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1. M. A. TURK AND A. M. TAWAHA [Seed germination and seedling growth of two barley cultivars under moisture stress] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 467-472 (2002). Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P. O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan
The effects of seed size and water potential on seed water uptake, germination and early growth of barley [Hordeum vulgare (L.) cvs. Salmas and Lokus/Sls] were investigated. Rate of water uptake by seed size (small and large) from solutions containing different water potential (0, 0.33 and -0.66 Mpa, as polyethylene glycol-8000) was higher in the large seeds than small seeds in both the cultivars, regardless of water potential. Rate of water taken into seeds was higher in Salmas than Lokus/Sls. Decreasing water potential (more stress) had adverse effects on rate of water uptake by seeds in both the cultivars. An another experiment was conducted to investigate the response of two barley cultivars to seed size and osmotic stress during germination and seedling growth, and to identify characters that can be used for screening genotypes. Germination and seedling growth tests were conducted at -0.33, -0.66, -0.99 and -1.72 Mpa. Seed size had significant effect on germination percentage. The large seed had higher percentage germination and germination speed under moisture stress than small seed, but germination speed was more sensitive to change the osmotic potential than percentage germination. Cultivar had no effect on germination percentage or speed of germination. Root and shoot weights of all cultivars were reduced when osmotic potential was decreased, but the extent of reduction in root growth was less than that for shoots.
2. J. L. HERNANDEZ PIÑERO, R. K. MAITI, MA. JULIA VERDE STAR, GRACIELA GARCIA DÍAZ, A. NUÑEZ ONZALEZ, M. L. CARDENAS AVILA AND R. OROUGH-BAKHCH [Effect of lead and cadmium on seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein content of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), avena (Avena sativa) and rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) selected as hypera-ccumulator of heavy metal] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 473-480 (2002). Postgraduate División Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas U. A. N. L., A. P. F.-16 66450, San Nicolás de los Garza, N. L., México
The present study discusses the level of tolerance to Pb, of the cultivated plants, Medicago sativa L., Avena sativa L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam exposed to solutions of Pb (NO) 3, 1000 and 5000 ppm. At the same time, Medicago sativa L., Avena sativa L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto Americano and P. vulgaris L. var. Negro were exposed to solutions of 200, 600, 1200 and 2000 ppm of Pb dissolved with EDTA in nutritive medium of Hoagland pH 5.5 and in solutions of 130, 260 and 390 ppm of Cd in the same medium. At concentrations of 200 ppm Pb in the substrate the cultivated plants increased the biomass production, chlorophyll concentration and the total protein content. However, at higher concentrations of 600 ppm Pb these variables except the total protein, decreased to levels below the control. The species of oat, alfalfa and bean showed a decline in biomass and chlorophyll production, for these species could be utilized for phytoremediation purpose. With respect to the cultivated plants subjected to Cd, it was found that cadmium activated the production of total protein in form proportional to a concentration in the substrate, while in similar form increased the production of biomass.
3.H. M. PRASAD KUMAR, S. S. MELI AND V. V. ANGADI [Response of scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) to integrated nutrient management under upland drill sown condition] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 481-487 (2002). Agricultural Research Station, Mugad, Dharwad (Karnataka), India
The field experiment was conducted during kharif 1998 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on performance of scented rice (cv. Pusa Basmati-1) under upland drill sown condition. Treatments included three organic sources (in situ green manuring with sunnhemp, farm yard manure and vermi compost) each with four levels of fertilizer (no fertilizer, 33, 66 and 100% of recommended dose of fertilizers-RDF) and one check (only RDF). Sunnhemp green manuring with 100% RDF produced significantly higher yield (16.22 q ha-1) which was on par with FYM applied with 100% RDF (15.57 q ha-1), check (14.06 q ha-1) and green manuring with 66% RDF (13.63 q ha-1). In situ green manuring of sunnhemp with application of 33% RDF (33 : 16.5 : 16.5 kg NPK ha-1) recorded grain yield (11.46 q ha-1) which was on par with check (14.06 q ha-1) resulted in the saving of fertilizers to an extent of 67% without significant reduction in grain yield. Application of either FYM @ 10 t ha-1 or vermi compost @ 2.5 t ha-1 gave yield on par with check only when applied alongwith RDF (100 : 50 : 50 kg NPK ha-1). Sunnhemp green manuring with 100% RDF resulted in higher B : C ratio (2.57) followed by green manuring with 66% RDF (2.24) and check (2.15).
4.K. K. V. MATHAD, A. G. BANDI AND A. UMESH [Influence of tillage, drainage practices and potassium levels on yield and quality of rice under tankfed conditions] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 488-492 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065 (Karnataka), India
A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Unit at Main Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during kharif season of 1998-99 to study the effect of tillage, drainage practices and levels of potassium on yield and crude protein content of rice crop. Puddled and drained condition was significantly superior in giving maximum grain yield of rice (54.96 q ha-1). Application of 50 kg K2O ha-1 significantly increased the grain yield (47.80 q ha-1) and crude protein content of 6.26 and 2.94% in grain and straw, respectively. Providing drainage under puddled condition alongwith application of potassium resulted in the removal of toxic substances, increased root activity and better nutrient uptake.
