Volume 7, No. 2 (December, 2022)
1. Shamseddin M Ahmed*, Amar A Abdalla, Adam E AHMED and Azharia A Elbushra [Influence of rainwater harvesting practices on the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grain yields in the sub-tropical deserts of Sudan]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 55-60 (2022). Water Management and Irrigation Institute University of Gezira, Sudan *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Food security is climate dependent in the Darfur region, Sudan; ultimately, the extreme drought events have derailed the region into “the world’s first climate change conflict”. Most of the ongoing climate resilience efforts in the region depend on rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices. The objective of this study is to be better understanding of the variability in the performance of the adopted RWH practices in the Darfur region. Datasets of 148 farmers were collected during the year 2022 through a structured questionnaire in the South Darfur state and analyzed based on two different modeling frameworks in the R package: the deep machine learning (the Bagging algorithms) and the logit models. The dependent variable is the rainfed sorghum grain yield, and the independent variables were RWH practices, education level, family size, and distance to the farm. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) explained that every two years the region is experiencing a drought event (1980-2015), with an annual rainfall of 396 mm ± 100 mm. About 82% of farmers mainly adopted RWH for food security in face of the decreased rainfall. The adopted RWH practices (mainly terracing) have increased sorghum grain yields by 72% – 147%. The best grain yield is associated with spate irrigation, and the poorest with illiteracy. The large family size (> 9 people) and good education level offset the negative impacts of both illiteracy and the longer distance to the farm. The terracing and terracing + mulching + deep tillage (as a single package) practices were the most laborious and unsustainable practices in the Darfur region, and are not recommended, especially when the farm distance is > 5 km.
2. SHRAVAN KUMAR PANDA, MASINA SAIRAM, UPASANA SAHOO, TANMOY SHANKAR AND SAGAR MAITRA* [Growth, productivity and economics of maize as influenced by maize-legume intercropping system]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 61-66 (2022). Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology and Management Odisha, Paralakhemundi-761 211, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation is catching up in India to fulfil the future demand. Odisha is a non-traditional state for maize cultivation; however, it has been intensified in the state during last one and half decades. As maize is a wide spaced crop, the inter row space allows to grow the short statured crops such as legumes. Maize – legume intercropping system is one of the most important intercropping systems followed worldwide. In this regard, a field experiment on paired row maize intercropping with legumes, namely, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and green gram (Vigna radiata L.) was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm of the Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha during rabi season of 2020. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). There were nine treatments with pure stands of maize, groundnut and green gram and their mixed stand which were replicated thrice. The results revealed that the plant height at harvest and number of leaves of maize at 90 days after sowing (DAS) did not differ by cropping systems, whereas sole maize resulted in significantly higher dry matter production at all the growth stages and the same treatment registered significantly more leaf are index at 60 DAS. The yield attributes such as number of cobs/plant, cob length, number of rows/cob, number of grains/row, 100 grain weight and grain weight/cob remained on par, but number of grains/cob and grain weight per plant were significantly higher with sole maize than intercropped maize. The treatment comprised of maize + groundnut (2:3) intercropping system registered the highest net returns of Rs. 83590/ha. The findings suggested that in south Odisha conditions, intercropping maize + groundnut (2:3) can be adopted for better net return and agricultural sustainability compared to sole maize cultivation.
3. A. K. M. GOLAM SARWAR*, MD. EAKRAMUL HAQUE, MOST. MORSADA KHATUN AND MD. SABIBUL HAQUE [Influence of diurnal temperature variation on the growth and phenology of linseed cultivars in north-western Bangladesh]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 67-71 (2022). Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Department of Crop Botany Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh *(e-mail: email@example.com)
Linseed, one of the oldest, conventional and underutilised multipurpose crops in Bangladesh, can provide food, feed, fuel, and fibre. Environmental conditions especially temperature influence crop growth and development, which is the most vital factor in enhancing or reducing crop productivity. Experiments were, therefore, conducted at Farmer’s field during two consecutive cropping seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to study the effect of diurnal temperature variation on the growth and phenology of linseed cultivars. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized completed block design having four replications. Linseed seeds were sown in 3.0 m × 0.6 m plots with continuous line sowing (two lines). The difference between the temperature extremes (weekly average) was observed 14.57 °C in 1st week of January 2019 and 15.29 °C in 2nd week of February 2020. The temperature gradient influenced the growth, phenology and seed yield of linseed cultivars. The sowing of linseed should be completed within the second fortnight of November for better crop growth and seed yield in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The knowledge of the impact of extreme temperature on yield/yield components could contribute to the improvement of crop models or ideotype development.
