Volume 3, Number 1 (April 2002)
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1. R. K. MAHEY, ONKAR SINGH, AVTAR SINGH, S. S. BRAR, A. S. VIRK AND JASVINDER SINGH[Effect of first, subsequent irrigation (s) and tillage on grain yield, nutrients uptake, rooting density of wheat, soil moisture content, consumptive use and water use efficiency]Res. on Crops 3(1) : 1-10 (2002). Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
A field trial was conducted to work out the effect of timing of first irrigation and subsequent irrigation (s) under varying degrees of soil tillage at Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during rabi 1994-95. The results revealed that varying degrees of tillage such as zero, reduced and conventional tillage system had no significant effect on grain yield. Rooting density in surface 0-20 cm layer was 5.3 and 10.2% more under reduced and conventional tillage than zero tillage, respectively. The differences tended to narrow down in lower layers. Under zero tillage, total moisture content (cm) in soil profile was higher than reduced and conventional throughout the crop growth period. Water use efficiency by the crop was almost similar under zero and conventional tillage. The significantly maximum grain yield was recorded when the first irrigation applied at four weeks after sowing as compared to applied at six weeks after sowing but the straw yield was not affected by the timing of first irrigation. The total rooting density was also 5.42% less when irrigation was delayed to six weeks after sowing. The water use by the crop was higher under the first irrigation applied at four weeks than six weeks after sowing but reverse was true for water use efficiency. Therefore, it may be concluded that wheat can be grown successfully under zero/reduced tillage without remarkable reduction in grain yield as compared to conventional tillage. Crop grown under zero/reduced tillage is beneficial to save the energy and time even under early moisture constraints situation. To get the maximum grain yield, first irrigation to wheat should be applied at four weeks after sowing.
2.AJIT S. NEHRA AND I. S. HOODA[Influence of integrated use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on wheat yields and soil properties]Res. on Crops3(1) : 11-16 (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural Universtiy–125 004, India
A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 1997-98 and 1998-99 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India) to study the influence of organic manures (no manure, farmyard manure at 15 t, vermicompost at 10 and 15 t and pressmud at 2.5 and 5 t ha-1) and inorganic fertilizers (no fertilizer, nitrogen at 60 kg, 120 kg, 90 kg ha-1+ Azotobacter and recommended dose of N, P2O5 and K2O in split plot design replicated thrice, on the wheat yields and soil properties (organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity and available NPK). Application of organic manures increased grain and straw yields of wheat, organic carbon content and available NPK in soil significantly during both the years, whereas soil pH and electrical conductivity did not alter under the influence of organic manures as well as fertilizer levels. Increasing levels of nitrogen and recommended NPK also increased grain and straw yield of wheat, organic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity of soil during both the years. The highest yields, organic carbon content and available NPK were recorded under the treatments of vermicompost at 15 t ha-1 and recommended dose of NPK. The effects of farmyard manure at 15 t, vermicompost at 10 t and pressmud at 5 t ha-1 were recorded at par amongst each other and influence of nitrogen at 120 and 90 kg ha-1+Azotobacter was statistically similar to that of recommended dose of NPK except on available potassium in soil which showed a significant decrement with nitrogen application.
3.V. K. KHADDAR, N. K. SHARMA, R. S. RAJPUT AND R. S. S. TOMAR [Use of biomulches in rainfed cotton]Res. on Crops3(1) : 17-22 (2002). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry J. N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Campus Indore (M. P.), India
A field trial during kharif season of 1997-98 in black soil comprising seven treatments in randomized block design replicated four times was tried in cotton crop. The treatments comprising six biomulches (viz., cowpea, soybean, greengram, blackgram, sunhemp and dhaincha) were sown with cotton crop with planting geometry of 60 x 60 cm with a fertilizer dose of 100 kg N+40 kg P2O5+20 kg K2O as per recommended practice. All the biomulches sown alongwith cotton were incorporated at 30th day with the help of “dora” (indigenous bullock drawn hoe). In control plots, only interculture operations were performed where no biomulch was sown. Incorporation of biomulch in soil affected the yield attributes and seed cotton yield significantly over control. The maximum seed cotton yield was obtained with greengram biomulch incorporation. The biomulch incorporation in soil significantly affected the nutrient composition of cotton plant at flowering and harvest stage. The greengram biomulch was superior over other biomulches regarding tissue concentration of cotton plant for different nutrients. The greengram biomulch incorporation showed narrow N : S ratio (8.43) in cotton plant at harvest and narrow K : Ca (0.52) ratio at flowering stage. The use of greengram biomulch was beneficial in cotton crop grown in black soil.