5. MANOJ KUMAR, HARBIR SINGH, R. S. HOODA, A. K. KHIPPAL, T. SINGH AND P. SHEORAN [Effect of genotypes and nitrogen levels on N, P and K content and uptake by irrigated pearlmillet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend. Stuntz] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 493-497 (2002). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A field experiment was conducted at the Crop Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the effect of genotypes/hybrids (HHB 94, HHB 117, HHB 67 and HHB 60) and nitrogen levels (no-nitrogen control, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) on N, P and K concentration and uptake in grain and stover of irrigated pearlmillet during kharif season of 2000. Though, pearlmillet hybrids did not differ significantly in N and P content(s) in grain and stover, HHB 94, HHB 117 and HHB 60 recorded higher N, P and K uptake than HHB 67. Increasing levels of N application brought about significant improvement in N, P and K content and uptake in grain and stover of irrigated pearlmillet.
6.G. A. BHALERAO, ABDUL HAMID, D. J. JIOTODE AND MOHD. SAJID [Quality, uptake and availability of N, P and K as influenced by integrated nutrient management with vermiacom-post in rainfed sorghum] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 498-501 (2002). Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India
The results of the field experiment conducted during kharif season of 1999 revealed that the protein content of grain, protein yield of sorghum, uptake of N, P and K by sorghum and N, P and K status of soil after harvest were significantly influenced due to fertilizer levels and vermicompost levels, individually maximum values of all these characters were recorded with 100% RDF and with 3.0 t vermicompost ha-1. Interaction effect between levels of fertilizer and vermicompost was non-significant in influencing these characters.
7. R. SINGARAVEL, K. JOHNSON, K. THANUNATHAN AND V. MAYAVARAMBAN [Effect of gypsum and organic wastes on soil properties and yield of ragi in coastal saline soil] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 502-505 (2002). Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, India.
Effect of gypsum and organic wastes viz., casuarina needles, mahua leaves, neem leaves in conjunction with gypsum and a control on the reclamation of coastal saline soil (pH 9.03, EC 5.97 dSm-1 and ESP 32.54) and on the yield and nutrient uptake of ragi were evaluated in field experiments conducted in a farmer’s field from 1993-94 to 1995-96. Gypsum+organic wastes incorporation reduced the pH, EC, ESP and increased the nutrient availability resulting in better growth and yield of ragi. Gypsum+casuarina needles application @ 5 t ha-1 was better than all other treatments in improving yield, nutrient uptake and availability of nutrients in soil.
8.G. MANICKAM, S. LOGANATHAN, B. RAJAMANICKAM AND P. SRIDHAR [Studies on the effect of in situ incorporation of intercropped green manure on yield and quality of sugarcane (Saccharum officina-rum) under irrigated conditions] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 506-508 (2002). T. N. A. U. Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam-606 001 (T. N.), India.
Field investigations were conducted during 1995-97 cropping seasons to evaluate the effect of in situ incorporation of intercropped green manure on yield and quality of sugarcane. Application of 100% NPK alongwith continuous line sowing of sunnhemp significantly recorded the maximum cane yield (131.5 t/ha) and sugar yield (14.7 t/ha) and comparable with 100% NPK+sunnhemp line sown at 30 cm apart and 75% nitrogen+100% phosphorus and potash application+ sunnhemp continuous line sown treatments.
9. R. AUGUSTINE [Effect of five graded levels of ferrous sulphate on biomass production of six sugarcane varieties during tillering stage] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 509-515 (2002). Division of Soil Science Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641 007 (Tamil Nadu), India.
A field experiment was conducted during late kharif season of 1996-97 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore to determine the effect of five levels of ferrous sulphate i. e. T1 (0 kg FeSO4 ha-1 as soil application), T2 (75 kg FeSO4 ha-1, soil application), T3 (150 kg FeSO4 ha-1, soil appli-cation), T4 (225 kg FeSO4 ha-1, soil application) and T5 (2.0% FeSO4 as foliar spray) in six varieties of sugarcane culture (V1-Co 62175, V2-CoC 671, V3-Co 8021, V4-Co 8371, V5-Co 86032 and V6-Co 87025). The treatments were replicated three times in split plot design. The results of the experiment revealed that soil application of ferrous sulphate as basal dressing at the time of planting significantly influenced the dry matter production in the leaf blade at tillering stage and the availability of iron in the soil was improved with increasing levels of soil application. Foliar application of 2% FeSO4 thrice at 45, 55 and 65 days after planting recorded highest leaf blade dry matter and increase in the total chlorophyll content.
