Volume 57, Number 4 (July 2022)
1. Anita Singh*, Pravin Berad, Kavita Khadke, Rajas Warke and Sobita Simon [Effect of organic products on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa)]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 217-222 (2022). Department of Plant Pathology & Entomology Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Science Allahabad-211007, Uttar Pradesh, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
During green revolution the use of chemicals in the form of fertilizers and pesticides give rise to increase in pollution of soil, water and air. It also causes harmful impact on the health sector of non-target living organism. This increases the demand for organic products. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic products the field trial was carried out in 2019 kharif season at the experimental central research farm, Department of Entomology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad. The Randomized Block Design (RBD) method with total three replicas was used for this study. The following soil treatments were used: Soil Organic Supplement @ 10 kg/ acre, Humikure @ 5 kg/ acre, SuperMykorrizA @ 100g/ acre, Non EdibleDeoiled Seed Cake @ 5kg/ acre, combination and control. The plant height at 30, 45, 60 and 90 Days After Sowing (DAS); number of tillers at 30 and 45 DAS; panicle length and yield at harvesting were recorded for growth and yield studies. The result revealed that the maximum plant height was in Combination at 30 DAS (58.8 cm), 45 DAS (68.96 cm), 60 DAS (83.72 cm) and 90 DAS (89.0cm), respectively. In Combination the number of tillers (18.86) and panicle length (25.81 cm) were highest which was followed by SuperMykorrizA, Humikure, Soil Organic Supplement and Non EdibleDeoiled Seed Cake when compared to control. Moreover, the yield was maximum recorded in Combination (54.61 q/ ha) followed by Humikure (53.94 q/ ha), SuperMykorrizA (52.09 q/ ha), Soil Organic Supplement (51.97 q/ ha), Non EdibleDeoiled Seed Cake (50.55 q/ ha) when compared to control (49.54 q/ ha). Therefore, the selected organic products in combination were showing increased in growth and yield when compared to control.
2. Anchali Yao, Avinash Sharma*, Chowlani Manpoong, V. S. Devadas and Sheelawati Monlai [Performance of selected traditional rice varieties under Namsai conditions of eastern Himalayas]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 223-229 (2022). Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai-792103, Arunachal Pradesh, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The traditional rice varieties were evaluated for furnishing complimentary and climate adopted high yield crop to the district farmer. The selected rice varieties maintain food production and security in the district. An experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the Arunachal University of Studies to assess the performance of selected traditional varieties of rice. Twelve traditional varieties of rice from Arunachal Pradesh as well as from other states (viz., Anjali, Hauska rice, Namsai Local, Gandhakasala 1, Khamti Lahi, Sali, Ambing, Taker, Gandhakasala, Bora, Bihari Dhan and Jeerakasala) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications during Kharif season of 2020. The varieties differed significantly for all the growth and yield parameters studied. The growth parameter of Tillers per hill (31.3) and plant height (97.13 cms) were observed in the Khamti Lahi, whereas the number of tillers (11.83) and the plant height (62.97 cms) were recorded by Ambing and Namsai Local respectively. The crop duration was seen in Bora (90 days), followed by Ambing and Namsai Local (100 days), and in Jeerakasala (138 days), Gandhakasala 1, Sali and Gandhakasala (137 days). The yield was reported in Khamti Lahi (1.81 kg/ 6 sq m and 130.67 days duration) followed by Sali (1.74 kg yield and 100.67 days duration) and Ambing (0.58 kg yield and 103.33 days duration). The yield of short duration variety like Bora (90 days duration and yield of 1.10 kg/ plot), and Taker (103 days duration and 1.23 kg yield) were reported to introduce double production for overcoming farmer’s crop problem. The correlation analysis showed that plant height, duration of vegetative phase, productive tillers and grains per panicle are the major factors contributing to yield, and these characters are important in a selection programme. The investigation also suggests further studies on utilization of scented or specialty rice varieties and possibility of genetic improvement of traditional varieties to enhance their productivity.
