Volume 53, Number 1 & 2 (January & March 2018)
1. Sahar Hossein Hamarashid, Ali Ahmadi*, Adel Siosemarde and Mohammad Reza Jahansouz [Effect of low temperature stress on seed germination and related traits of Iraqi Kurdistan wheat cultivars]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 1-7 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Temperature greatly influences germination of the seeds. Most of the varieties lack the ability to sustain temperature stress with significant differences for germination and related traits. To investigate the effect of low temperature stress on wheat seed germination, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Treatments were four levels of temperature (5, 10, 15 and 25°C) and seven levels of wheat cultivars (Arass, Acsade, Semmeto, Rezgary, Abugharib, Tamooz and Azar2). Results showed that the most and least time to germination was observed in Semmeto and Azar2, respectively. The highest and lowest germination uniformity was reported in Semmeto at 25°C and 5°C, respectively. In all cultivars, the least germination uniformity was found at 5°C but Azar2. In contrast, the highest germination uniformity was observed at 10°C in Azar2, Acsade, Abugharib and Rezgary. At 15°C, Tamooz and Arass showed the highest uniformity of germination. Semmeto had the highest germination uniformity at 25°C. In all temperatures, the highest and lowest D90 was observed at 5°C and 25°C, respectively; but Semmeto in which the lowest D90 was at 15°C. The highest seedling length occured in Acsade (25.1 cm) and Arass (24.2 cm). Tamooz cultivar had the lowest seedling length (1.94 cm). The highest weight seedling vigour index was observed at 25°C except for Tamooz in which the highest and lowest WSVI was observed at 15°C and 5°C, respectively. It can be concluded that germination traits and seedling establishment and their survival were affected by low temperature.
2. Arash Taheri, Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad*, Ghorban Nourmohammadi and Mahdi Seyedain Ardabili [Effects of different temperature and precipitation on quantity and quality of bread wheat]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 8-15 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : H.firstname.lastname@example.org)
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of natural variation in temperature and precipitation during grain filling on quantity and quality of three wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Parsi and Sivand). The experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications in three field trials located in three provinces (Tehran, Isfahan and Fars) during the years 2011-15. Grain and biological yields for each cultivar were measured. Harvest index was calculated and 2 kg of grain from each wheat cultivar were used for quality traits (Protein content, wet gluten content and hectoliter weight). According to the results, a statistically significant correlation existed between grain and biological yields in four years of experiments. Biological yield is a significant factor affecting wheat yield. Increasing wheat yields were observed as coinciding with increasing biomass yields. There is no significant correlation between grain yield and total rainfall during the growing season, but there was a positive and significant correlation between grain yield and rainfall during grain filling. Another positive correlation was observed between hectoliter weights and rainfall during grain filling. Higher protein contents were observed in years with low yield levels. The wet gluten contents were parallel to the protein contents and as with the protein contents, increased in the years with low yield levels. Protein contents had a positive and significant correlation with mean temperature during grain filling. This indicates that with the increase in the average temperature during grain filling, the protein and gluten contents of the cultivars were increased.
3. Mohammad Javad Jazinizadeh, Hossein Heidari Sharif Abad*, GHorban NourmohamMadi, Hamid Madani and Ali Darinii [Studies on the relationship between crop traits and grain yield of wheat cultivars in south Kerman region, Iran]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 16-20 (2018). 1 Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : H.email@example.com)
In order to determine the relationship between grain yield and some physiological and morphological traits in bread wheat cultivars in south Kerman region and to determine the contribution of those traits that have the greatest effect on grain yield as well as direct study of grain yield with its components, a study was conducted on four wheat cultivars with the highest wheat cultivars in the region and each cultivar of 10 fields was planted in 2016-17. The results of correlation showed that in all fields of the cultivars grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with plant height, awn length, spike length, number of seeds per spike, spike weight, number of stems per square metre, straw yield and biological yield. The highest positive correlation coefficient was related to the biological yield trait (0.88). In stepwise regression, the first variable was introduced into the model and alone (53.9%) explained the higher percentage of grain yield changes. The results of this study indicated that characteristics such as number of stems per square metre, number of seeds per spike, spike weight, 1000-grain weight and stem height as criteria for selection for improving grain yield in wheat were introduced.
