wheat straw mulch @ 5.0 t/ha + foliar spray of PGPR @ 20 mL/L water at 35 DAS and flowering stage. The higher nutrients content (N, P, and K in seed and straw) and their uptake; and available N content (262.67 kg/ha) and P content (12.27 kg/ha) in soil were observed under Rhizobium + PSB + wheat straw mulch @ 5.0 t/ha + foliar spray of PGPR @ 20 mL/L water at 35 DAS and flowering stage in comparison to other treatments. Hence, dual seed inoculation, foliar spray of PGPR along with wheat straw mulch was found promising with higher productivity of soybean under Vertisols.

7. S. SOWMYA* AND M. GANAPATHY [Effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in coastal soil]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 118-121 (2021). Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Chidambaram-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: sowmyakrish3@gmail.com)


Groundnut productivity can judiciously be improved by integration of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers under suitable combination. Therefore, a study was conducted during 2019 at Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India to evaluate the effects of different organics and biofertilizers on growth and yield of groundnut. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with three replications with treatments comprised of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) @ 25:50:75 kg/ha + farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t/ha, RDF + Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha, RDF + Poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha, RDF + Compost coir pith @ 5 t/ha, RDF + Rhizobium (seed treatment) @ 25 g/kg of seed, RDF + PSB (seed treatment) @ 30 g/kg of seeds and control (RDF). Fertilizing the crop with RDF + farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t/ha increased the pod yield to a tune of 2086 kg/ha with kernel yield of (1403 kg/ha) and haulm yield (4002 kg/ha) significantly superior over other combinations in groundnut. Therefore, application of locally available FYM collected within the farm has a possibility of increasing an additional income to the farming community.

8. KUMARIMANIMUTHU VEERAL D.*, T. NAVEEN AND R. KRISHNAMOORTHY [Studies on impact of organic sources for sustainable yield and soil health in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) cv. CO 9]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 122-127 (2021). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: dkmveeral@gmail.com)


Organic farming is essentially a soil-building mechanism to keep the soil ‘alive’, make the soil ‘live’ and sustain fertility. Balanced fertilization with organics, inorganics and biofertilizers have been proved beneficial in all the millet crops both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Therefore, this investigation was carried out during Rabi, 2019-20 at farmers field in Pannandur village of Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu to evaluate the effect of organic manures (farmyard manure, poultry manure, fish waste, coir pith waste) and biofertilizer with 50% inorganic sources under irrigated condition in finger millet cv. CO 9. There were ten treatments involving T1 – Control, T2 – FYM @ 10 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF, T3 – Fish waste @ 2 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF, T4 – Poultry manure @ 2 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF, T5 – Coir pith waste @ 2 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF, T6 – T2 +Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray), T7 – T3 + Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray), T8 – T4 + Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray), T9 – T5 + Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray), T10 – Panchagavya @ 3% alone by adopting Randomized Block Design (RBD) which was replicated thrice. It was observed that significantly higher growth and yield components of finger millet viz., plant height (122.9 cm), dry matter production (12806.5 kg/ha) (at harvest stage), LAI (5.34) at flowering stage, number of productive earhead/m2 (125.17), number of fingers/earhead (9.4), thousand grain weight (3.0g) and grain yield (3766.7 kg/ha) were recorded with the application of poultry manure @ 2 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF + Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray). Considering the above facts, it was evidenced that application of poultry manure @ 2 t/ha + Biofertilizer + 50% RDF + Panchagavya 3% (foliar spray) have increased the availability of nutrients, thereby increased the growth and yield attributes of finger millet. Also, use of organic manures and organic sprays and biofertilizers minimize cost of inorganic fertilizers, thereby act as a boom to farmers by making the waste into wealth and maintain the soil health and fertility.

9. PRITAM PANDA, SAGAR MAITRA*, SHRAVAN KUMAR PANDA, TANMOY SHANKAR, RAHUL ADHIKARY, MASINA SAIRAM AND DINKAR J. GAIKWAD [Influence of nutrient levels on productivity and nutrient uptake by finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) varieties]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 128-134 (2021). Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology and Management Odisha, Paralakhemundi-761 211, India *(e-mail: sagar.maitra@cutm.ac.in)


Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) is one of the tropical crops having potential to produce considerable quantity of nutritious food grains under suboptimal resource and management conditions. During recent years, researches on crop improvement result in development of improved cultivars producing higher yield and respond well to applied nutrients. However, there is a need for evaluation of the varietal performance for nutrient response under given agroclimatic conditions. Considering the above, an experiment was conducted at Bagusala Farm, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha during rabi season of 2019-20. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design (SPD) comprising of main plot treatments (three varieties, namely, Arjuna, KMR 204 and VL Mandua 352) and subplot treatments (four nutrient levels, control, 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 100% RDF and 150% RDF) with a total treatment combination of 12. The recommended dose of fertilizer was 40:20:20 kg N:P2O5: K2O /ha. The results indicated that the variety Arjuna expressed significantly greater values in terms of yield attributes and grain, straw and biological yields. More quantity of nutrients (N, P and K) uptake was also noticed with the variety Arjuna. Application of 150% RDF recorded significantly superior yield attributes, grain, straw and biological yields and uptake of primary nutrients than other nutrient doses. The study revealed that for obtaining higher yield of finger millet and nutrient recovery, the variety Arjuna may be cultivated with a nutrient dose of 150% RDF in low fertile soil conditions of South Odisha.

