1. Jayanta Kalita*, H. C. Bhattacharyya, R. K. Thakuria, D. Bhattacharyya and K. Das [Evaluation of suitable rice (Oryza sativa) based cropping systems under rainfed medium land situation of Assam for enhancing farmers income and soil health]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 1-7 (2022). Department of Agronomy Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Rice is the predominant kharif crop grown in low and medium land situation of Assam. As the monocropping of rice is practiced by most of the farmers, the cropping intensity of the state is not upto the mark. In recent years, the farmers of the state have started growing different rabi pulses and oilseeds in sequence which helps in increasing the cropping intensity of the state as well as the farmers income. Diversification and intensification of rice-based cropping systems with remunerative and efficient crops like pulses, oilseeds and vegetables has great scope to generate maximum profit and soil health. Therefore, this study was conducted during 2016-17 and 2017-18 at farmers field to assessed 6 rice-based cropping sequences under rainfed medium land situation for their productivity, profitability and soil health. The treatments consisted of 6 rice-based cropping sequences viz. rice – rapeseed – fallow; rice – rapeseed- blackgram; rice – garden pea -blackgram; rice – lentil – blackgram; rice – garden pea–Sesbania and rice – lentil- Sesbania. The results revealed that the performance of individual crops contributing the components of different cropping sequences were more or less identical in both the years of experimentation. The higher land utilization Index (92.33), employment generation (265 man days), relative equivalent yield (117.29 q/ha)), production efficiency (39.90 kg/ha), rain water productivity (8.14(kg/ha/mm), nutrient-use productivity (50.70 kg/ha/kg of nutrients applied), sustainable yield index (0.64) alongwith economic parameters like gross return (134.89103 Rs/ha), net return (66.27103 Rs/ha), benefit:cost ratio (2.16), economic efficiency (236.09 Rs/ha/day) and relative economic efficiency (149.38%) were calculated based on standard formula. The higher Soil organic carbon (0.71 & 0.64% in 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth), available Nitrogen (278.12 kg/ha), Phosphorous (36.08 kg/ha) and Potash (158.18 kg/ha) content after completion of the experiment were recorded under the sequences diversified with pulses. So, it can be concluded from the present investigation that, rice- garden pea –black gram and rice-garden pea-sesbania (GM) were found to be suitable rice-based cropping sequences in respect of farmers income is concerned. But the rice-based cropping sequences diversified with food legumes and green manuring crop contributed to more soil organic carbon and NPK status of soil.
2. Adarsh S* and Jacob John [Performance of different pulse crops in summer rice fallow of northern Kerala]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 8-14 (2022). College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University Padannakkad, Kasaragod-671314, Kerala, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Rice-rice-fallow is the most common rice-based farming system in northern Kerala, particularly in the districts of Kasaragod, Kannur and Kozhikode. Therefore, a field study was undertaken during the summer, 2018 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pilicode, Kerala, India to find the suitability of different pulse crops (cowpea, black gram , green gram and red gram) for summer fallows of double cropped lowland rice fields under varying nitrogen doses. Height at 100% Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (RDN) (38.73 cm), number of branches per plant at 100 and 75% RDN (9.40 and 9.93, respectively), leaf area index (LAI) at 100 and 50 % RDN (1.16 and 1.28, respectively), crop growth rate (CGR) (4.57 g m-2 per day) and yield at 50% RDN (1681.16 kg/ha) was significant for cowpea. Cowpea and red gram performed better among the different pulses, in terms of yield. At 100 and 50% RDN, the nitrogen (N) (46.2 kg/ha and 60.0 kg/ha, respectively) and phosphorous (P) uptakes (7.3 kg/ha and 9.9 kg/ha, respectively) were on par in cowpea. At 75 and 50% RDN, the nitrogen (N) (52.6 kg/ha and 42.9 kg/ha respectively) and phosphorous (P) uptakes (4.6 kg/ha and 4.4 kg/ha, respectively) were on par in green gram. The potassium (K) uptake (25.0 kg/ha) was higher in cowpea (50% RDN). The available soil nutrients showed no difference after summer crop. Gross income (Rs.1,52,269.20/ha), net income (Rs. 70,902.20/ha) and B:C (benefit: cost) ratio (1.87) were higher for red gram. Under varied amounts of N in the same crop, there was no significant change in yield, gross revenue, or B:C ratio of pulses, indicating that the lower level of N (50% RDN) will suffice. It’s also reasonable to assume that the residual impact of the previous two rice crops helped to lower N exposure when pulses were cultivated in double-cropped lowlands during the summer.