10. A. P. NAGARAJU, S. B. YOGANANDA AND C. PREMKUMAR [Response of horsegram genotypes to row spacings] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 516-518 (2002). Department of Agronomy University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065, (Karnataka), India.
A field experiment was conducted to study the response of horse gram genotypes to row spacings at Regional Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during rabi seasons of 1997, 1998 and 1999. The grain yield was significantly higher with genotype CODB-6 and it was on par with BGM-1 in the year 1999. Genotype HPK-2 recorded significantly lowest grain yield. Closer row spacing of 30 cm was found to be optimum and wider row spacing of 45 cm reduced the grain yield significantly. Similar response was observed in yield attributes also.
11.RAJINDER KUMAR, V. P. SINGH AND R. C. SINGH [Effect of N and P application on nutrient content and their uptake and yield of summer planted mungbean] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 519-523 (2002). Department of AgronomyCCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
Field study on the effect of N and P levels on nutrient content and their uptake during summer seasons of 1999 and 2000 revealed that genotype MH 85-111 removed 21.0 and 18.8% more N and P than that of T44. The N content in grain due to N and P levels did not differ significantly but it was increased in straw with 20 kg N and 40 kg P2O5 during both the years. The N and P uptake was also increased significantly with 20 kg N and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 over control. The biological yield was also significantly affected due to the application of N and P and increase with 30 kg N ha-1 was 48.0, 18.5 and 0.23% over 0, 10 and 20 kg N ha-1, whereas figures with 40 kg P2O5 were 61.2, 17.8 and 0.9% over 0, 20 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1.
12. R. S. CHANDEL, RAGHAVENDRA SINGH, R. S. SINGH AND O. N. SINGH [Influence of nitrogen levels and Rhizobium inoculation on yield, quality and nitrogen uptake of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 524-528 (2002). Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 1994-95 and 1995-96 at Research Farm, BHU, Varanasi to study the effect of nitrogen levels and Rhizobium inoculation on yield, quality and nitrogen uptake of French bean var. HUR-137. Treatment comprised four nitrogen levels viz., control (N0), low (N40), medium (N80) and high (N120) and three Rhizobium inoculation (control, HURR-3 and Raj-2) in a randomized block design. The yield attributes, yield and protein yield significantly increased with increasing nitrogen levels and highest value was registered with 120 kg N ha-1 during both the years. The nitrogen content and uptake numerically increased with increasing nitrogen levels and maximum value was associated with 120 kg N ha-1. Rhizobium inoculation increased yield over control and strain Raj-2 produced significantly higher grain and protein yield than HURR-3.
13. B. VISHWAKARMA, C. S. SINGH AND RAJESH SINGH [Response of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties to nitrogen application] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 529-532 (2002). Department of Agronomy Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 1996-97 and 1997-98 at Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U. P.) to study the response of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties to nitrogen application on sandy loam soil analysing low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with pH 7.4. Varieties showed differential performance for growth and yield attributes. Holland 84 was the tallest, whereas PDR 14 recorded the maximum dry matter production per plant as well as pods per plant, grains per pod, grains per plant, pod length and 100-grain weight. The growth and yield attributes and yield (grain and stover) increased with increasing rates of nitrogen upto 90 kg/ha. This level of nitrogen also recorded maximum water use efficiency.
14. DEEPAK RAJPUT, B. S. SOLANKEY, S. S. CHAUHAN AND H. S. THAKUR [Studies of ontogenetic effect of soybean on the nutrient balance in Vertisols of western Madhya Pradesh] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 533-537 (2002). J. N. K. V. V. College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India.
An experiment was conducted to estimate the N, P and S balance in black clay soil as influenced by the 15 genotypes of soybean of different maturity duration in kharif season of 1997-98 at College of Agriculture, Indore. Nitrogen balance was positive balance in the soil due to all the treatments under consideration, while the phosphorus balance was negative. Sulphur balance showed positive effect due to few soybean genotypes only. Among all the genotypes, JS 335 resulted in maximum gain of nitrogen in the soil (71.12 kg N/ha), minimum loss of phosphorus (-13.60 kg P/ha) and sulphur (1.82 kg S/ha). Medium duration genotypes led to the highest gain of nitrogen (102.79 kg N/ha), minimum depletion of phosphorus (-14.91 kg P/ha) and only marginal gain of sulphur (0.89 kg S/ha) which indicate that the cultivation of these genotypes in the region is safe provided balanced fertilizer schedules are adopted.
15.J. S. BOHRA AND R. K. SRIVASTAVA [Studies on sulphur levels and sources at different fertility levels on yield and output-input ratio of Indian mustard] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 538-541 (2002). Department of Agronomy Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India
This experiment was conducted in rabi seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-01 on deep sandy loam soils at Research Farm of Institute of Agricultural Sciences, B. H. U., Varanasi, to study the response of varying fertility levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended dose) and different doses of sulphur applied two weeks prior to sowing (25 and 50 kg ha-1) through two sources i. e. gypsum and elemental sulphur alongwith control on Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Significant improvement in yield and yield attributes (siliquae plant-1, test weight, siliqua length and seed yield plant-1) was observed with increasing NPK levels from 25 to 100% of recommended dose. Sulphur application positively influenced the yield and yield attributes. Both the sulphur sources though remained at par but gypsum showed superiority over elemental sulphur in general. Output-input ratio was found maximum with 100% NPK of the recommended dose and 50 kg S ha-1 through gypsum. Later it proved most remunerative between two sources of sulphur due to lower market price.