4. D. K. KURRE, V. BHARATI, S. S. PRASAD, M. KUMAR AND ABHINANDAN SINGH* [Impact of herbicides on weeds, yield and yield attributing characters of kharif maize]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 21-26 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur-848 125 (Bihar), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2015 at Agricultural Research Farm, TCA, Dholi, a campas of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar to study the effect of different doses of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in tank mixture on complex weed flora, yield and yield components of kharif maize. Weed infestation caused 37.4% reduction in grain yield of maize. Maximum values of yield and yield attributing characters were recorded under weed free situation (hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS) (T2) being statistically at par with atrazine @ 1.5 kg/ha pre-emergence fb halosulfuron @ 60 g/ha at 25 DAS post-emergence (T7). However, the maximum weed control efficiency and minimum weed index were obtained with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS. Among the different herbicidal treatments, application of atrazine @ 1.5 kg/ha as PE fb halosulfuran @ 60 g/ha was most effective against complex weed flora in kharif maize.
5. Yadollah keshavarz, Omid alizadeh*, Shahram sharfzade, Mahdi zare and Foroud bazrafshan [Evaluate the effect of growth’s pre-treatments and mycorrhizal fungi on physiological characteristics of corn under drought stress conditions]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 27-37 (2018). Department of Agriculture Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozabad, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Drought stress is one of the most important non-viable tensions that can lead to a serious decline in plant crop, depending on the season and time it occurs. One of the ways to achieve sustainable agricultural goals is to use microorganisms that play an important role in supplying plant nutrition. This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological response of corn to pre-treatments of growth regulator and mycorrhiza under drought stress conditions in 2015 in two separate plots under a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Fars province. The factors studied included drought stress (control, stress at the end of vegetative growth, tension in the middle of reproductive growth), mycorrhiza (control, use of mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza with half the recommended amount of phosphorus fertilizer) and growth regulator pre-treatment (control, water to the results of this experiment showed that severe drought stress reduced the index of crop growth rate, relative water content of leaves and remobilization. Also, severe drought stress increased and decreased the contribution of re-transfer to poor and rich soils, respectively, than the control. The comparison of mycorrhizal effects showed that mycorrhiza with phosphorus and control had the highest and lowest crop growth index and leaf relative water content, respectively. Comparison of the average salicylic acid effect on crop growth index and relative leaf water content showed that consumption of 750 µM saltsilic acid increased both indexes compared to control. Comparison of the average effect of mycorrhiza on remobilization showed that mycorrhiza consumption and mycorrhiza + phosphorus consumption in poor soils and consumption of mycorrhiza + phosphorus and control in rich soils had the highest and lowest amount of remobilization, respectively. Also, the comparison of the average effect of mycorrhiza on the remobilization share showed that the control and consumption of mycorrhiza+ phosphorus had the highest and lowest numerical value, respectively.
6. Bent al hoda Asghari, Eslam Majidi Heravan*, Bahram Alizadeh, Hossein Heidari Sharif abad and Hamid Madani [Oil content, seed yield and morphological changes of canola cultivars in response to different sowing dates]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 38-44 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sowing date affects different plant growth stages, however, information on optimum sowing date for successful production of canola is limited. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out to evaluate the response of canola cultivars to different sowing dates. Sowing dates included 2, 12 and 22 October, and cultivars were included 11 cultivars (Okapi, Opera, Zarfam, Talaye, SW102, L72, L14, HL3721, Wpn-6, L155 and HL2012). The highest oil percentage was recorded in the first sowing date in L72 (41.093%) followed by L155 and Zarfam. Delaying in sowing date until October 22 reduced 33.59% of seed yield in each year in comparison with the first sowing date. The decline in seed weight due to delayed sowing resulted in significant seed yield reduction in 2014-15 (7.69%) and in 2015-16 (14.8%). Generally, it seems L72, Zarfam and L155 canola cultivars are suggestible in first sowing date due to the best agronomic traits.