3. Kanwalpreet Kaur*, Gurbax Singh and Charanjit Singh Aulakh [Effect of various crop establishment methods on the crop performance and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa)]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 15-20 (2022). Department of Agriculture Khalsa College, Amritsar-143002, Punjab, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
With decreasing water availability for agriculture and increasing demand for rice, water use in rice production systems has to be reduced and water productivity increased. In this paper we compared the effects of two varieties on crop performance and water use under different methods of crop establishment, in the field experiments at students’ farm, Khalsa College, Amritsar during kharif season of 2016 and 2017. The field was laid out in split plot design with four replications with two cultivars i.e., PR 126 and PR 121 in main plot treatments and six methods of sowing/transplanting i.e., W-DSR (Wet-Direct Seeded Rice) on flat beds, D-DSR (Dry-Direct seeded Rice) on flat beds, PTR (puddle transplanted rice), RSR (Ridge Sown Rice), RTR (Ridge Transplanted Rice), W-DSR (Wet- Direct Seeded Rice) on ridges, D-DSR (Dry- Direct Seeded Rice) on ridges and RTR (Ridge Transplanted Rice) were kept in sub plot treatments. The experiments were conducted in irrigated lowlands where soil texture was sandy loam. The results revealed that grain yields of rice were 72.63 q/ha and 73.54 q/ha under W- DSR on flat beds, 70.07 q/ha and 71.50 q/ha under D-DSR on flat beds, 69.24 q/ha and 73.84 q/ha under PTR, 70.48 q/ha and 73.76 q/ha under W-DSR on ridges, 74.51 q/ha and 71.64 q/ha under D-DSR on ridges and 69.21 q/ha and 73.13 q/ha under RTR in both years. Yield did not significantly differ between DSR and other crop establishment technologies in both years, but water use efficiency was higher under W-DSR on flat beds as well as on ridges than under PTR and RTR in both years. Flat sowing of rice under W-DSR was economical than other treatments. Accordingly, conventional practice of rice planting is no longer able to sustain the productivity of rice cropping systems.
4. P. K. Karthikeyan*, T. Sowmiyan, R. Bhuvaneswari, R. Kandasamy, Ajish Muraleedharan and D. Gokul [Influence of potassium on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cv. TMV 13]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 21-27 (2022). 1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Annamalainagar-608002 Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
All the crops require larger amounts of macronutrients for sustainable production. In view of this context, a present investigation was conducted during 2018-2019 at farmer’s field, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India to study the effect of potassium on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of groundnut in cv. TMV 13. The farm is located at 11006’00’’ N latitude and 78004’11’’ E longitude. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and nine treatments. The treatments were Absolute control, RDF (NP alone), RDF (NP alone) + 25 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 50 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 75 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 100 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 125 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 150 kg K2O/ha, RDF (NP alone) + 175 kg K2O/ha. The results of the field experiment revealed that application of potassium significantly increased the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of groundnut. Growth attributes, namely, plant height (18.2, 42.4 and 55.2 cm at FS, PFS and HS, respectively), leaf area index (1.58, 3.31 and 3.03 at FS, PFS and HS respectively), dry matter production (2746, 4449 and 5906 kg/ha at FS, PFS and HS respectively), total chlorophyll content (1.83 and 2.29 mg/ha at FS and PFS, respectively) and yield attributes, namely, pod yield (2558 kg/ha), haulm yield (3348 kg/ha), shelling percentage (75.2%), kernel yield (1923 kg/ha) and test weight (44.5 g) were found to be maximum in application of RDF (NP alone) + 100 kg K2O/ha. The treatment also recorded the maximum of total nitrogen uptake (84. 3 kg/ha), phosphorus uptake (24.7 kg/ha) and potassium uptake (103.6 kg/ha). However, the treatment of RDF (NP alone) + 100 kg K2O/ha was on par with the treatment of RDF (NP alone) + 125 kg K2O/ha. The least values of growth, yield and nutrient uptake were recorded in absolute control. In post-harvest soil, the maximum value of available nitrogen content (179.2 kg/ha) and phosphorus content (26.7 kg/ha) were recorded with application of RDF (NP alone) and the maximum potassium content (275.2 kg/ha) was recorded with application of RDF (NP alone) + 175 kg K2O/ha. From the results, the present experiment concluded that the excess levels of potassium application decreased the growth, yield attributes and nutrient uptake of groundnut. The application of potassium as 100 kg K2O/ha enhanced the better yield and nutrient uptake of groundnut.