4.A. B. TURKHEDE, R. N. KATKAR, S. T. WANKHADE, V. M. SOLANKE AND N. R.POTDUKHE [Agronomic requirement of pre-released Asiatic cotton (AKA-7)] Res. on Crops3(1) : 23-26 (2002). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola–444 104 (M. S.), India
Studies made with Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) for three years (1997-98 to 1999-2000) revealed that the seed cotton yield was progressively increased with decrease in plant spacing from 60 x 30 to 60 x 15 cm. Closer spacing of 60 x 15 cm recorded 12.0 and 25.7% more seed cotton yield than 60 x 22.5 cm and 60 x 30 cm spacing, respectively. Seed cotton yield was increased with increase in nitrogen levels from 15 to 45 kg/ha, but differences were significant upto 30 kg N/ha. Nitrogen levels 30 and 45 kg/ha recorded 15.3 and 20.2% higher seed cotton yield over 15 kg N/ha. Maximum NPK uptake capacity was recorded at 60 x 15 cm spacing and 45 kg nitrogen/ha level.
5.R. N. KATKAR, A. B. TURKHEDE, V. M. SOLANKE, S. T. WANKHADE AND B. A. SAKHARE [Effect of foliar sprays of nutrients and chemicals on yield and quality of cotton under rainfed condition] Res. on Crops3(1) : 27-29 (2002). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar sprays of nutrients and chemicals on yield and quality of cotton under rainfed condition at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during kharif seasons of 1996-97 to 1997-98. Results indicated that the foliar application of different nutrients and chemicals affected the yield significantly. Numerically, the spraying of NAA 10 ppm, DAP 2%, IAA 20 ppm and cobalt chloride 2.0 millimolar recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield by 38.7, 37.1, 31.3 and 21.2% over control. Boll setting percentage was higher in NAA 10 ppm (56.3%) followed by IAA 20 ppm (54.7%) and DAP 2% (54.2%).
6.G. S. BUTTAR AND PARMJIT SINGH [Response of American cotton varieties to different dates of sowing] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 30-31 (2002). PAU Regional Research Station, Bathinda (Punjab), India
A field experiment conducted during 1996 and 1997 at PAU Regional Research Station, Bathinda revealed that primary branches, secondary branches, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield were more in April sown crop than May and June sown crop. Variety F 846 being at par with LH 1134 and F 1054 gave higher yield than Jhurar variety during both the years.
7. R. BASKARAN AND A. SOLAIMALAI [Role of weed management practices on yield attributes and yield of rice fallow sesame] Res. on Crops3(1) : 32-36 (2002). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam-606 001 (Tamil Nadu), India
Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of weed management practices on yield attributes and yield of rice fallow sesame. Unweeded check resulted in least yield attributes number of primary and secondary branches/plant, number of capsules/plant, number of seeds/capsule and 1000-seed weight and yield of sesame. Maximum yield components and yields of sesame were obtained under pre-emergence application of alachlor granules @ 1.5 kg/ha as sand mix+hoeing on 30 DAS which was on par with hand hoeing on 15 and 30 DAS. The yield increase was 2.41 and 1.52% higher under alachlor granules @ 1.5 kg/ha+hand hoeing over hand hoeing twice.
8.B. S. MEENA, G. L. SHARMA and R. P. SHARMA [Effect of nitrogen, irrigation and interculture on yield attributes and yield of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 37-39 (2002) Department of Agronomy Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001 (Raj.), India
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 1996 on clay loam soils of Udaipur to study the effect of nitrogen, irrigation and interculture on yield and yield attributes of mustard. The results of experiment revealed that the application of 60 kg N/ha registered significantly higher seed and stover yield of mustard over control and 30 kg N/ha and found statistically at par with 90 kg N/ha. Two irrigations given at 40 and 80 days after sowing produced significantly higher seed and stover yield over one irrigation. One interculture at 50 days after sowing recorded significantly higher seed yield as well as stover yield of mustard over no interculture.
9. N. THAVAPRAKASH and L. H. MALLIGAWAD [Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels and ratios on yield and economics of sunflower*] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 40-43 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India
A field experiment was conducted at Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif 1999 in medium black clay soil to find out the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels and ratios on yield and economics of sunflower. Higher seed yields (3554 and 3397 kg ha-1), more gross returns (Rs. 35,538 and 33,967 ha-1), more net returns (Rs. 24,249 and 23,336 ha-1) and higher B : C ratio (3.19 and 3.15) were obtained in the treatments receiving N/P ratio of 1.00 with 2.00 : 2.00 : 1.00 (120 kg N, 120 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) fertilizer level and N/P ratio of > 1.00 with 2.00 : 1.25 : 1.00 (120 kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) fertilizer level, respectively, as compared to N/P ratio of <1.00 with 1.00 : 1.25 : 1.00 (60 kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) fertilizer level.
10. P. P. MAHENDRAN, P. BALASURAMANIAM, P. S. SENTHILKUMAR [Influence of soil amendments on certain soil properties and yield of rice in coastal saline water irrigated soil] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 44-47 (2002). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry T. N. A. U. Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-265 104 (Tamil Nadu), India
Experiments were conducted in a sodic soil during 1994-45 and 1995-96 with the rice variety ADT 36 irrigated with sea water untruded well water. Among the different soil amendments, application of FYM with 100% gypsum requirement significantly reduced soil pH, ESP and increased the grain yield of rice cultivar ADT 36.