3. AMANDEEP KAUR*, SATYAVAN, RAMANDEEP KAUR AND VIKRAM SINGH [Effect of malt barley varieties and nitrogen levels on crop phenology, PAR interception, GDD, RUE and thermal use efficiency under saline water irrigation]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 230-236 (2022). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, Haryana, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Barley is one of the most salt tolerant crops and can be adopted in a condition where the irrigation quality of the water is saline in nature. Due to uncertainty of rainfall and scarcity of water, farmers of Haryana often irrigate the crops with poor quality water and this situation is likely to become more alarming with the depleting water resources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 to evaluate the effect of different malt barley varieties and nitrogen levels on crop phenology, PAR interception, GDD, radiation use efficiency and thermal use efficiency. The experiment was laid out in split plot design by keeping four varieties (BH 902, BH 946, BH 885 and DWRB 101) in main plots and four nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) in sub plots with four replications. Variety BH 902 recorded significantly higher grain yield and took maximum number of days for flag leaf emergence, spike initiation and physiological maturity than variety BH 946, BH 885 and DWRB 101, respectively. Highest GDD, radiation use efficiency and thermal use efficiency was recorded by variety BH 946 which was statistical at par with DWRB 101 and significantly higher than BH 902 and BH 885. Application of 90 kg N/ha took maximum number of days for flag leaf emergence, spike initiation and physiological maturity as well as recorded higher GDD, radiation use efficiency and thermal use efficiency as compared to 0, 30 and 60 kg N/ha.
4. Bhawna Babal*, M. K. Sharma and V. K. Phogat [Effect of pendimethalin herbicide on Azotobacter and PSB population in soil during crop growth under conventional and zero tillage]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 237-244 (2022). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The development of more productive and sustainable agricultural systems essentially requires the assessment of the population and diversity of microorganisms in soils under different management practices. The conservation agriculture (CA) systems are considered very important for soil health, biodiversity and environmental quality. But the use of herbicides is substantially increased under CA systems which may cause adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health. Moreover, the literature pertaining to the consequence of herbicides on soil microorganisms is quite controversial, and largely based either on laboratory or short-term field experiments. Therefore, the impact of pendimethalin herbicide on the population of Azotobacter and phosphorus solubilising bacteria (PSB) under CA system was taken up during _summer, 2019_ at Soil Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar in alluvial sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustept). The experiment included two cropping systems (mungbean – wheat and sorghum – wheat), with three tillage practices, viz., zero tillage with surface retention of crop residues in both summer and winter seasons (ZT-ZT), conventional tillage in summer and zero tillage with residue retention in winter (CT-ZT) and conventional tillage in both seasons (CT-CT). Resultes revealed an increase in the population of both Azotobacter and PSB under ZT-ZT as compared to CT-CT practice at different depths. In surface 0-5 cm soil, the ZT-ZT practice increased the population of Azotobacter and PSB by 65.6 and 30.0%, respectively, over CT-CT practice in 13 years of experimentation. Application of pendimethalin provided stimulation to the population of both the microbes till 15th day of it application under all the tillage practices. This stimulation in population was of almost similar order (21-23%) for under ZT-ZT practice but greater stimulation (29.8%) in the population of Azotobacter as compared to PSB (13.5%) under CT-CT practice accentuated Azotobacter to be more efficient in utilizing easily available pendimethalin for their augmentation of the proliferation. The influence of cropping systems on microbes upon application of pendimethalin was largely non-significant.
5. ROHIT GAUTAM, RICHA KHANNA*, KRISHAN PAL, VIRENDRA SINGH, ABHAY SAINI AND MOHIT GAUTAM [Effect of biofertilizers and phosphorus levels on growth, yield and nodulation of black gram (Vigna mungo)]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 245-248 (2022). School of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering IFTM University, Moradabad-244102, Uttar Pradesh, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Pulses plays a very important role in deciding economy of Moradabad region as a number of pulses are grown by farmers in this region. The major issue that farmers faces is low productivity and major reason behind that is low nutrient status and lack of beneficial microorganisms in the soil. Application of balanced nutrition primarily phosphorus in leguminous crops plays a key role in root development and nodule formation which ultimately reduces the dependence on nitrogen fertilizers through atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To evaluate this further, a field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2019 at Agricultural Farm of IFTM University, Moradabad, to study the effect of levels of phosphorus and biofertilizers viz., Rhizobium and PSB on growth and yield of black gram which is an important pulse crop in Moradabad region. The experiment consisted of seven treatments with NPK fertilizer @ 20:40:40 kg/ha (or) 20:40:60 kg/ha with and without seed inoculation with Rhizobium or Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) or in combination. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design replicated thrice. Black gram variety ‘Azaad-2’ was sown at a spacing of 30 × 15 cm on a sandy loam soil which was low in organic carbon (0.39 %), available nitrogen (87.75 kg/ha) and available phosphorus (13.5 kg/ha) and medium in available potassium content (198 kg/ha). The experimental results indicated that, application of NPK @ 20:60:40 kg/ha + Seed inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB resulted in highest values of all the growth parameters such as plant height, number of primary branches, number of leaves and number of root nodules at different growth stages. This treatment has also reported an increase in grain yield by 39.90% and 33.55 % respectively over control (no fertilizer) and conventional practices (NPK @ 20:40:40, which clearly indicates the suitability in obtaining maximum yield and fetching higher returns for the black gram farmers in Moradabad region.