5. PARASHURAM PATROTI*, R. MADHUSUDHANA, SUJAY RAKSHIT, K. K. SHARMA, PRABHAKAR, M. Y. SAMDUR, NITESH S. D., M. ELANGOVAN AND V. A. TONAPI [Analysis of genetic diversity in exotic sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm and identification of trait specific superior accessions for post-rainy situation]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 28-37 (2022). Centre on Rabi Sorghum (ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research) Shelgi, Solapur-413006, Maharashtra, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Exotic germplasm serves as important reservoir of genetic variability in most of the field crops. In order to assess the genetic variability, 70 exotic germplasm lines along with five popular varieties were evaluated for twelve agro-morphological traits in an augmented block design during post-rainy season of 2017-18 at Centre on Rabi Sorghum, Solapur, India. Wide range of values were observed for stover yield per plant (6.93 -152.42 g), panicle weight per plant (10.24 – 88.11 g), total biomass (22.91 – 240.53 g) and grain yield per plant (6.38 – 92.63 g). Stover yield, thousand seed weight, total biomass and harvest index were significantly correlated with grain yield (P 0.01). Days to 50% flowering and plant height are negatively associated with lodging and stay green traits. Cluster analysis resolved all the genotypes into nine major clusters and the PCA analysis revealed that the total biomass, grain yield per plant, stover yield per plant, and panicle weight per plant contributed maximum towards divergence. Among germplasm lines, IS 11848 was found superior for both grain (92.63 g) and stover yield (152.42 g) over the best check CSV 29, which could be further evaluated in multi-location testing for isolation of better farmer preferred rabi genotype. The accessions, IS 9742 (57 days) and IS 12662 (93 days) were earliest and late to flower respectively. Few accessions, IS 14880, IS 13047, IS 18662, IS 12662, IS 11919 were found to be lodging resistant, possessing stay green character in them, which ultimately serves as potential source for drought resistance breeding in post rainy sorghum.
6. J. JOHNNY SUBAKAR IVIN, G. REETH JESSICA, GREETTY WILLIAMS, S. VENNILA AND Y. ANBUSELVAM* [Study of line x tester analysis for combining ability in bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus)]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 38-43 (2022). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Chidambaram-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present investigation was carried out at Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram during July 2019 to September 2020 in a set of 9 parents (six lines and three testers) by making 18 cross combinations. Ten economically important traits viz. days to first flower, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, number of seeds per capsule, hundred seed weight and seed yield per plant were studied for per se performance, general combining ability, specific combining ability effects and gene action. The present investigation also recorded preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the characters. The results showed that the hybrids TCR-2056 × Punjab Padmini (80.05) and Dharmapuri Local × Punjab Padmini (56.24) were superior hybrids as they showed high per se performance and significant SCA effects. So, they can be used for producing promising hybrids. The cross Panruty Local × Parbhani Kranthi (27.06) showed high mean and significant SCA effects. So, it can be used for producing high seed yield and some of its related traits could be used as heterotic hybrids.