11.R. JAGADEESWARAN and V. MURUGAPPAN [Ferrogypsum as a nutrient source to boost groundnut production in calcareous soils] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 48-53 (2002). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (T. N.) India
Ferrogypsum is a by-product from the effluent treatment plant of titanium industry. It contains 52.63% gypsum and 10.24% Fe2O3. To evaluate this product as a source of Ca, S and Fe, a field experiment was conducted on a calcareous red soil in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Farm, Coimbatore during August-December 1998 with groundnut (var. CO 2) as the test crop. The results revealed that application of ferrogypsum in amounts equivalent to recommended dose of gypsum (400 kg/ha) significantly increased the pod and haulm yields, oil and protein contents besides maintaining soil fertility status. These effects of ferrogypsum were similar to those obtained with the application of gypsum+FeSO4 (FeSO4 as either soil application or foliar spray). Thus, the results of the present study indicated that ferrogypsum was as effective as gypsum application alongwith soil application or foliar spray of FeSO4 in increasing pod and haulm yields and oil and protein contents in groundnut grown on a calcareous soil.
12. B. K. MEDHI, C. R. DEKA, C. DAS, D. N. CHAKRAVARTY, A. THAKUR and S. HAZARIKA [An appraisal of nature of soil acidity, chemical and electro-chemical characterization of some Ultisols and Alfisols of Kamrup district, Assam] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 54-60 (2002). a. a. u. Regional Agricultural Research Station Shillongani, Nagaon-782 001 (Assam), India
Nearly 87.3% area of Kamrup district is acidic with pH ranging from 4.4 to 6.3. Surface soils having dark colour were comparatively lighter than sub-surface layer. Organic carbon content varied from 3.4 to 14.4 g kg-1 and was positively correlated with pH and basic cation saturation per cent (bcsp). Cation exchange capacity (ece) determined by sum of cations and NH4OAc methods produced excess values than effective CEC (ECEC) method. However, the true nature of exchange capacity at or near natural soil pH was reflected by ECEC. Calcium and aluminium saturation as a function of ECEC ranged from 13 to 56 and 4 to 68%, respectively. Highest lime requirement (6.72 t ha-1) was observed at pH 4.4 and showed positive correlation with exchangeable and extractable acidity. Among the forms of soil acidity pH dependent acidity was dominant and constituted 48.2 to 95.0% of the extractable acidity, while exchange acidity contributed 8.70 to 51.70% only. Role of organic carbon towards different forms of soil acidity was rather minimum.
13. NAVIN P. PRADHAN and SANJIB K. CHAKRABORTY [Screening of wheat genotypes on boron deficient soil of Terai region] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 61-66 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252, India
Eighteen wheat varieties were evaluated in boron deficient soil of Terai region. Experiment result showed existence of genotypic variability amongst the varieties with respect to yield and its component characters. Significant effect of boron deficient condition was reduction in grain number followed by reduced grain weight. Sonalika, HP 1704, HP 1705, C 306 and HUW 234 showed negligible reduction in grain number and grain weight under boron deficient condition with minimum effect in other component characters.
14. S. BABU, S. V. R. K. NETAJI, BINI PHILIP and P. RANGASAM [Inter correlation and path coefficient analysis in rice
(Oryza sativa L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 67-71 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India
Association and path coefficient analysis was studied for eight quantitative characters in rice (Oryza sativa L.) utilizing 33 genotypes. The plant height and productive tillers/plant were the principal characters responsible for single plant yield. Plant height recorded highest positive direct effect on single plant yield via positive indirect effect of panicle length, number of grains/panicle and spikelet fertility. Selection based on these characters would be efficient.
15.M. VENUGOPAL, N. A. ANSARI and K. G. KRISHNA MURTHY [Heterosis for yield and its component characters in maize (Zea mays L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 72-74 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A. P.) India
A set of diallel crosses involving 10 parents was made to have information on the extent of heterosis over better parent and standard check for yield, its component characters and protein content. Results indicated a pronounced hybrid vigour for all the characters. Forty-two out of 45 hybrids exhibited significant positive heterobeltiosis with a maximum of 136.97%. Whereas for standard heterosis, only eight crosses were significantly positive with a maximum of 18.48%. Magnitude of heterosis over better parent indicated that grain yield per plant was the most heterotic character among all characters. The crosses showing heterosis for grain yield were not heterotic for all characters.
16. SATISH PAREEK [Correlation and path analysis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 75-77 (2002). Project Coordinating Unit, Aicpmip Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, Jodhpur-342 304 (Raj.) India
One hundred and eight hybrids with four checks grown in augmented completely randomized design were used to study correlation and path coefficient analysis in pearl millet. Grain yield had positive and significant association with plant height, effective tillers per plant, panicle length, panicle girth and dry fodder yield. Dry fodder yield had maximum direct effect on grain yield followed by panicle girth and effective tillers per plant. Effective tillers per plant had maximum indirect effect via fodder yield. Days to heading had maximum direct effect on grain yield. Selection of comparatively tall hybrids with high biomass and more effective tillers coupled with greater panicle girth could be a visual selection criterion for selection of high yielding hybrids.
