Volume 55, Number 1 & 2 (January & March, 2020)
1. TANMOY SHANKAR*, SAGAR MAITRA, MASINA SAI RAM AND RAJESH MAHAPATRA [Influence of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield attributes of summer rice (Oryza sativa L.)]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 1-5 (2020). Palli Siksha Bhavana Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731 204, Birbhum, West Bengal, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The experiment was conducted during 2015-16 at farmers’ field of Binuria (23 o40’N and 87 o39’E) village of Birbhum, West Bengal, under the red and lateritic belt. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments and three replications for assessing the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of summer rice. The plot size was 5 x 4 m and the treatment combinations were : T1 : Control, T2 : 25% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN)+75% poultry manure, T3 : 50% RDN+50% poultry manure, T4 : 75% RDN+25% poultry manure, T5 : 100% RDN, T6 : 25% RDN+75% farm yard manure (FYM), T7 : 50% RDN+50% FYM and T8 : 75% RDN+25% FYM. The rice variety IR-36 showed positive influence on integrated nutrient management and resulted in significantly greater values of growth and yield attributes and yield of summer rice. The recommended dose of nutrients was 120 : 60 : 60 kg/ha of N : P2O5 : K2O of summer rice, respectively. The treatments with 75% RDN+25% poultry manure (T4) and 75% RDN+25% FYM (T8) recorded better performance compared to other treatments.
2. K. V. RABARI*, K. M. PATEL AND H. L. CHAUDHARY [Effect of rock phosphate enriched different organic manures and chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of wheat]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 6-9 (2020). Agricultural Research Station Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Aricultural University Aseda, Ta, Deesa-385535, District Banasakantha, Gujarat, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2018-19 on loamy sand soils of Centre for Research on IFS, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat to assess the effect of rock phosphate enriched different organic manures on growth and yield of wheat. The results indicated that the 60 kg P2O5 application through diammonium phosphate resulted in highest yield (5103 kg), number of tillers per meter row length (92.42), number of effective tillers per meter row length (77.42), spike length (8.22 cm) and number of grains per plant (53.13) than rest of the treatments of PROMs. Eventhrough vegetable waste and vermicompost incubated media also resulted in higher number of tillers, effective tillers, number of spike per meter row length and number of grains per ear over the control.
3. HARPINDER KAUR, GURBAX SINGH, AMANPREET SINGH* AND FALJINDER SINGH [Dynamics of weeds and their management through herbicide mixtures in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 10-13 (2020). Department of Agronomy Khalsa College, Amritsar-143 002 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Comparative studies of herbicides and herbicide mixtures were conducted at Khalsa College, Amritsar in 2017. Certain mixtures, topic, affinity and atlantis gave seasonal weed control in wheat crop. Compared to herbicides applied singly, mixtures not only increased the spectrum of weeds controlled but also permitted the use of the lowest rate of each component on the weeds for which it was most effective.
4. ASHOK DHILLON*, RAMESH KUMAR, YOGITA BALI AND ASHISH SHIVRAN [Increasing productivity and profitability of pulses through cluster frontline demonstrations in Mahendergarh district of Haryana state]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 14-16 (2020). Krishi Vigyan Kendra Mahendergarh-123 029 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Cluster frontline demonstrations on greengram and chickpea were conducted at farmers’ field in Mahendergarh district of Haryana state from 2016 to 2018. Improved practices of crop production of the two crops were demonstrated in the demonstration plots. Performance of crops in terms of yield and returns was compared with crops grown with farmers’ practices. Adoption of improved practices in demonstrations increased yield of greengram and chickpea crops by 22.3 and 19.8%, respectively, over farmers’ practices. Average yield of greengram and chickpea in three years’ demonstrations was 7.03 and 19.0 q/ha, respectively. Average gross and net returns in demonstration plots of greengram crop were Rs. 36187 and Rs.17652/ha, respectively, which were higher than those obtained in local check plots. Similarly, average gross and net returns in demonstration plots of chickpea crop were Rs. 88063 and Rs. 60018/ha, respectively, whereas in local check plots these were Rs.73920 and Rs. 47332/ha. The benefit : cost ratio in demonstration plots of greengram and chickpea crops came out to be 1.94 and 3.11, respectively, which were higher than those recorded in local check plots.