7. Mary Sharmila A., Vengadeshkumar L.*, Sanjaygandhi S. and Meera T. [Survey on the incidence of rice sheath blight disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani and assessing their characters]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 44-52 (2022). 1Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram-608602, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Rice sheath blight is one of the prominent diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani causes significant losses in rice growing regions of Tamil Nadu. The present study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence and incidence of rice sheath blight in different regions of Tamil Nadu, India during 2018-2019 and assess the cultural, morphological characters and pathogenic variability among ten numbers of isolates of R. solani. The survey in different regions of Tamil Nadu revealed the endemic nature of the sheath blight disease with the maximum disease incidence (19.97%) recorded in Chitrakudi of Thanjavur region (RS5). Also, the isolates of R. solani exhibited cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability among them the isolate RS5 was exhibit faster mycelial growth, maximum sclerotial production and sclerotial size and recorded the maximum incidence of root rot disease under pot culture conditions. Also, in this study potato dextrose agar medium was found to be as best medium for supporting the mycelial growth and sclerotial production of isolate RS5. Hence, RS5 was found to be most virulent isolate and may be taken up for further studies.
8. AKSHAYA C. K.1, VENGADESHKUMAR L.* AND MEERA T. [Induced resistance in maize by combination of bio-agent and fungicide for the management of maydis leaf blight]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 53-58 (2022). 1Department of Plant Pathology Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Maize is one of the most important cereal crops in the world having wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. Maydis Leaf Blight (MLB) or Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado) Shoemaker is a serious foliar disease of maize distributed widely in maize producing areas throughout the world grown under warm and humid conditions. The present study was conducted at Department of Plant Pathology during 2016 to 2018 to investigate the efficacy of enzymatic activity in maize plants treated with T. harzianum + tricyclazole 18% + mancozeb 62% WP. Among various treatment tested, the plants treated with combination treatment involving seed treatment with T. harzianum @ 4g/kg of seeds and foliar spray with Tricyclazole 18% + Mancozeb 62% WP @0.1% on 35 and 50th DAS recorded maximum activity of defense related enzymes viz., PO (0.61), PPO (0.68), PAL (177.49). Enhancement of defense enzymes in maize crop treated in combination with biocontrol agent and fungicide plays a significant role in management of Maydis leaf blight.
9. LAVUDI SAIDA*, MATHSYARAJA SHRAVYA AND VUTUKURI PRATHAP REDDY [Standardization of efficient regeneration protocol and agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation in RPBio-226 variety of rice (Oryza sativa)]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 59-65 (2022). Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana-500085, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Studies related to the genome engineering in plants require an efficient protocol with high frequency callus induction and regeneration. This present study was conducted at PRR Biotech laboratory, Hyderabad in the year 2020 and aimed to develop an efficient protocol to achieve a high frequency callus induction and genetic transformation of RPBio-226, a Samba Mahsuri rice variety. In-vitro callus induction was carried out using MS media supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg/L singly and in combinations with BAP viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/L. Shoot induction was carried out using MS media supplemented with BAP 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg/L and Kinetin 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/L and the Best response observed with 2,4-D and BAP at 2.0 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring PBI 121 plasmid (binary vector) was used in the process of rice transformation. An experiment was planned to use various parameters viz. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ODs of Agrobacterium cells at 600nm. Embryogenic calli were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium supplemented with different concentrations of acetosyringone (AS) (0, 50, 100 and 150 µM) and 100 µM was found to give the best response for transformation. After Agrobacterium infection, infected calli were selected on the selection media with kanamycin as selection agent. The best hormone for shoot induction was BAP at 1.5 mg/L and kinetin at 0.5 mg/L and highest number of roots was achieved with 0.1 mg/L NAA in combination with 0.2 mg/L IBA. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized on soilrite mix showing the highest survival rate after 4 weeks of acclimatization. The npt II and Gus specific primers were used for PCR to identify stably transformed progeny that survived kanamycin treatment. GUS Histochemical Analysis of Callus was also carried out for the confirmation of transformation which helps us to generate transgenic plants in future.