6. Prakash S*, R. Raman, R. Krishnamoorthy and E Balaji [Effect of organic foliar nutrition on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 249-252 (2022). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2020 at farmer’s field in Periya Muliyanur village, Anthiyur taluk, Erode district, Tamil Nadu to examine the effect of organic foliar nutrition on growth and yield of groundnut. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications with nine treatments comprising recommended dose of fertilizers in 75% and 100% dosage along with Panchakavya, Vermiwash @ 2% and 4%, Cow dung spray @ 10%, Humic acid @ 4%, Pulse Wonder @ 4% and Homobrassinolide – 0.12g a.i./ha along with control. Among the different treatments tried out, recommended dose of fertilizer along with foliar application of humic acid @ 4 % significantly recorded highest plant height (30.74), number of component leaves/plant (38.64), dry matter production (4063 kg/ha), number of pods/plant (22.67), number of pegs/plant (34.17), pod yield (2396 kg/ha), kernel yield (1716 kg/ha), halum yield (3620 kg/ha) and B:C ratio (2.52). The least growth on 60 days after sowing (DAS) and yield parameters were recorded in control with plant height on 60 DAS (23.35), number of component leaves/plant (29.95), dry matter production (3239 kg/ha), number of pods/plant (16.34), number of pegs/plant (27.84), pod yield (2090 kg/ha), kernel yield (1429 kg/ha) and halum yield (3253 kg/ha).
7. Pooja Rai, Jyoti Kanwar, R. N. Kanpure, Om Singh* and G. P. S. Rathore [Effect of polysaccharide based edible coating to improve shelf life and quality of guava (Psidium guajava) in Malwa region of central India]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 253-260 (2022). College of Horticulture Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior-474002, Madhya Pradesh, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Guava fruit have a very short shelf life due to high rate of respiration. Storage of guava fruits at room temperature causes weight loss, microbial disease, physiological disorders and physical injuries and is moreover, highly susceptibility to chilling injury making low temperature storage less possible. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out at the Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India during the year 2019- 2020 with an objective to extend shelf-life of guava fruits cv. Rewa-72. The treatments comprised of post-harvest treatments with Chitosan, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Aloe vera gel. The physico-chemical, functional and sensory quality of guava fruits were significantly influenced by application Chitosan @ 1.5% and Carboxymethyl cellulose @ 1.5%) coating up to 12 days of storage. It was found that the CMC or Chitosan bilayer coating was equally effective as the commercial polyethylene wax in enhancing glossy appearance of guava fruits because it is a good moisture barrier, thus preventing the water loss by transpiration. Chitosan @ 1.5% and CMC @1.5% treated fruits had more overall acceptability because this coating helped in improving the colour, aroma, taste, texture, appearance and quality of fruits. Hence, this technology could be more useful for increase shelf life of fruits, low cost and reduce the post-harvest loss of fruits it also helps to replace the use of harmful chemicals by growers and traders.
8. ELAVENA WAR*, C. P. SURESH, TODIK JIMMY T. SANGMA AND RAPUNGA FLORY H. [Influence of organic manures on the growth, quality and yield attributes of Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Ri Bhoi District of Meghalaya]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 261-265 (2022). Department of Horticulture North Eastern Hill University, West Garo Hills District Tura-794002, Meghalaya, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) of family Rutaceace is one of the most popular fruits in Northeast India and globally. The production of the mandarin is slowly declining, and it is the main problem in almost all Asian countries. Thus, an investigation was conducted at Umling, Nongpoh, Ri Bhoi District of Meghalaya during 2018 to 2020 to find out the effect of different organic manures on the growth and quality of Khasi Mandarin. It was carried out on 8-year-old fruit trees with planting distance of 3 m × 3 m. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 11 treatments consisting of farmyard manure, vermicompost, neem cake and wood ash which were applied in different combinations. It was observed that application of 10 kg vermicompost + 2 kg wood ash + 2 kg neem cake resulted in maximum fruit yield (28.05 kg/tree), TSS (11.5 o Brix), total sugar (7.65 %) and ascorbic acid (40.31 mg/100 mL) and it can be recommended as the best combination of organic manures for obtaining maximum yield and quality of Khasi mandarin fruit in Meghalaya.