4. LOUNIS A.*, AIDAOUI A. AND HARTANI T. [Irrigation water quality in the western Mitidja, Algeria: A case study of Sidi Rached watershed]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 72-79 (2022). 1Agricultural water management laboratory Department of Agricultural Engineering National Higher School of Agronomy (ENSA), ES1603, Algeirs, Algeria *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
The Sidi Rached watershed, located in the west of the Mitidja plain, is experiencing an important agricultural activity which is constantly increasing and is manifested by an excessive use of groundwater and inputs, in particular fertilizers. However, uncontrolled practices are observed and cause the deterioration of water and soil. To assess the consequences of these practices on the environment, a study was conducted in Sidi Rached watershed in the west of Mitidja plain, during 2008 and 2010 by conducting surveys involving agricultural institutions and farmers to establish the technical itineraries used by the farmers during the two years 2008 and 2010. Secondarily, analysis on the physico-chemical properties of the groundwater was carried out, which is mainly used for irrigation. The monitoring of the quality of this ground water was carried out on agricultural drillings from 50 water samples taken and analyzed. The main parameters analyzed were nitrate concentrations and mineralization rates. The results obtained are significant: more than 45% and more than 60% of the samples taken for the years 2008 and 2010 respectively exceed the norms of potability established by the World Health Organisation. Therefore, this could be a threat to public health and to the sustainability of the resource. These waters, although acceptable for irrigation, must be used on salt-tolerant crops and on well-drained or permeable soils to control salinity. The future of the agricultural plain depends on the quality of its resources, water and soil, and this is closely linked to the ability of managers and farmers to strike a balance between productivity and preservation of natural resources.
5. P. K. NATIKAR, R. A. BALIKAI* AND D. N. KAMBREKAR [Seasonal abundance of major insect pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and their natural enemies in Karnataka, India]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 80-92 (2022). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India *(e-mail: email@example.com)
It is essential to know the seasonal occurrences of various pests of potato along with their natural enemies so that timely management practices could be advised to farmers to avoid losses. Therefore, field studies on seasonal incidence of major insect pests of potato and their natural enemies were carried out at the All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Potato, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India during Kharif 2016 and 2017; and at Hangaraki, a village near Dharwad during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. The observations on the seasonal abundance of potato insects, mites, and their natural enemies were recorded at weekly intervals starting from 20 days after the emergence of the plant till harvest. These observations were made under unprotected conditions. During Kharif season, the sucking pests were active from July second week and continued up to harvesting of the crop and the maximum pest population was observed during August second week to September first week. The peak activity of the shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee was noticed during the 35th Meteorological Standard Week (MSW) (i.e., August). The maximum population of defoliator, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was noticed during 34th MSW. The higher populations of coccinellid beetles and spiders were recorded during 35th MSW while chrysopid activity was maximum during 36th MSW (September). During Rabi season, the sucking pests were active from October second week and attained peak during the second and third week of November. The maximum activity of aphids and leafhoppers was noticed during the 46th and 47th MSW (November), respectively. The highest incidence of thrips was recorded during the 48th MSW. The peak population of whiteflies and mites was recorded during the 46th and 45th MSW, respectively. The peak activity defoliator and shoot borer were noticed during the 45th and 46th MSW, respectively. The chrysopid activity was maximum during 46th and 47th MSW.
6. V. P. SINGH* AND R. K. MAITI [A review on mineral nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)]. Farm. Manage. 7 (2): 93-109 (2022). 1Gaurav Publications, Systematic Printers Near Video Market, Udayapuria Street, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
In this article, the literature on the effects of fertilizers and nutrients, including direct, residual and cumulative, on potato are described including major nutrients: nitrogen and tuber yields, nitrate in tubers, nitrate in haulm, nitrate in roots, nitrate nitrogen in petiole sap, nitrogen and tuber quality, phosphorus and tuber yield, potassium and tuber yield, potassium in leaf petioles; secondary major nutrients: effect of calcium, magnesium and sulphur on tuber yield; minor nutrients: effect of zinc, boron and molybdenum on tuber yield; heavy metals: metals in sewage sludge, metal contents in potato and soil, cadmium and other metals in tubers, arsenic in soil and uptake by potato, beryllium in tubers, uranium and chromium in potato and other crops. The information provided in this article may be useful for students, teachers and research workers who are engaged in the teaching, research and extension activities on mineral nutrition of potato crop.