16. PRADNYA S. BHAGAT, H. N. SETHI, A. P. KARUNAKAR AND D. J. JIOTODE [Efficacy of herbicides for weed control in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 542-545 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Field experiment conducted at the farm of Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola revealed that pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen 0.1 kg ha-1+ hand weeding at 30 DAS followed by thrice hoeing+ thrice hand weeding at 15, 30 and 45 DAS was most effective in controlling both narrowleaf and broadleaf annual weeds and enhancing the yield attributes and dry pod yield of groundnut.
17. A. P. KARUNAKAR, D. J. JIOTODE AND R. V. NALAMWAR [Basis of variation in pod yield of kharif groundnut under delayed sowings] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 546-550 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Groundnut crop recorded higher yield of dry pods when sown in the last week of June. Sowing extended beyond this normal period, upto this normal period and upto September resulted in progressive reduction in yield even though irrigations were applied when necessary (at 80 mm CPE) to avoid moisture stress across delayed sowings. Numbers of effective pegs, developed pod number and pod dry weight plant-1 were influenced by variations in atmospheric temperatures, particularly minimum temperature, and the relative humidity. Warmer temperatures and higher relative humidity during crop growth period favourably influenced the yield contributing characters and finally the pod yield.
18. LAXMAN SINGH AND B. PAL [Influence of saline water under different fertility levels on yield and nutrients uptake by blonde psyllium] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 551-556 (2002). Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science R. B. S. College, Bichpuri, Agra-283 105 (Uttar Pradesh), India.
The field experiment was conducted for two years continuously during rabi season at Research Farm, Bichpuri, Agra to assess the effect of saline water and fertility levels on yield and uptake of Ca, Mg and Na by blonde psyllium. Application of ECiw 12 dSm-1 water significantly reduced yield and uptake of Na in seed, Ca and Mg in seed and straw, whereas Na uptake in straw enhanced significantly as compared to control. On the other hand, the fertility treatments F3 and F5 enhanced significantly Ca, Mg and Na uptake by seed and straw over fertility treatments F2 and F4. Combined effect of ECiw and fertility showed that application of ECiw 12 dSm-1 water reduced yield and uptake of calcium, magnesium and sodium by seed at all levels of fertility. Fertility treatments F3 and F5, however, significantly enhanced seed and husk yields and uptake of Ca, Mg and Na in seed as compared to fertility levels F2 and F4 at both the levels of salinity. The enhancement in the yield over F1 was to the extent of 57.49, 57.20, 67.33 and 101.71% for seed and 57.38, 81.82, 68.18 and 103.41% for husk at F2, F3, F4 and F5, respectively. Fertility treatment F5, comprising 50 kg N+25 kg P2O5+25 kg K2O+20 kg ZnSO4 ha-1 at 12 dSm-1 proved beneficial effect over other fertility treatments for seed and husk yields and uptake of Ca, Mg and Na by seed.
19. V. K. SINGH AND J. N. SINGH [Effect of weed competition in rainy season Balsam (Impatiens balsamina L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 557-561 (2002). Department of Horticulture Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted for two years continuously during the kharif season at Horicultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to find out the critical period of crop-weed competition in Balsam and to study the relationship between growth and development of Balsam and weed flora. In crop-weed competition plots, weeds were not removed for a definite period of the experiment which comprised 10 treatments (crop-weed competition for first 10, 20, 30 and 40 days after transplanting and crop-weed competition after first 10, 20, 30 and 40 days after transplanting alongwith weed free till harvest and crop-weed competition till harvest) and subsequent weed free conditions were maintained by removing the weeds as and when they appeared. Pooled data of two seasons revealed that the critical crop-weed competition period was between 24 to 34 days after transplanting and the most critical crop-weed competition stage was worked out at 29 days after transplanting. The weed infestation during this period led to the maximum reduction in plant height, branches plant-1, leaves plant-1 and flower production alongwith delay in commencement of flowering.