5. D. KUMARI MANIMUTHU VEERAL*, GIRI NAYAKANTI AND G. NAVEEN [Vermitechnology-A scientific approach for solid waste management]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 17-19 (2020). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Vermitechnology refers to composting of wastes through earthworms which are called as farmers’ friend. The end product of vermicomposting is vermicompost. Vermicomposts have higher level of available nutrients like carbon nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, calcium and magnesium derived from the wastes. The study has attempted to evaluate the efficacy vermicompost by using three varieties of earthworm on agricultural wastes. These wastes include industrial, crop residues, waste papers and cattle dung. In this study, three varieties of earthworms were used, such as Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus in the vermicomposting. As waste paper, cattle dung and crop residues are rich in carbon, while deficient in nitrogen. Naturally usage of cow dung suits well for easy survival of earthworms. A mixture of waste paper, crop residues and cow dung mixed in the ratio of 1:1:1 was found to be the best. In 60 days time, excellent quality and quantity of compost were produced by three earthworms. Physical and biochemical parameters were analyzed during this period of 60 days. Pre-decomposition of 10 days and subsequent vermicomposting of 60 days indicated the role of this species in vermibiotechnology.
6. DAWINDER, GURBAX SINGH AND AMANPREET SINGH* [Production behaviour of different tuber sizes of potato under varying plant configurations]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 20-23 (2020). Department of Agronomy Khalsa College, Amritsar-143 002 (Punjab), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Production potential of potato varietiy ‘Lady Rosetta’ was evaluated at three tuber sizes viz., 20-30 mm (T1), 30-40 mm (T2) and 40-50 mm (T3) with representing the four intra-row (plant to plant) spacings 8 (S1), 12 (S2), 16 (S3) and 20 cm (S4), respectively. Plant vigour in respect of height, number of stems and leaf area index were affected significantly by the varying seed sizes as well as by the intra-row spacing. Among seed sizes, 40-50 mm (T3 treatment) recorded maximum tuber yield (294.6 q/ha), plant height (43.3 cm), leaf area index (2.94), number of stems (6.11) and tubers per plant (7.48) as compared to other treatments. Whereas in the case of spacing intra-row spacing (S1) gave higher tuber yield (274.4 q/ha) but the number of tubers and stems per plant was higher at (S1). Since most of the economic parameters were in favour of the treatments S4 and T1; hence, it proved to be the best treatment followed by others.
7. BHAVNA GOSWAMI*, R. B. DUBEY, K. D. AMETA, KIRTI SINGH AND SANDEEP KUMAR BANGARWA [Correlation and path analysis for seed yield and its component characters in urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 24-27 (2020). 1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present investigation was executed on 46 genotypes of urdbean and 14 yield-component characters including seed yield per plant were examined to study the kind of association among all the characters and their contribution towards seed yield through correlation coefficient and path coefficient analysis. The analysis revealed significant contrast among all the genotypes for all the 14 characters. The characters, harvest index, biological yield per plant, number of clusters per plant and number of pods per plant exhibited positive and highly significant association with seed yield per plant; while the path coefficient analysis revealed that number of pods per plant advertised high and positive direct effect, and biological yield per plant disclosed high and positive direct as well as indirect effect towards seed yield per plant. Hence, these characters are significant as major components in determining yield in a selection programme aimed at improving genetic potential of urdbean.
8. SHIMANTINI BORKATAKI*, V. RAMALAKSHMI, M. DEVENDER REDDY AND DEEPAYAN PADHY [Biology and feeding pattern of black inch worm, Hyposidra talaca Walker (Lepidoptera : Geometridae) : A major defoliating pest of plantation crops]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 28-31 (2020). Department of Entomology MSSSoA, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha-761 211, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Hyposidra talaca Walker, a polyphagous pest which is considered as a major defoliating pest of tea in north-east India has been reported to feed on a variety of trees, shrubs and weeds. H. talaca, commonly known as black inch worm or twig caterpillar, was recently noticed to cause a considerable damage in Clerodendrum indicum, a medicinal shrub which is gaining worldwide recognition and importance because of its outstanding medicinal properties in MSSSoA campus during 2018-19. Biology of the pest when studied was observed that the incubation period was about 5.8±0.55 days and there were five larval instars in its complete life cycle. The total larval duration of H. talaca was 18.1±2.73 days. In the laboratory, the life cycle of H. talaca completed within 47±4.79 days.