10. S. Sathiyamurthi*, K. Dhanasekaran, D. Elayaraja, M. Ramya and R. Gobi [Effect of inorganic and organic sources and levels of boron on growth, yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) under salt stress condition]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 66-72 (2022). Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Therefore, a simple, completely factorial randomized pot experiment was conducted during 2018 at pot culture yard, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic sources and levels of boron on growth and yield, quality attributes and uptake by cotton under salt stress condition. The experiment was conducted with four levels of boron (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg//kg of soil) through three sources viz., borox, solubar and magnesium borohumate complexes. The cotton variety LRA5166 was used as test variety. The results revealed that application of 1.5 kg of B through magnesium borohumate (MBH) complex recorded the higher plant height (124.6 cm), leaf area index (4.82), DMP (216 g/pot), yield components like number of bolls per plant (18.20), and mean boll weight (3.92) of cotton in saline sodic soil. Furthermore, higher seed cotton yield (93.51 g/pot), seed yield (54.72 g/pot) and lint yield (33.53 72 g/pot) were also recorded. This was on par with application of 1.0 kg of B through magnesium borohumate and recorded the plant height (122.81 cm), leaf area index (4.7), DMP (213 g/pot), yield components like number of bolls per plant (17.4), and mean boll weight (3.83 g), seed cotton yield (92.71 g/pot), seed yield (54.1 g /pot) and lint yield (32.96 g/pot) and followed by S2L4 (1.5 kg of B through solubar). The conclusion made from this study is the application of boron through 1.0 kg of B through magnesium borohumate will sustainably increase the cotton yield in saline sodic soil.
11. Uddipta Ghosh*, Irungbam Vimalkumar, Ranajit Kumar Biswas and Debargha Banerjee [Evaluation of soil wetting patterns in drip irrigation]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 73-78 (2022). Department of Civil Engineering JIS College of Engineering, Block A, Phase III PO. Kalyani, District Nadia-741235, West Bengal, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Increasing agricultural water use efficiency is of prime importance owing to the decrease in availability of fresh water for agriculture. In these circumstances, drip irrigation is considered so far as the most efficient irrigation systems and can be utilized correctly with the knowledge of dimension of the soil wetted volume which is the main factors in determining the spacing of drippers. Therefore, the present study was conducted at the Instructional Farm, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during 2019-20 to examine the vertical (Z) and horizontal (W) water fronts advance within the soil profile at the dripper in a clay loam soil. Same volume of water (50 litre) was applied at the rate of 2.3 and 4.9 lph at each irrigation. By observing the soil on the tips of the auger, the depth of wetting was determined and noted down for different points on the line of the wetted area. It was found that there is little variation in the theoretical width and depth with the actual width and depth of wetting of the soil in case of 4.9 lph discharge rate. For the given discharge rate, the inaccuracy was less for the wetted depth than the wetted diameter. So, the information obtained from this investigation, about soil wetting pattern of drip irrigation system can be helpful to decide emitter, lateral spacing and system pressure for delivering required amount of water to the plant root zone. Thus, this investigation can be instrumental in design and management of drip system, which is slowly becoming a promising agricultural water management practice to tackle the huge food productivity problem and environmental issues of developing and under-developed countries.
12. Deependra Yadav*, A. K. Pal, S. P. Singh and Kailash Sati [Phytochemicals in mango (Mangifera indica) parts and their bioactivities: A Review]. Crop Res. 57 (1&2) : 79-95 (2022). Department of Horticulture Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.)-221005, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Mango is being used for centuries to treat a number of diseases like, fever, diarrhea, fainting, abnormality of lymph node, and diabetes. The mango parts are shown to contain flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and many more bioactive compounds; mangiferin being one of its major compounds. The different parts of mango (bark, leaves, fruits, pulp, peel, kernel, flowers) are proven to exhibit anthelmintic, anti-bacterial, anti-bone resorption, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-fungal, anti-HIV, anti-hyperlipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-parasitic, anti-pyretic, anti-plasmodial, anti-spasmodic, anti-viral, gastro-protective, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and immuno-modulatory and hypolipidemic properties. These pharmacological properties of mango are due to the bioactive compounds present in the different mango parts. In literature several reviews appeared dealing with the bioactive compounds present in the different mango parts and their bioactivities. However, these reviews are confined to either a few mango parts or a few bioactivities. In the present review the bioactive compounds of the different mango parts and their different bioactivities are considered in detail. This review would be helpful in the further research on the mango phytochemicals, their bioactivities and the development of herbal medicine based on mango.