20. I. V. I. CHAKRABORTY AND R. S. DHUA [Studies on the physico-chemical qualities of litchi fruit cv. Bombai at different stages of harvest] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 562-568 (2002). Department of Post-Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (W. B.), India
The physico-chemical qualities of litchi fruit cv. Bombai were studied in 1999 and 2000. Fruits from different replicated plants were harvested at three different stages viz., early (55 days after fruit set), medium (60 days after fruit set) and late (65 days after fruit set) and graded on the basis of colour (Full Red, > 50% Red and <50% Red) and size (Large, medium and small). The proportion of Full Red and larger fruits was increased gradually from early to late harvest and recorded higher content of TSS, sugar and anthocyanin and lower content of total titratable acid, resulted in higher Brix : acid ratio as compared to other grades i. e. >50% Red, <50% Red, medium and small sized fruits at all the three stages of harvest. Thus, litchi fruits cv. Bombai can be harvested between 60 and 65 days to obtain quality fruits of better colour and size grades.
21. K. DHINESH BABU AND D. S. YADAV [Determination of maturity standards for Flordasun cultivar of peach under mid-hill altitudes of Meghalaya] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 569-572 (2002). Division of Horticulture ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani-793 103 (Meghalaya), India.
An experiment was conducted to study the maturity standards for peach cultivar Flordasun with the objective of determining the optimum time of harvest. The investigations were carried out on six-year old orchard located at the Division of Horticulture, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani, Meghalaya. The fruits were harvested at weekly intervals from 46 to 95 days after fruit set. The maturity standards observed included the physical characters such as fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit volume, pit weight and chemical characters such as total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity, TSS : acid ratio, ascorbic acid and total sugars. The developing fruits that were collected on 46 days after fruit set registered the minimum values for most of the maturity standards studied. The fruits that were collected on 81 days after fruit set recorded the best fruit weight (32.67 g), fruit length (33.33 mm), fruit volume (37.30 ml), TSS (12.00%), titrable acidity (0.73%), TSS : acid ratio (16.47) and total sugars (5.40%). Beyond 81 days after fruit set, there was no significant progress in the maturity standards. Hence, the best time for harvesting peach cultivar Flordasun is between 81 and 84 days after fruit set under mid-hill conditions of Meghalaya.
22. K. DHINESH BABU AND D. S. YADAV [Chemical thinning in peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 573-578 (2002). Division of Horticulture ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani-793 103 (Meghalaya), India
An experiment was undertaken for chemical thinning in six to seven year old peach cultivar TA-170 under mid-hill conditions of Meghalaya. 2, 4-D (50 and 100 ppm), GA3 (100 and 200 ppm), thiourea (2 and 3%) and carbaryl (600 and 1000 ppm) were foliar sprayed at full bloom stage. All the treatments were found to significantly induce the fruit drop over the control both on 25 and 50 days after spray. After 50 days of spraying, trees sprayed with thiourea 3% induced the maximum blossom/fruitlet drop and retained the least number of fruits (45.00%), while the control recorded the maximum number of fruit retention (61.34%). Thiourea 3% was found on par with thiourea 2% for fruit drop which retained 46.53% fruits. All the treatments affected the fresh foliage of spring flush as leaf curl and within 25 days of spraying, the affected foliage recovered normal. An increase in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit volume, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid and total sugars has been noticed at all stages of observation. Spray of GA3 100 ppm or 2, 4-D 100 ppm at full bloom stage is recommended for effective chemical thinning and better quality fruits in six to seven year old peach.
23. KAMLA KANWAR, S. S. PALIYAL AND T. R. NANDAL [Integrated nutrient management in cauliflower (Pusa Snow Ball K-1)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 579-583 (2002). CSKHPKV Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan, Sirmour-173 001(H. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted for two years on cauliflower (Pusa Snow Ball K-1) at Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan (H. P.) with nine treatments comprising three levels of fertilizer NPK (0, 50 and 100%) and three sources of organic manures (no manure, vermicompost and FYM @ 25 t/ha) replicated thrice in a randomized block design. With the application of fertilizer NPK alone, significant increase in respect of curd weight, diameter, plant height and curd yield was found at 100% NPK. But when organic manure (vermicompost or FYM) was applied, significant increase in all these parameters was found at 50% NPK level, thereby saving 50% NPK fertilizer.
24. BHARAT BHUSHAN AND N. K. SANKHAYAN [Study of crop water stress indices in spring potato in the mid-hills of north-west India] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 584-587 (2002). Department of Soil Science CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062 (H. P.), India.
Field experiments on crop water stress indices viz., relative leaf water content (RLWC), xylem water potential (XWP) and stress degree days (SDD) under different treatments were carried out in spring potato. Mulched treatments maintained higher values of relative leaf water content and xylem water potential as compared to unmulched treatment. Under unmulched treatment, the crop was under higher stress than mulched treatment. The potato tuber yield was higher under mulched treatment.
25. P. SHANTHI, E. SATYANARAYANA AND G. JAGAN MOHAN REDDY [Genetic studies for grain yield and oil improvement in maize (Zea mays L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 588-591 (2002). Agricultural Research Station (Maize), Amberpet, Hyderabad-500 013, India.