9. ANU SINGH* AND H. D. BHARTIYA [A novel species of Passalora (Mycosphaerellaceae) on Dolichos lablab from India]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 32-35 (2020). Mycopathology Laboratory, Department of Botany Bipin Bihari P. G. College, Jhansi-284 001 (Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A new species of Passalora is proposed as a phytopathogenic on Dolichos lablab (Fabaceae) from Niwari region of Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is described, illustrated and compared with other Passalora species.
10. SYED ABUL HASSAN HUSSAINY*, R. BRINDAVATHY AND R. VAIDYANATHAN [Production potential of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under intercropping system–A review]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 36-47 (2020). Oilseeds Research Station Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tindivanam-604 002 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Groundnut is one of the major oilseed crops of India accounting for 25% of total oilseed production in the country. India’s vegetable oil requirement by 2022 is estimated 33.2 million tonnes and currently imports about 70% of the requirement accounting for about 73,000 crores per annum. Further, industrialization and urbanization have led to decrease land availability, moreover, farmers primarily focus on cultivation of cash crops like cotton, maize, etc. This along with pulses shortage has led to malnutrition creating a serious consequence to the growing generation. This situation can be overcome by intercropping system which aims at increasing productivity at a particular time, but also insurances against total crop failure. It is very important that the performance under intercropping system depends on the selection of suitable intercrop where both sustain and bloom. This review outlines on groundnut based intercropping with castor, blackgram, sesame and pearl millet crops. From the review collected it could be confirmed that groundnut performs well under intercropping system but with certain short duration crops. This could be primarily due to the lesser shading effect caused by the companion short duration crop and also enhanced pod development after the harvest. Therefore, the compatibility within the intercropping systems needs to be clearly understood and thereby disseminated to the farming community the backbone of our nation.
11. G. SEEJA AND S. SREEKUMAR* [A review on cybrids : An approach for plant improvement]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 48-56 (2020). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics College of Agriculture, Ambalavayal, Wayanad-673 593 (Kerala), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Somatic hybridization is a mechanism for gene transfer from related species to cultivated crops, especially when wide hybridization is not applicable. Protoplast fusion resulting in the development of cybrids is known as cybridization. Interaction of plastome and genome contributes to the formation of cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids). Cybridization has been successfully used to transfer CMS in rice and maize. It is very promising allows partial genome transfer better tolerated than whole-genome transfer. It enables transfer of genetic materials between distantly-related and sexually-incompatible species with great potential for improvement of crops. It demands less common skills and expertise, but ranks as a method yielded good results. But introgression and stable inheritance of the alien DNA carrying the desired genes have to take place. Moreover, an important factor to investigate in the future is the mechanism involved in the incorporation of donor DNA into recipient chromosomes.
12. SAGAR MAITRA* [Potential horizon of brown-top millet cultivation in drylands : A review]. Crop Res. 55 (1&2) : 57-63 (2020). Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi-761 211 (Odisha), India *(email : email@example.com)
Millets are recently recognized as ‘nutri-cereals’ due to their superiority in terms of dietary value to other cereals. India has the heritage to grow different kinds of millets since the ancient time. Different small millets have unique quality to combat with the extreme climatic conditions which are more relevant as adaptation option in the present scenario of issues related to global warming and climate change. The production sustainability is must considering the growing population of the world and it is a major concern in developing countries with more population. The small millets can play important role in this regard as these are ecologically sound, belong to C4 group of plants, tolerant to different adverse climatic conditions including drought and can produce a moderate yield for food and nutritional sustainability. Amongst different small millets, the importance brown-top millet has recognized recently as it has huge potential to make faring in resource-poor and fragile ecological conditions and thus can ensure economic and nutritional security as well as production sustainability of smallholders. But it is astonishing that sufficient research has not been carried out and information is not available and ample scope is there for future research to exploit the potential of the crop. An attempt has been made to gather information on brown-top millet on the basis of experimental results as well as available literature.