9. K. Vimala Charishma, Subhrajyoti Chatterjee*, Tarra Supriya, Monisankar Bera, Saurav Barman and Nilanjana Datta [Integrated nutrient management on the growth, yield, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. “Arka Rakshak” under north-eastern ghats region of India]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 266-274 (2022). 1Department of Horticulture, M S Swaminathan School of Agriculture (MSSSOA) Ceturion University of Technology and Management (CUTM) Paralakhemundi-761211, Gajapati, Odisha, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Tomato, a heavy nutrient feeder requires large quantities of chemical fertilizers which increased the crop productivity, however, badly affected the soil productivity and environmental quality. This situation demands integration of organic manures without reducing the productivity. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha, India during rabi season of the year 2020-21 to scrutinize the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients (INM) on the growth, yield, nutrient availability and soil nutrient status to tomato. Nine nutrient treatments with 100, 75 and 50 % recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) in combination with vermicompost (VC), farmyard manure (FYM) with biofertilizers viz., Azotobacter and Azospirillum were laid out in randomized block design replicated thrice. The study revealed that the integration of organic manures in combination with inorganic fertilizers significantly improved overall plant growth, yield, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status of tomato than sole application of the inorganic sources of nutrients. The findings revealed that the treatment 50% RDN + 25% N through VC + 25% N through FYM was superior in terms of all growth and yield parameters under study. However, highest values for all the quality parameters were exhibited by treatment 50% RDN + 50% N through FYM + BF’S. Total nutrient uptake in regard to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by tomato plant recorded significantly highest in 50% RDN + 25% N through VC + 25% N through FYM. Similarly, the residual soil fertility in respect to organic carbon, available N, P and K were improved significantly by various treatments and found highest in the treatment 50% RDN + 25% N through VC + 25% N through FYM. Hence, the use of integrated nutrient management becomes indispensable for maximizing tomato yield, sustaining soil health and quality.
10. S. SELVAKUMAR, M. THIRUPPATHI*, R. REX IMMANUEL, A. SIVARAMAN AND GUDAPATI ASHOKA CHAKRAVARTHY [Impact of foliar fertilization of nutrients and biofertilizer on the growth and yield of hybrid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 275-280 (2022). Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The newly released high yielding cotton cultivars are higher boll retention rate than conventional cultivars that have higher overall nutrient demand during the flowering and boll development stages. Therefore, this field experiment was conducted at during summer, 2020 at Annamalai University experimental farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India, 608 002 to ascertain the impact of foliar application of essential nutrients and biofertilizers on growth and yield of cotton. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments of foliar application macro and micro-nutrients with and without Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFM) and replicated thrice. Foliar application of macro, micronutrients and PPFM registered the increased values of growth characters, yield attributes and yield of hybrid cotton. Among the foliar application practice tested, foliar application of 2% urea + 1% PPFM at flowering and boll development stages significantly resulted in the enhances values of growth characters viz., plant height (157.40 cm), Dry matter production (6003 kg/ha), number of monopodial branches (3.28/plant), growth analysis like Leaf area index (4.30), Crop growth rate (7.01 g/m2/day) and Relative growth rate (0.0144 g/g/day), yield attributes viz., number of sympodial branches (21.77/plant), number of squares (83.77/plant), number of bolls (45.04/plant), boll weight (5.58 g) and seed cotton yield (3185 kg/ha). This was statistically on par with the foliar application of 2% MgSO4 + 1% PPFM at flowering and boll development stages. The lower values of growth characters, yield attributes and yield were recorded under water spray treatment. Based on the results of field investigation it can be concluded that foliar application of 2% urea + 1% PPFM at flowering and boll development stages can possibly enhance the growth and yield of hybrid cotton grown under dryland condition.
11. V. K. Yadav and Sonam Sharma* [Study on the invasive alien species in ponds of Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh, India]. Crop Res. 57 (4) : 281-284 (2022). Department of Botany D. V. College, Orai-285001, Uttar Pradesh, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Invasive alien plant species are widely vulnerable to invasion and recognized as stresses altering the ecosystem properties and competing with native flora of pond. During the investigation a total of 30 invasive alien species belonging to 26 genera under 17 families were recorded. Asteraceae was the most dominant family with 5 species and about 79% of these invasive alien species were introduced from Tropical America. Among invasive alien species, major potential threat in the near future is by Argemone maxicana and Parthenium histophorus. It was observed that 18 plant species were being used by local inhabitant for medicinal purposes. In order to resist the spread, a better planning is needed for early detection of control, report infestation of spread of new and naturalized invasive alien species to be monitored.