10. SHUBHAM SINGH RATHOUR*, KUNWAR SINGH TOMAR, KARAN VIR SINGH, RAJVEER SINGH KATORIYA AND SHUBHAM BHADORIYA [Exogenous auxin affecting rooting and establishment of air-layers for mass propagation of seedless lemon (Citrus limon)]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 135-142 (2021). Department of Horticulture Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Agricultural University Gwalior-474001, Madhya Pradesh, India *(e-mail: shubhamrathourag@gmail.com)


Lemon is a higher consumer preferable and nutritious fruit crop whose propagation with air-layering is effective and commercially profitable, particularly for a seedless cultivar for which other methods proved were unfeasible. Therefore, an investigation was conducted during 2018-19 at Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India to check out the influence of the utilization of exogenous auxins on root formation, proliferation, survival, and the establishment of lemon air-layers. Nine treatments replicated three times constituted of two phytohormones namely Indole-3-butyric acid and Naphthalene acetic acid each with the same four levels of concentrations, i.e., 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000 mg/L separately beside control employed on 7 years old plants of seedless lemon under Randomized Block Design. The results were significant and disclosed that among rooting aspects viz. the minimum days required for callus formation and root initiation, maximum rooting percent and adventitious roots’ fresh weight per air-layer, and growth aspects viz. the maximum survivability of air-layer, maximum mean shoots’ length, the maximum mean number of branches & leaves after transplanting of air-layers were noted with the application of indole-3-butyric acid @ 5000 mg/L among all treatments. Indole-3-butyric acid performed better then naphthalene acetic acid, however both auxins gave promising results at 5000 mg/L concentration.

11. KISHOR KR SHAH*, BIJUMONI BORAH, AMLAN PRATIM HAZARIKA AND DHANJU MANI PATHAK [Physico-chemical evaluation of soil conditions suitable for bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) production in Nagaon district of Assam, India]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 143-147 (2021). 1Department of Chemistry ADP College, Nagaon, Assam, India *(e-mail: kishoreshah14@gmail.com)


Bottle gourd a good source for food and medicine since long ago is dependent on the condition of the soil for its production. The important parameters of the soil that governs the good quality production of bottle gourd are pH, organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc. Therefore, a study was conducted during 2018 at ADP College, Nagaon, Assam, India to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of soil suitable for production of bottle gourd. Five soil samples were collected from 5 different areas of Nagaon district of Assam, India which differs in the variety of bottle gourd produced. The samples are then analysed for measurement of pH, organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc. The present study revealed that the soil that is ideal for good quality production of bottle gourd should have pH of 6.4, organic carbon (OC) of 0.97%, organic matter (OM) of 1.67%, nitrogen of 247.32 kg/ha, phosphorus of 118.24 kg/ha, potassium of 115.78 kg/ha, iron of 8.28 kg/ha and zinc of 6.21 kg/ha. Soils that are slightly acidic and rich in OC and OM are ideal soil for good quality production of bottle gourd. The bottle gourd plant that grows in a soil having higher content of P and K, have better fruiting capacity.

12. AGHAJAN BAHADORI*, ABDOLMEHDI BAKHSHANDEH, HOSSAIN GHARINEH1, NAEIMEH ENAYATIZAMIR AND ALIREZA SHAFEINIA [Effect of endophytic and rhizospheric growth promoting bacteria on quantitative and qualitative yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)]. Crop Res. 56 (3&4): 148-158 (2021). 1Department of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Khuzestan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz, Iran *(e-mail: aghajan.bahadori@gmail.com)


In this regard, a field study was conducted during 2016-17 at Khuzestan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Sugarcane Agro-industry of Dehkhoda, Ahvaz, Southwest Iran to investigate the effect of Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas putida growth-promoting rhizobacteria under different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on quantitative and qualitative yield of sugarcane. The experiment was laid out under split-block design with bacterial factor at four levels (control, Enterobacter cloaca, Pseudomonas putida and a combination of two types of bacteria), nitrogen factor at three levels (50, 75 and 100% recommended nitrogen for sugarcane) and phosphorus factor at three levels (50, 75 and 100% recommended phosphorus for sugarcane) on CP73-21 as sugarcane test variety. Results revealed that the treatment of simultaneous application of growth-promoting bacteria with the application of 75% recommended nitrogen and phosphorus for sugarcane, compared with the control treatment(application of 100% recommended nitrogen and phosphorus for sugarcane, without the use of bacteria), in the case of quantitative traits including stalk yield, height, diameter, stalk density, percentage of nitrogen and phosphorus of sugarcane leaves were 96.9%, 98.1%, 95.7%, 96.3%, 100.2% and 101.9% success, respectively and also, in comparison with the control treatment, the mentioned treatment achieved success in the case of qualitative traits including, brix %, CCS% and sugar yield of sugarcane, 95.29, 99.24 and 98%, respectively. Also, regarding the characteristics of sugarcane yield and sugar yield, the simultaneous application treatment of the tested bacteria along with the application of 100% recommended phosphorus and nitrogen for sugarcane was 110.15 and 116% successful compared to the control treatment, respectively, and sugarcane yield and sugar yield Per unit area increased by 10.15 and 16%, respectively. Therefore, the strategy of combined use of growth-promoting bacteria in sugarcane, along with 75% nitrogen and phosphorus recommended for it, both maintained the yield of sugarcane and sugar at an optimal level and saved 25% in nitrogen and phosphorus consumption, and this issue reduced the cost of sugarcane production.


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