Nature of gene action and combining ability was studied for yield oil and protein contents in maize through L x T design. Higher magnitude of sca effect and lower gca/sca ratio revealed the preponderance on non-additive genes in governing the inheritance of these attributes. Parents AML-18, HOL-68, TQPM-38 and M -210 were with highly significant gca effects for yield, oil and protein and therefore these could be utilized as valuable donor sources for improving these traits. Among the 40 F1 hybrids, 13 hybrids showed significant sca effects for yield, oil and protein contents and among these only four hybrids viz., HOL-68 x M-210, AML-18 x TQPM-38, AML-18 x M-210 and TQPM-68 x TQPM-38 observed with both parents had good general combiners for yield and oil content, suggesting that these hybrids could further be advanced for obtaining desirable pyramidized transgressants for yield and high oil content.
26. S. SOBHAN BABU AND P. SREENIVASULU REDDY [Combin-ing ability analysis in rice (Oryza sativa L. )] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 592-598 (2002). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Agricultural College, Bapatla-522 101 (Andhra Pradesh), India.
Sixteen hybrids generated by crossing four lines with four testers were studied alongwith their parents for combining ability for days to 50% flowering, plant height, productive tillers plant-1, panicle length, grains panicle-1, grain yield plant-1, 1000-grain weight, grain length, grain breadth, L/B ratio, milling recovery and head rice recovery. Additive gene action was found to be important for plant height, panicle length, 1000-grain weight, grain length, grain breadth and L/B ratio. Preponderance of non-additive gene action was observed in controlling days to 50% flowering and milling recovery, whereas both additive and non-additive gene actions were found to be important for productive tillers plant-1, grains panicle-1, grain yield plant-1 and head rice recovery. NLR-33899 and NLR-34242 among lines and NLR-145 and NLR-33057 among testers were found to be good general combiners. Five hybrids viz., NLR-34150 x NLR-33057, NLR-33899 x NLR-30491, NLR-34242 x NLR-33057, NLR-34242 x NLR-33359 and RDR-763 x NLR-145 have shown significant sca effects for grain yield plant-1.
27. B. S. NAIK AND P. C. SATAPATHY [Selection strategy for improvement of seed yield in late sown inseed] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 599-605 (2002). AICRP on Linseeid OUAT Regional Research & Technology Transfer Substation, Jashipur, Mayurbhanj-757091 (Orissa), India.
Twenty-eight genotypes of linseed were studied for their genetic variation, correlation and path-coefficients under late sown conditions with regard to eight agronomic characters. The estimates of habitability (bs) were high for all the test characters except number of seeds per capsule. PCV, GCV and GA values were high only for number of primary branches. Number of primary branches, number of capsules and 1000-seed weight had significant positive correlation with seed yield. High positive direct effect of number of capsules, 1000-seed weight and number of seeds on seed yield was observed both at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. The selection strategy for seed yield under late sown condition should be based on number of capsules and primary branches.
28. S. K. CHETIA AND RAM KUMAR YADAV [Phenotypic stability of yield and its components in pea (Pisum sativum L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 606-614 (2002). Pulses Section, Department of Plant Breeding CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125 004, India.
Thirty-nine high yielding pea varieties (Pisum sativum) were tested in four different environments for their stability. The data were analysed using Eberhart and Russell (1966) and Perkins and Jinks (1968) approaches for seed yield per plant and its component characters. The significant differences were observed for all the characters among the genotypes. The genotype-environment interaction was present for all the traits except for number of primary branches and 100-seed weight and both linear and non-linear components were present except for these two traits. Genotype numbers 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 18, 27, 29, 35, 37 and 38 were found to have high mean and a stable performance for grain yield. Their suitability for different environments has been discussed.
29. S. SUNDAR AND K. THIYAGARAJAN [Combining ability analysis in rice hybrids for yield and yield components] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 615-619 (2002). Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India
Sixty-four hybrids generated by crossing four CGMS lines and 16 testers were studied alongwith their parents for combining ability for yield and yield components. Among the female parents, IR 58025 A was found to be a good general combiner for four characters viz., panicle length, filled grains per panicle, spikelet fertility and grain yield per plant. The male parent IR 21567-18-3R was a good general combiner for all the characters except panicle length. The most promising specific combinations for grain yield per plant were IR 58025 A x TM 6012, IR 68901 A x CB 96024, IR 58025 A x CO29, IR 68890 A x TM 91013 and IR 68890 A x IR 55838-B-2-3-2-3R.
30.M. S. BONS, A. S. SOHI AND K. K. SHUKLA [Morphometric studies of different stages of Nephtoettix virescens (Distant) (Homoptera : Cicadellidae)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 620-626 (2002). Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.