7. Mitra Aeini, Hossein Heidari sharif abad*, Mojtaba Yousefidad, Eslam Majidi heravan and Hamid Madani [Effect of seed priming on morphological and biochemical characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 45-52 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : H.email@example.com)
A split plot experiment laid out in RCBD with three replications was used to investigate the effect of seed priming on morphologic and biochemical characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress. The experimental factors included drought stress as the main factor with two levels of appropriate irrigation and withdrawing irrigation at stem elongation stage, and also seed priming methods including osmo-priming, hydro-priming, hormo-priming and control (no priming) and safflower cultivars including Goldasht and Soffe as the secondary factors. The characteristics under investigation were plant height, the number of periphery branches, seed yield, biologic performance, oil percentage, soluble carbohydrates, proline content and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Draught stress in the absence of seed priming and under hydro-priming reduced seed yield by 16.91 and 25.86%, respectively; however, no significant effect was observed under osmo-priming and hormo-priming. It was also observed that cultivar Goldasht was more tolerant to drought than cultivar Soffe. The findings suggested that the hydro-primed seed of safflower cultivar Soffe was the best treatment under adequate irrigation as well as drought stress.
8. R. B. HIREKURUBAR* AND M. H. TATAGAR [Performance of different insecticides against American serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) in ridge gourd]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 53-56 (2018). Department of Entomology Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591 218 (Karnataka), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present investigation was conducted at KRC College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Karnataka during kharif season of 2016 and 2017 to evaluate the bio-efficacy of different insecticides (profenophos, buprofezin, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, thiamethoxam, acephate, malathion) along with aqueous NSKE @ 5% and azadirachtin 1500 ppm against leaf miner, Liriomyza trifoii (Burgess) on ridge gourd. The results of pooled data revealed that spinosad 45 SC @ 0.3 ml/l was most effective in reducing leaf miner followed by chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.20 ml/l and thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.25 g/l. The highest yield was recorded in spinosad 45 SC @ 0.3 ml/l (103.75 q/ha) which was found to be at par with chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.20 ml/l (98.48 q/ha) followed by thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.25 g/l (88.71 q/ha).
9. P. U. PAWAR, C. T. KUMBHAR*, V. S. PATIL AND G. G. KHOT [Effect of co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 57-62 (2018). Division of Plant Pathology & Agricultural Microbiology College of Agriculture, Kolhapur-416 004 (Maharashtra), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2016 to study the effect of co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in conjunction with graded levels of chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Results of the experiment showed that the co-inoculation of soybean seeds with B. japonicum and P. fluorescens in conjunction with either 75% or 100% of recommended dose of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers significantly increased seed germination (81.52 and 81.51%), shoot length (54.33 and 54.30 cm), number of branches (6.45 and 6.40/plant), dry plant weight (16.0 and 15.96 g/plant), number of nodules (44.0 and 43.5/plant), dry weight of nodules (1.60 and 1.59 g), dry matter yield (30.90 and 30.85 q/ha), number of pods (136 and 135/plant), 100-grain weight (15.46 and 15.45 g), grain yield (30.60 and 30.50 q/ha), uptake of nitrogen (240.45 and 240.43 kg/ha) and phosphorus (20.46 and 20.45 kg/ha) in soybean. Values recorded with these treatments did not differ statistically from those recorded with the treatment of recommended dose of chemical fertilizers, suggesting 25% saving in chemical fertilizers by co-inoculation with B. japonicum and P. fluorescens.