17. R. K. MAITI, P. WESCHE-EBELING, J. D. MORALES-GALVÁN, M. A. JUÁREZ-MORALES, A. VÉLEZ-SOTO, A. MEZA-HERNÁNDEZ and V. P. SINGH [Genotypic variability in seedling vigour of 205 genotypes of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) in the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 78-82 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martír Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) is a dual purpose crop, grain and forage, that has shown high productivity in the semi-arid regions of the world, mainly India and Africa. Studies have indicated that pearl millet is well adapted in the semi-arid regions of north-east Mexico, but there is no research on the performance of this crop in the highland valleys in central Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate crop establishment and seedling vigour of 205 genotypes introduced from icrisat (India) and finally, to select pearl millet genotypes for better crop establishment and high forage and grain yields in the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico. It was observed that there existed significant differences among genotypes. Genotype A 13 may be selected for having highest number of leaves and a high vigour. The genotypes having maximum dry matter were C 112 and B 17206. Crop establishment was satisfactory, showing good adaptation to the agro-ecological conditions of the highlands of Tlaxcala, Mexico. But it is necessary to evaluate each phenological stage for the selection of the best materials that permit the introduction of the crop in the highlands of central Mexico.
18. R. K. MAITI, P. WESCHE-EBELING, BETSABE DÍAZ JIMÉNEZ, JUÁREZ-MORALES MARY ANTONIO, VÉLEZ-SOTO ALVARO,ALFREDO MEZA-HERNÁNDEZ, JUAN DAVID MORALES-GALVÁN and V. P. SINGH[Evaluation and selection of genetic materials for forage potential and quality from 209 pearl millet genotypes introduced in highland of Tlaxcala, Mexico] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 83-88 (2002). Departamento de Química y Biologia Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martír, Cholula, c. p. 72 820, Puebla, México
The present study reports the results of evaluation of 209 pearl millet genotypes in highland of Tlaxcala, Mexico and selection of 10 promising genotypes for forage potentials and acceptable forage quality. Significant variations in forage yield components were observed among pearl millet genotypes. Variations were also reported in chemical compositions of forage among genotypes. Genotypes with high protein and digestibility were selected.
19. B. SUNIL KUMAR, S. PADMAVATHI, M. PRAKASH and J. GANESAN [Comparison of association and path analysis over two seasons in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 89-92 (2002). Department of Agricultural Botany Annamalai University, Chidambaram-608 002 (T. N.), India
Character association and path coefficients were worked out in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] using 25 genotypes of diverse origin on 10 characters during two seasons. Seed yield was found to be positively associated with all the characters except number of pods per cluster during both kharif and summer seasons. Close observations showed clear-cut difference on the intensity and the direction of association of some traits on yield. Path analysis showed 100-seed weight and number of pods per plant had the maximum positive direct effect on yield in kharif and summer seasons, respectively. Number of clusters per plant had high negative direct effect during summer season.
20. SUPRIYO CHAKRABORTY and B. K. BORAH [Variability and association analysis on physiological traits in greengram] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 93-96 (2002). A. A. U. Regional Agricultural Research Station Shillongani, Nagaon-782 002 (Assam), India
Estimates of variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation were carried out in 30 genotypes of greengram for physiological traits. High GCV and PCV estimates ranging from 24.45 to 84.83% were observed for net assimilation rate (nar), leaf area index (lai), specific leaf weight (slw), cumulative growth rate (cgr) and relative growth rate (rgr) of leaf. High heritability associated with high genetic advance observed for lai, slw and nar indicated that these characters were mostly governed by additive gene effects. Correlation analysis revealed that nar had highly significant, positive correlation with cgr and rgr. But LAI showed significant, positive correlation with SLW and CGR but negative association with RGR. SLW exhibited significant, negative genotypic correlation with RGR.
21. V. L. AMETA and B. R. RANWAH [Genotypes and phytohormones interaction in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 97-102 (2002). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
An experiment was conducted at Biotechnology Lab, RCA, Udaipur during July 1996 to October 1997, to study the response of various concentrations of IAA and kinetin in six Indian mustard genotypes using cotyledon explant. Significant differences among genotypes as well as treatments for days to swelling, days to callusing, callus fresh and callus dry weight. Early swelling was observed in PHR-1, local culture and RH-781, local culture also had minimum days to callusing. Days to swelling and callusing varied from treatment to treatment in all genotypes. Earliest swelling was observed in Pusa Bold in 0.4+4.0 mg/1 treatment. In RC-781, maximum callus weight was observed in treatment 0.2+5.0 mg/1.