The eggs of Formosan green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant) (Homoptera : Cicadellidae), were oblong, creamy white and slightly tapering at anterior end and measured 0.92 x 0.27 mm (2-3 days old eggs) and 1.14 x 0.03 mm (6-7 days old eggs). There were five nymphal instars. The nymphs were initially creamy white, remained green thereafter in all the instars and bore black circular spots and oval patches on the body, which became very prominent and sharp in the last instar. The average body length (mm) of the respective five instars was 1.20±0.10, 1.52±0.05, 2.11±0.07, 3.39±0.15 and 3.86±0.26. The adults (males and females) were yellowish-green to green and without black, submarginal band on the head. The black spots on the corium were not touching the claval suture. The average length of the male and female adults with tegmina was 4.27±0.06 and 4.79±0.23 mm, whereas those of without tegmina were 3.52±0.13 and 4.92±0.19 mm, respectively.
31. T. SARAVANAN, V. VALLUVAPARIDASAN AND M. MUTHU-SAMY [Changes in biochemical qualities of sorghum seeds due to seed infection] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 627-628 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology Agricultural College & Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (T. N.), India
Changes in biochemical qualities of sorghum seeds due to seed infection by Alternaria tenuis, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Helminthosporium halodes and Helminthosporium tetramera were assessed. F. moniliforme infected seeds exhibited the maximum reduction of total and reducing sugars and A. tenuis infected seeds possessed the maximum reduction of starch and the maximum increase in phenolic contents. Other fungi viz., C. lunata, H. halodes and the H. tetramera infected seeds also exhibited same trends.
32. HARVINDER KAUR AND J. S. ARNEJA [Effect of Rhizobium inoculation and metal ions on growth characteristics of Trifolium alexandrium and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accumulation in nodules during symbiosis] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 629-631 (2002). Department of Biochemistry Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
Inoculation of Trifolium alexandrium seeds with Rhizobium trifolii significantly improved growth with respect to root length, shoot length, number of nodules, dry matter of plants, dry matter of nodules and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accumulation. LPS accumulation was 3.6 mg/100 nodules compared to 1.16 mg/100 nodules in uninoculated control. Copper, zinc, manganese and iron at 5, 10, 5 and 8 ppm accumulated LPS of 5.38, 8.40, 6.58 and 5.07 mg/100 nodules, respectively, compared to unsupplemented control.
33. A. MANICKAM, C. PARAMESWARI, M. INDUMATHI AND A. HARISH CHANDRAN [DNA fingerprinting in cotton (Gossypium spp. L.) based on RAPD markers for varietal differentiation] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 632-642 (2002). Centre for Plant Molecular Biology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 ( T. N.), India
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of elite commercial cotton varieties. Fifteen genotypes belonging to Gossypium hirsutum L. and one to G. arboreum L. were analysed with 18 random decamer primers using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 1275 bands were amplified; 62.7% of which were polymorphic. Cluster analysis by unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed that the 16 genotypes could be placed in two groups with a similarity ranging from 52 to 90%. The first cluster was formed by all tetraploid genotypes and their hybrids. The second cluster was formed by the single diploid genotype (K 10). This result confirmed the reliability of the RAPD technique in genetic diversity and varietal differentiation studies. The use of seed genomic DNA for developing RAPD fingerprints based on arbitrarily primed PCR reactions can be a time-saving and cost-effective technique for genetic purity testing of seed lots for seed certification.
34. C. S. SINGH AND U. N. SINGH [Effect of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 640-643 (2002). Department of Agronomy Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 1997 to study the effect of nitrogen levels (50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) and sulphur levels (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1) on rice cultivars (Swarna and PR-108) in split plot design. Among the varieties, Swarna was significantly superior to PR-108 in respect to growth and yield traits such as green leaves hill-1, tiller number, panicle length, grains panicle-1, grain yield, total nitrogen uptake and grain protein yield. Significant increase in plant height, tillers m-1 row length, dry matter production, panicles m-1 row length, panicle length and grains panicle-1 was obtained with increasing levels of nitrogen and sulphur upto 150 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg S ha-1, respectively. The grain and straw yield as well as grain protein yield and total nitrogen uptake significantly improved with increasing levels of nitrogen and sulphur application values being maximum at 150 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg S ha-1. Sulphur uptake was also augmented by nitrogen and sulphur application.
35. A. S. RATHORE, P. S. SHEKHAWAT AND R. P. S. SHAKTAWAT [Comparative studies on sole, inter and mixed cropping in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) under rainfed conditions] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 644-646 (2002). R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station Fatehpur Shekhawati (Rajasthan), India.
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Fatehpur Shekhawati, Rajasthan on sandy loam soils for two consecutive years during kharif seasons for comparative studies on sole, inter and mixed cropping in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum R. Br.) with clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for maximising production and income per unit area under rainfed conditions. Intercropping of pearl millet (30/60 cm) with clusterbean gave the highest pearl millet equivalent yield of 1524 kg ha-1. Consequently this treatment brought about significantly highest gross return of Rs. 8485 ha-1 followed by mixed cropping of pearl millet with clusterbean with a gross return of Rs. 6751 ha-1.