10. Bhavya Mishra*, Roopali Sharma, B. C. Kabdwal, Archana Negi and Anshul Arya [In vitro evaluation of potential fungal and bacterial isolates against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 63-67 (2018). Department of Plant Pathology G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sheath blight of rice, which is caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is an economically important disease as it causes severe yield losses. Biological control of the disease by the use of fungal and bacterial antagonists is a potential substitute to the commonly followed chemical based control methods. The present investigation, conducted at the biocontrol laboratory of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, was aimed at studying the antagonistic activity of some potential biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum (isolates TCMS 36, TCMS 43, Th 3, TCMS 9 and Th 14), Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolates Psf 173 and Psf 02) and Bacillus sp. under in vitro conditions by dual culture technique and volatile assay method. The results from dual culture revealed that TCMS 36 showed the maximum radial growth inhibition of 69.44% followed by TCMS 9 (66.68%) and Psf 02 (65.0%). Bacillus sp. showed least per cent growth inhibition of 45.25%. Results of the volatile assay also followed the same trend as dual culture and depicted that the maximum radial growth inhibition was found in TCMS 36 (54.2%), followed by TCMS 9 (49.5%) and Th 14 (43.0%) and other isolates were found moderately effective in inhibiting the radial growth of pathogen, while Bacillus sp. was found least effective. This research concludes that the tested fungal and bacterial isolates can have an inhibitory effect on the radial growth of R. solani and can be further exploited as potential biological control agents to control the sheath blight disease of rice.
11. Sarang Ramezani, Hossein Najafi*, Ghorban Nourmohammadi and Fariba Meighani [Control of dodder (Cuscuta campestris) weed through integrated weed management system for higher sugar beet yield]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 68-75 (2018). 1Department of Agronomy Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The introduction of a new and operational system to control weed which can improve application flexibility and control troublesome and stubborn weeds in sugar beet crop. A field study was designed to evaluate the combination of chemical and non-chemical management on cuscuta infestation in sugar beet field. Delaying sowing until the April 18 altered fresh weight of sugar beet 46.1 and 34.9% in the same seedbed preparation in autumn and spring, respectively. Also, application of pyropyzamide herbicide caused the significant difference and greater decrease in weight of cuscuta weed in comparison to another herbicide, ethofumesat. Spring seedbed preparation was more efficient in suppressing and inhibition of cuscuta weed growth than winter seedbed preparation. The concentration of recommended herbicide+25% more treatment showed severity control of cuscuta weed. So, sustainable management of cuscuta inhibition will require a combination of chemical and cultural approaches, supported by understanding the complicated and unclear nature of cuscuta life cycle.
12. Urbashi Hazarika*, Bijit Kumar Saud, Pritam Coomar Barua and Prakash Kalita [Influence of harvest dates on growth and yield of Aloe (Aloe barbadensis Miller) in polyhouse production]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 76-80 (2018). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com)
To study the growth and yield of Aloe (Aloe barbadensis Miller) in polyhouse condition as influenced by harvest dates, an experiment was carried out at the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP) Block, Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2015-16. A total of four treatments with five replications were laid out in a randomized block design. The treatments were comprised of : T0–Harvesting at an interval of two months (recommended practice), T1–Harvesting at one and a half months interval (after first harvest), T2–Harvesting at two and a half months interval (after first harvest) and T3–Harvesting at three and a half months interval (after first harvest). The results showed that the different harvest intervals had significant effect on the growth and yield of Aloe. The maximum plant height, leaves per plant, matured leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf diameter, leaf thickness, leaf volume and number of suckers per plant were recorded in T3 treatment, whereas the minimum values were recorded in T1 treatment. Regarding the different plant weight parameters, the maximum leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, peel fresh weight, peel dry weight, gel fresh weight and gel dry weight were recorded in T3 treatment, while the minimum values were recorded in T1 treatment. The maximum gel powder yield, gel per leaf and total leaf yield were recorded in T3 treatment against the minimum values under T1. Economic studies showed that T3 treatment had the highest B : C ratio, whereas the lowest was recorded in T1 treatment. In general, Aloe leaves harvested at three and a half months interval resulted in higher productivity and maximum benefit in sub-tropical climate like Jorhat, Assam.
13. Jafar Roozbeh Nasiraei1, Hossein Ansari1, *, Kazem Esmaeili1 and Amin Alizadeh1 [Effect of irrigation timing on the eggplant performance under drip irrigation]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 81-87 (2018). 1Department of Water Engineering Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9851, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of night irrigation on the eggplant performance with regard to the irrigation adequacy levels and root temperature indicators. The research site was the Agricultural College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Plant irrigation was conducted through drip irrigation and the soil texture was loam according to tests. Experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replications. The results of statistical analysis showed that night irrigation was significant on the crop performance and water use efficiency (WUE) at 5% confidence level. The amount of consumed water in day and night irrigation was equal. However, the night irrigation performance at the levels of adequacy of 100, 75 and 50% was, respectively, 3.77, 3.69 and 3.07 kg in 2012, and 2.50, 1.95 and 1.60 kg in 2013 more than day irrigation. Irrigation timing (night and day) was affected by root temperature difference. In addition, the temperature after day irrigation increased, but decreased in night irrigation.
14. M. J. Hashempour1, H. Ansari* and S. R. Khodashenas [Evaluation of the effect of irrigation timing on root zone soil temperature, moisture and yield of tomato]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 88-96 (2018). 1Department of Water Engineering Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9851, Iran *(e-mail : email@example.com)
This field experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of day and night time irrigation (DT, NT) on tomato growth, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) at Meteorological Organization of Agricultural Faculty in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The investigation was carried out in three treatments and three replications in two irrigation timings, including one during the day and one at night on randomized plot design. Soil moisture, temperature and EC were measured at a distance of 30 cm from the drippers by data logger REC-P55. These parameters were recorded prior to and after irrigation. Irrigation was applied using tape drip system with drippers spaced every 30 cm. The discharge of the drippers was 2 l/h and the pressure was 0.5 bars. Drip tape instances in each block were considered to be 0.75 m. Three fixed irrigation regimes through the whole crop cycle in both DT and NT at I1 (100%), I2 (75%) and I3 (50%) of the maximum irrigation water requirement (Iw) were used. The DT water used volume by I1, I2 and I3 was 17.2, 4.1 and 6.2% higher than the NT correspondent volume, respectively. Tomato yield measured for DT treatments was 7.88, 6.19 and 19.44 kg lower than NT treatments. The results revealed that NT treatments impression on tomato yield and WUE were not significant. Delivering irrigation at night may help reduce the water used volume and root-zone soil temperature, while increased water use efficiency up to 10% compared to DT irrigation which may translate to improved plant growth. Proper irrigation timing together with efficient water management can help in obtaining a high amount of tomato yield.
15. Fatemeh Karimi*, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Sohrab Moeini, Mohammad Karimi and Roxana Moogouei [Characteristics of canthaxanthin-containing micro- and nanocapsules produced using electrospraying]. Crop Res. 53 (1&2) : 97-107 (2018). 1Department of Food Science and Technology Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Iran *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
In this work, it showed the potential of the electrospinning (in this case electrospraying) technique to generate whey protein concentrate (WPC) and dextran micro-, submicro- and nanocapsules for the encapsulation of canthaxanthin. Furthermore, the solvent used for the development of the encapsulation morphologies was water, making these materials suitable for food applications. The effect of wall material type (WPC or dextran), wall/core ratio and wall material concentration on the morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency (ME) was studied. The results demonstrated that the type of walls influenced the morphology, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and retention of canthaxanthin in the capsules. WPC produced the smallest emulsion droplets and electrosprayed particles. Canthaxanthin capsulated with WPC resulted in better ME and higher stability. The best wall/core ratio was found at 4 : 1, causing the capsules prepared with this ratio had the smallest capsules, the highest encapsulation efficiency and the lowest losing during process. Increase in the wall material concentration from 20 to 40% also caused an increase in the encapsulation efficiency and storage stability.