22. U. C. KAR, D. SWAIN and J. R. MAHAPATRA [Hybrid performance in relation to combining ability for seed yield and its components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 103-109 (2002). aicorp on Oliseeds (Sesamum), Directorate of Research Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa), India
Combining ability analysis for yield and yield components in a half-diallel set (6 x 6) revealed that additive genetic variance was predominant for days to maturity, whereas for days to 50% flowering, branches/plant, capsules on main stem, capsules/plant, capsule length and seed yield/plant, non-additive gene action was important. Usha, Guj. Til 1 and Sel. 33 were good general combiners for seed yield and its attributes. The range of relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for seed yield were 2.89 to 458.23% and 2.76 to 416.62%, respectively. Highly significant associations were found between sca effects and F1 performance. The superior crosses for yield and yield components mostly involved parents with high x low gca effects. Guj. Til 1 x Usha, Guj. Til 2 x Usha and Sel. 33 x OMT-32 were found to be the best cross combinations for exploitation of heterosis.
23. RATIKANTA MAITI [Perspective of anatomical research as a valuable tool in the genetic improvement of world bast and leaf fibre crops for yield and quality] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 110-118 (2002). Departamento de Química y Bioligía Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martír, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, México
The paper discusses the utility of anatomical structure of the vegetable fibres for the selection and possible genetic improvement of some world fibre crops, mainly bast and leaf fibres. Anatomical structures such as fibre bundle dimensions, surface regularity, fineness, length and breadth of ultimate fibre cells are related to quality performance of fibre crops. On the basis of literature review the authors suggest strongly that anatomical structures of fibres could play an important tool in the genetic improvement of both the quality and yield of world fibre crops. Therefore, concerted research activities should be directed in this direction.
24. A. K. MEDHI and T. K. BORBORA [Effect of growth regulators on the dry matter production, flower initiation and pod setting of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 119-122 (2002). A. A. U. Regional Agricultural Research Station, North Lakhimpur (Assam), India
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi seasons of 1998 and 1999 to find out the effect of growth regulators on the dry matter production, flower initiation and pod setting of French bean. Three growth regulators viz., NAA, triacontanol and gibberellic acid, each with two concentrations (10 and 15 ppm) were applied to the French bean variety HUR-137. The applied growth regulators increased flower initiation and pod setting. It improved retention of flowers and reduction of fruit drop compared to control. By reducing fruit drop (7.15%), NAA 15 ppm recorded highest pod yield (117.65 q/ha), which was 57% increase as compared to control. Dry matter accumulation increased and shoot and root ratio decreased due to application of the growth regulators.
25. A. RUTH BEULAH RANI and N. RAMASWAMY [Genetic variability for economic traits in cassava] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 123-125 (2002). Department of Horticulture Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India
Genetic investigations were carried out with 21 open pollinated clones of cassava to assess the variability, heritability and genetic advance in respect of various economic traits. The highest pcv and gcv were recorded for yield per plant followed by tuber weight, number of leaves per plant and harvest index. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was expressed by yield per plant, tuber weight, height at first branch, number of leaves per plant, plant height and harvest index.
26. S. K. KAUSHAL and R. G. UPADHYAY [Studies on variation in corm size and its effect on cormel production and flowering in Crocus sativus L. under mid-hill conditions of H. P.] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 126-128 (2002). Department of Horticulture Ch. Sarwan Kumar Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 ( H. P.), India
Saffron, the most colourful fragrant and expensive spice, is the dried tripartite stigma alongwith a portion of style of purple blossoming autumn crocus botanically named as Crocus sativus L. It is a valuable ingredient of Ayurvedic and unani medicine and of cosmetic industry. Results of an experiment conducted for five years on the effect of corm size on its regeneration capacity and flowering showed that both the production of cormels and yield of flowers were dependent on the initial size of the corm of planting.
27. P. SASHIKALA, C. P. SURESH and J. KABIR [Studies on post-harvest fruit characters influencing shelf-life of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 129-133 (2002). Department of Post-Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia (W. B.), India
Studies on post-harvest fruit characters influencing shelf-life of tomato revealed that genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) was highest for fruit weight followed by days required to ripening, fruit firmness, acidity, fruit length, shelf-life, pericarp thickness, diameter and total soluble solids (TSS) in that order. High heritability alongwith high genetic advance for fruit weight, shelf-life, days required to ripening and fruit length suggested the effects of additive genes for control of these characters. Among the association of different shelf-life influencing characters with shelf-life, the genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficient of fruit weight, length and pericarp thickness with shelf-life were strong and significant. The genotypic correlation of fruit firmness and acidity with shelf-life was also positive and high. Thus, more emphasis should be given for improvement of these characters for increasing shelf-life.
28. A. R. KHAN [Effect of number and time of handweeding and hoeing on quality of green fruits of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus L.] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 134-137 (2002). h. p. k. V. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rampur, Una-174 303 ( H. P.), India
The average length of fruit differed significantly during both the years. It was 11.1 and 11.0 cm in unweeded plots and 14.3 and 14.4 cm in weed-free treatment in two consecutive years. The reduction in weight of fruits per plant under weedy check over weed-free was as high as 65 and 64% in first and second year of study, respectively. Chlorophyll and crude fibre contents of fruits were estimated at two stages of crop i. e. 60 DAS and final fruit picking. The chlorophyll content was slightly reduced at the second stage of observation. Maximum chlorophyll content was recorded in weed-free treatment and minimum in unweeded control. Contrary to this, crude fibre content of fruit was increased with the advancement of crop stage and in no weeding treatment, it was maximum.
29. S. KAMALAKANNAN and K. MANIVANNAN [Influence of Azospirillum, phosphobacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth parameters of radish (Raphanus sativus L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 138-141 (2002). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India
A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of Azospirillum, phosphobacterium and VAM on growth parameters of radish cv. Pusa Chetki. The results revealed that maximum shoot length, number of leaves and leaf area were recorded in treatment which received NPk+Gigaspora margarita. The maximum root length, root width, shoot weight, root weight and minimum shoot : root ratio were recorded in the treatment which received the full compliment of NPK alongwith Azospirillum+Gigaspora margarita.
30.B. K. MOHANTY and A. M. PRUSTI [Mahalanobis’ generalized distance analysis in onion] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 142-144 (2002). O. U. A. & T. Regional Research Station, Bhawanipatna-766 001 (Orissa), India
Assessment of genetic diversity using Mahalanobis D2 statistic in 12 varieties of onion of diverse geographic origin revealed enormous variability in the test material. The genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Genetic divergence was not closely related to geographic distribution. Maximum inter-cluster distance (D2=86.22) was observed between the clusters II and III. On the basis of mean performance, genetic distance and clustering pattern, hybridization involving divergent parents from the clusters II (Nasik Red, N 2-4-1, Agrifound Light Red and Arka Niketan) and III (Arka Pitamber) was suggested to isolate high yielding recombinants with other desirable characters.
31. B. K. MOHANTY and A. M. PRUSTI [Varietal screening of onion for kharif cultivation] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 145-148 (2002). O. U. A. & T. Regional Research Station, Bhawanipatna-766 001 (Orissa), India
Evaluation of 12 varieties of onion during kharif season over four years revealed that Pusa Madhavi, Arka Niketan, Punjab Red Round, Agrifound Dark Red, Arka Pitamber and Agrifound Light Red produced small to medium sized bulb with thinner neck depicting better storage quality. The varieties N 53 and Arka Kalyan recorded significantly higher bulb yield (228.54 and 220.60 q/ha, respectively) than other varieties. It was found that rabi varieties if grown in kharif season could also confer good bulb yield. Arka Kalyan was proposed for kharif cultivation mainly for high yield. However, Agrifound Dark Red and Arka Niketan with better storage quality, medium bulb and moderately high yield were suggested for commercial cultivation in rainy season.
32. K. C. SIVAKUMAR, DEEPU MATHEW and SACHIN SHETTY [Effect of media composition of growth and flower attributes of lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinner] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 149-153 (2002). Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, UAS, Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different media composition on growth and floral characters of lisianthus. The plants grown on media M3 (2 coir peat : 2 sand : 1 soil) recorded the maximum number of branches per plant, more number of leaves per stem at flower opening, maximum leaf area and highest fresh root weight. The plants in same media flowered earlier than other media compositions and recorded the earlier harvest. In case of floral attributes, the media M3 recorded the highest stem length and diameter, maximum cut flower weight and maximum flower diameter. The media M2 (1 coir peat : 2 sand : 1 soil) recorded the maximum flower length. Thus, it was found that media M3 containing 2 parts of coir peat, 2 parts of sand and 1 part of soil was best for cut flower cultivation of lisianthus.
33. R. K. NATH AND B. C. DUTTA [Yield loss assessment and economic injury level of rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera (Oliv.) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 154-158 (2002). Department of Entomology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India
Field experiments were conducted to estimate the avoidable yield losses due to attack of rice hispa in rice variety Mahsuri during kharif 1994 and summer 1995 in Jorhat condition. The highest yield loss (27.65%) was observed in completely unprotected plots and no yield loss in completely protected plots. Likewise under green house condition, the highest yield loss (35.64%) was recorded in completely unprotected plots. The economic injury level was computed as 4 adults/hill, when protected upto mid-tillering stage, whereas it was two adults/hill in the crop protected from maximum tillering stage.
34. A. R. THAKARE, P. N. CHAVAN, B. T. RAUT, TINI PILLAI and P. K. PAULKAR [Effect of polythene mulch and seed treatment on diseases and yield of groundnut] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 159-163 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India
Root rot incidence in groundnut was more in non-mulch with no seed treatment as compared to polythene mulch. Per cent root rot reduction in mulch was 41% caused due to Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia bataticola. Tikka (Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum) disease incidence was more in non-mulch as compared to mulch. Per cent tikka reduction in mulched was 13.15%. There was no profound effect on incidence of other foliar diseases. However, the intensity was found to be reduced under mulched crop.
35. O. P. CHAUDHARY and S. S. DASHAD [Deleterious effects of various insecticides used to control white grubs in groundnut cultivars] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 164-170 (2002). ccshau Regional Research Station, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India
To evaluate newer insecticides for controlling white grubs and their deleterious effects on seed germination of different groundnut cultivars (M-13, M-145 and PG-1), insecticides chlorpyriphos 20 EC, quinalphos 25 EC @ 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ml/kg seed), cypermethrin 25 EC (5, 10 and 15 ml) and imidacloprid (1, 2 and 3 g) were applied as seed treatment. In addition, phorate 10 G @ 18.75 and 25 kg/ha as pre-sowing soil application, mixing with seed and application in standing crop between the rows at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing was also tested. All insecticides were effective in controlling white grubs. Higher doses of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos reduced germination (19.2 and 21.5 plants/12 m row) compared to control (24.7 plants). The lower and medium doses of insecticides and all the doses of cypermethrin and imidacloprid were safe. Phorate applied by mixing with seed significantly reduced seed germination at both the doses of 18.75 and 25 kg/ha (16.7 and 14.8 plants/m row, respectively), whereas the germination was not affected in other two methods. Variety M-145 was most tolerant where germination was not hampered, followed by M-13 (7.8% reduction), whereas PG-1 was most susceptible with 16.0% reduction in germination over control. These studies advocate cultivar specific seed treatment instead of blanket recommendation.
36. E. SUMATHI and G. BALASUBRAMANIAN [Integrated management tactics for bhendi [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] fruitborers, Earias vittella Fabricius and Earias insulana Boisduval] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 171-176 (2002). Department of Agricultural Entomology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
Two field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999 to test the efficacy of different treatments viz., the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (TC), neem oil (NO), Palmarosa oil (PRO), neem seed kernel extract (nske) and endosulfan at varying economic threshold levels to reduce the fruitborers, Earias vittella Fabricius and E. insulana Boisduval damage. In both the experiments, spraying of endosulfan 0.07% was significantly superior in reducing the fruitborers damage on weight basis and the order of efficacy of different treatments in reducing the fruit damage was with endosulfan 0.07% (67.55 and 63.90%)>nske 5% (47.56 and 44.60%)>pro 5% (42.40 and 37.15%)>NO (C) 3% (28.91 and 31.29%)>release of Trichogramma chilonis (T. C.) @ 50000/ha at 100% ETL i. e. 10.0% fruit damage (29.90 and 29.40%)>NO (A) 3% (28.91 and 31.29%)>T. C. at 7.5% fruit damage (24.65 and 22.62%)>T. C. at 5.0% fruit damage (20.63 and 17.96%)>T. C. at 2.5% fruit damage (15.26 and 13.33%). The cost : benefit ratio was maximum in endosulfan treatment and minimum with release of T. chilonis at 2.5% fruit damage.
37. R. MOHAN BABU and K. SEETHARAMAN [Efficacy of antagonists for control of blackgram root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid.] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 177-180 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies T. N. A. U. Agricultural College and Ressearch Institute, Madurai-641 003 (Tamil Nadu) India
Trichoderma viride Pers Ex. Fries and Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula effectively inhibited the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina. Seed treatment with talc based formulation of T. viride (4 g/kg)+P. fluorescens (5 g/kg) recorded the maximum germination (93.6%), shoot length (28.12 cm), root length (18.35 cm), dry matter production (9.77 mg) and vigour index (3501.04) compared to the minimum in control.
38. G. L. CHUNALE and R. D. BANSOD [Rainfall characteristics and rainfall based cropping strategies for Kolhapur (M. S.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 181-189 (2002). National Agricultural Research Project, Sub-montane Zone, Kolhapur-416 012 (M. S.), India
Rainfall data of 26 years (1975-2000) recorded at agro-meteorological observatories at Agricultural College and ZARS, Kolhapur ( M. S.) have been analysed for annual, seasonal, monthly and weekly perods to evolve rainfall based cropping system with minimum risk to utilize rain water efficiently for increased production. The mean annual rainfall for Kolhapur is 998.2 mm, received in 64 rainy days. Kharif season receives maximum rainfall of 796.47 mm, whereas rabi and summer receive 140.61 and 61.01 mm, respectively. July (287.77 mm) and August (208.61 mm) are the highest rainfall contributing months, during which the excess runoff resulting from heavey rains can be harvested in the farm pond and water so stored can be reused as protective irrigations to kharif crops during dry spell. The crop growing period from 23rd to 24th MW contributes about 83.3% of total rainfall. Based on rainfall probability (>50%) in 23rd MW and for onward period, the dry sowing of most of kharif crops is advocated in 22nd MW, while regular sowing in 23rd MW i. e. after receipt of sufficient rains. The period from 36th to 38th MW during kharif is mostly characterized by occurrence of one or two dry spells. During this period, one or two protective irrigations are recommended to kharif crops for boosting up the crop yield. Owing to very remote possibility of getting rains in rabi season, double cropping may be taken only on deep soils having good moisture holding capacity or having facilities of irrigation water.
39. M. P. DUBEY [Economic viability of different rabi crops under rainfed conditions of Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 190-192 (2002). j. n. k. v. v. Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar-470 002 (M. P.), India
Field experiment was conducted during winter (rabi) season for two years at jnkVv Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar (M. P.) on clay soils to ascertain the economic viability of different rabi crops under rainfed conditions of Sagar region of Vindhyan Plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The trial was arranged in RBD, replicated four times having six crops, namely, wheat, gram, lentil, linseed, safflower and Indian mustard as treatments. Results revealed that gram crop produced the maximum grain yield of 13.43 q/ha closely followed by lentil (12.42 q/ha) only. Whereas mustard ranked at the last position by producing 2.45 q/ha of grain yield amongst different crops under study. Similarly, lentil and gram crops produced significantly higher wheat equivalent yields (24.08 and 23.14 q/ha, respectively) and registered significantly more gross monetary return (Rs. 7825 and 7519/ha, respectively) over rest of the crops. But in case of net monetary return (Rs./ha) and profitability (B : C ratio), only the crop of lentil was found the most suitable and remunerative (Rs. 6220/ha) as well as profitable (4.87 : 1.0) among all. Again, mustard cultivation was found uneconomical (NMR Rs. 117/ha) and proved unprofitable (1.07 : 1.00) under rainfed conditions of this region.
40.M. L. DOGNEY [Significance of grow out test (GOT) in hybrid seed production of cotton] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 193-194 (2002). M. P. State Seed Certification Agency GOT Farm, Delmi, Dhar (Madhya Pradesh), India
The analysis of grow out test (GOT) was worked out in four hybrids of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) viz., JKH-1, JKH-2, H-8 and H-10. All varieties under study exhibited no significant difference for genetic purity except H-10. Whereas all deteriorating factors showed significant mean difference with regards to varieties. The rejection percentage of hybrid plots, governed by male and off-type plants, was 6.5 times more than female plants.
41. S. S. DIXIT, K. S. PAWAR, Y. S. RAWAT and JAGDISH SINGH [Genetic variability in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 195-196 (2002). jnkvv r. a. k. College of Agriculture, Sehore-466 001 (M. P.), India
Biometrical parameters were studied in 38 newly developed genotypes of soybean. Harvest index, seed yield per plant and biological yield per plant showed comparatively high estimates of genetic variation and heritability; hence, direct selection for these traits would be effective for yield improvement in soybean.
42. P. C. KOLE and A. K. MISHRA [Divergence analysis in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 197-199 (2002). Department of Crop Improvement, Horticulture & Agricultural Botany Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 236, India
Genetic divergence using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic was carried out for yield and eight component characters in 20 genotypes of fenugreek. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters of which cluster I was the largest with 15 genotypes and clusters III and IV were monogenotypic. Intercluster distance (D2) was higher involving cluster IV than other combinations. Seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, grain yield, straw yield and branches per plant were the major characters contributing towards divergence.
43.P. ULAGANATHAN, G. S. YADAV and R. CHAUHAN [An improved method of mass rearing of Helicoverpa larvae on artificial diet] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 200-201 (2002). Department of Entomology CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
In a study carried out at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2000, the rearing procedure of Helicoverpa armigera on artificial diet was further standardized. The sterilization of the working chamber and the glassware with ultraviolet light was done to avoid the larval mortality due to Bt infection. The larvae were reared in BOD incubator at a temperature of 27±20C and relative humidity from 70-90%.
44. Y. M. SOMASEKHARA [Application of Bacillus subtilis in the management of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. and Halst.) disease] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 202-203 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology College of Agriculture, Bijapur-586 101 (Karnataka), India
The survey on pomegranate wilt incidence was carried out in Karnataka and Maharashtra during 1996-2000. 74,806 plants were wilted out of 14,28,020 plants surveyed in 1506 locations. It contributed 5.24% incidence ranging from 0.03 to 82.82% in respective field. The soil application bacterial culture, Bacillus subtilis was effective in field condition in reducing pomegranate wilt incidence.
45. DHANBIR SINGH and AKHILESH SINGH [Evaluation of fungicides against early blight of potato in spring crop] Res. on Crops 3(1) : 204-206 (2002). h. p. k. v. Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan-173 001 (H. P.), India
Five fungicides were evaluated to control early blight of potato on Kufri Jyoti in spring crop.There sprays of Indofil M-45 (0.25%) at 7-day intervals were found most effective in controlling blight and increasing tuber yield. Two sprays of Ridomil MZ 72 WP (0.25%) at 15 days interval were found equally effective and statistically rated at par with Indofil M-45. Patafol, Ofurace and Antracol resulted in 20.50, 21.50 and 22.62% terminal disease severity and differed significantly from Indofil M-45 and Ridomil MZ. Either Indofil M-45 or Ridomil MZ could be used for the control of early blight in spring crop.