36. S. C. VARMA, R. K. SRIVASTAVA, RAJESH SINGH, S. K. SINGH AND P. K. BISEN [Effect of varying levels of sulphur and potassium on yield and oil content of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 647-649 (2002). Department of Agronomy Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment, conducted on Indian mustard during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at Varanasi, showed that sulphur significantly increased seed and stover yields and yield attributing characters such as siliquae plant-1, seeds siliqua-1, length of siliqua and test weight only upto 30 kg ha-1. Oil content also indicated similar trend. However, potassium application upto 40 kg ha-1 brought significant improvement over 20 kg ha-1 but at par with 60 kg ha-1 regarding seed and stover yields, in addition to siliquae plant-1.
37. S. K. LANDGE, S. U. KAKADE, P. D. THAKARE, A. P. KARUNAKAR AND D. J. JIOTODE [Response of soybean to nitrogen and phosphorus] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 650-652 (2002) . Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola–444 104 (M. S.), India
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 1994-95 to study the response of soybean to nitrogen and phosphorus with higher and lower doses of N and P than the recommended dose and to determine effect of various treatments on nutrient uptake, yield and quality of soybean. There was progressive increase in yield and yield contributing characters with the application of 45 kg N+112.5 kg P2O5/ha-1 with Rhizobium culture also found significantly increased N and P uptake as compared to other treatments with increase in the rates of N and P alongwith Rhizobium culture improved the quality parameters of soybean i. e. protein oil percentage and test weight of seed. Maximum number of root nodules and their dry weight was recorded under same treatment.
38. D. J. JIOTODE, R. V. KULKARNI AND C. S. DHAWAD [Economic feasibility of different cotton based intercropping systems and effect on quality of cotton] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 653-655 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmush Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.
Experiment was conducted to find out suitable intercrop in cotton (var. AKH 84635) considering its growth and quality parameters during kharif 1994-95 at the farm of Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.). Growth and yield performance and monetary returns obtained with different intercrops were tested. The highest monetary return and land equivalent ratio were recorded in cotton+black-gram intercropping system. Although ginning per cent remained statistically unaffected but seed index was highest in this intercropping.
39. S. D. AMRUTKAR, B. M. PATIL, A. P. KARUNAKAR AND D. J. JIOTODE [Effect of various herbicides on yield and uptake of nutrients in onion (Allium cepa L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 655-657 (2002). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidya-peeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Pre-planting application of soil residual herbicides oxadiazon and trifluralin each at 1.0 kg ha-1 proved equally effective for weed control. Significantly lower uptake of nutrients by weeds and higher uptake by onion bulb were observed under these treatments compared to other treatments except weed free and hand weeding thrice. Highest bulb yield was, however, obtained under weed free treatment closely followed by oxadiazon 1.0 kg ha-1.
40. RAGHAVENDRA SINGH AND M. D. PANDEY [Studies on integrated pest management in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 658-660 (2002). Department of Agronomy Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (U. P.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 1994-95 and 1995-96 at C. S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, India to study the integrated use of seed treatment, weed control, insect control, variety and intercropping in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The study indicated that Avarodhi proved to be at par with Radhey. Intercropping of linseed with both the varieties showed negative impact on yield attributes and yield of chickpea. Among seed treatments, weed control and insect control, weed control by pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 1.5 kg ha-1 and insect control by two sprayings of endosulfan @ 1.25 l ha-1 was found to be most effective both in terms of grain yield and net income.
41. M. S. BONS, A. S. SOHI AND K. K. SHUKLA [Behavioural studies on Nephotettix virescens (Distant) (Homoptera : Cicadellidae)-Green leafhopper of rice] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 661-662 (2002). Department of Entomology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.
The behavioural studies on green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens (Distant), an important vector of tungro virus of rice, were conducted in the screen houses during the summers of 1999 and 2000 at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Mating occurred in end-to-end position, mostly at dusk between 1900 and 2000 h and lasted for 1.5-3.0 min. The nymphs emerged out between 0600 and 1000 h, from the leafsheath tissues usually near the ground surface and the scarlet eyes of the eggs became distinct before hatching. The eggs were laid in series of 4-39 each, arranged in a single row fashion, lying one besides the other, longitudinally, in leafsheath tissues along their length. The maximum oviposition took place during 1800 to 2200 h. The moulting took place between 0600 and 1000 h.
42. APURBA KUMAR CHOWDHURY [Effect of chitosan on collar rot of peanut caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.] Res. on Crops 3 (3) : 663-665 (2002). Department of Plant Pathology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavid-yalaya, Cooch Behar-736 165 (W. B.), India
Chitosan, a deacylated product of chitin using as seed treatment in peanut plants (cv. J-II) against collar rot (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.) was investigated. Seeds were treated just before sowing in pots at a concentration of 0.05% to 1.0% and some seeds were sown where treatment was made two months before sowing. In both the cases, chitosan reduced disease index by 31 to 71% and mortality percentage from 66 in untreated plants to 25-45% in the treated plants. The plants in effective treatments had more phenolics, proteins and increased activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase.