Volume 4, Number 1 (January, 2003)
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1. A. M. TAWAHA*, V. P. SINGH, M. A. TURK AND W. ZHENG [A review on growth, yield components and yield of barley as influenced by genotypes, herbicides and fertilizer application]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 1-9 (2003). Department of Plant Science McGill University, Macdonald Campus 21111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most widely grown cereal crop in Jordan and other west Asian countries. The barley-based farming system exists in wide areas along the dry margins (200-300 mm mean annual rainfall) of cultivation in Syria, Jordan and Iraq. It is grown mainly as feed for livestock. Many factors such as genotypes, seeding rates, climatic factors, soil fertility and weeds are the major factors affecting barley production. The present review illustrates the effects of genotypes, fertilizers and 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) on the yield, yield components and growth characteristics of barley.
2. A. V. BULBULE, J. K. PURKAR AND V. S. PATIL [Efficient nitrogen and phosphorus management for rainfed transplanted rice]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 10-18 (2003). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri-422 403 (M. S.), India.
Field trials were conducted during 1996, 1997 and 1998 wet seasons (south-west monsoon seasons) in the warm sub-humid tropical zone on the west coast of Maharashtra state, India. The objective of the trials was to compare the agronomic performance of fertilizer when applied (1) in the form of briquettes to rice crop through an improved management consisting of placing fertilizer briquettes by hand at a depth of 7-10 cm in a single dose after transplanting in modified spacing. The modified spacing consisted of paired rows having a square grid of 40 x 40 cm with plants arranged at four corners of 15 x 15 cm around each briquette and (2) conventional method of transplanting (15 x 20 cm), crop fertilized with conventional fertilizers (nitrogen applied in three splits, single application of phosphorus). The results demonstrate that placement of fertilizer through briquettes at 40% lower nutrient levels (56 kg N/ha and 13.1 kg P/ha) in the improved modified spacing produced 36% higher grain yield than the current recommended fertilizer dose for the region (100 kg N/ha and 21.8 kg P/ha) applied through conventional fertilizers at conventional planting geometry. Although the placement of briquettes and briquetting of fertilizer involve additional cost, the savings in fertilizer and increase in the grain yields due to better fertilizer use efficiency indicate superior value : cost ratio for the improved management. The findings indicate that this technology could have the same potential benefits in other similar agroclimatic regions.
3.G. DOGIWAL AND R. K. PANNU [Effect of sowing time on phenology, thermal requirement and yield of wheat varieties]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 19-26 (2003). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi season of 1997-98 on sandy loam soil. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plot treatments consisted of three dates of sowing (November 10, December 10 and January 10) and 12 wheat varieties, namely, C 306, HINDI 62, HD 2285, HR 2329, LOK 1, PBW 373, RAJ 3765, SONAK, UP 2338, WH 291 and WH 533 were assigned to sub-plots. Results revealed that late sowing reduced the vegetative and reproductive phases. The maximum heat unit consumption was observed with the crop sown on January 10. Among the different varieties, UP 2338 consumed maximum heat units closely followed by WH 533 and HINDI 62. The thermal use efficiency was found higher in PBW 343 and LOK 1 than other varieties. Significantly lower grain yield was observed in HINDI 62 and C 306.
4.R. N. KATKAR, A. B. TURKHEDE, S. T. WANKHADE, B. A. SAKHARE AND V. M. SOLANKE [Effect of planting patterns and spacing on growth and yield of cotton under drip irrigation]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 27-30 (2003). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 1998-99 to 2000-01 at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola (M. S.). The results revealed that the planting patterns did not affect significantly in seed cotton yield (1131 and 1106 kg/ha). Seed cotton yield was recorded significantly maximum in 50 cm (1276 kg/ha) than 75 and 100 cm (1099 and 980 kg/ha). Dry matter accumulation and uptake of nutrients (NPK) did not affect significantly due to planting pattern, whereas spacing recorded progressively and significantly increased with decrease in spacing. C : B ratio was maximum in single row planting at 96 cm (1.53) but WUE was maximum at paired row planting at 132-60 cm (1.25 kg/mm/ha), while closer spacing i. e. 50 cm recorded higher C : B ratio (1.68) as well as WUE (1.15 kg/mm/ha).
5. A. S. VENKATAKRISHNAN, K. RAJENDRAN, A. NANDAGOPAL, M. RAMASAMY, M. L. MANOHARAN AND S. RAMANATHAN [Yield enhancement of rice under irrigated low land condition]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 31-33 (2003). Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai during kharif 1999 and 2000 to study the cumulative effect of different agronomic practices for achieving maximum grain yield in rice. The results of the study revealed that the recommended fertilizer level+FYM @ 10 t/ha+ZnSO4 25 kg/ha+Azolla 1 t/ha resulted in maximum grain yield of 7.10 t/ha during kharif 1999 and 7.68 t/ha during kharif 2000 in Cauvery delta zone of Tamil Nadu. The increase in yield might be due to the higher panicle number m-2 and panicle weight in this treatment.
6.A. B. TURKHEDE, S. T. WANKHADE, R. N. KATKAR, B. A. SAKHARE AND V. M. SOLANKE [Studies on the effect of intercropping on seed cotton yield of early cotton genotype (AKH-081)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 34-38 (2003). Cotton Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
The results of the field experiment conducted on the effect of intercropping on seed cotton yield of early cotton genotype (AKH-081) revealed that the seed cotton yield of AKH-081 was maximum in sole cotton and it was significantly reduced by 11.0, 19.1 and 26.7% when intercropped with blackgram, greengram and soybean, respectively, and yield reduction was more with closer row spacing (60 cm) than wider row spacing (90 cm). However, gross monetary returns were significantly less in sole cotton (Rs. 17568). Cotton+blackgram (Rs. 21860) and cotton+greengram (Rs. 20469) recorded maximum gross monetary returns.
7. Y. P. SINGH [Response of varieties, sulphur and inoculation on yield, uptake of nutrients and biological N fixation by blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) in rainfed condition]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 39-43 (2003). Krishi Vigyan Kendra Banasthali Vidyapeeth, Tonk-304 022 (Rajasthan), India.
Effect of gypsum and organic wastes viz., casuarina needles, mahua leaves, neem leaves in conjunction with gypsum and a control on the reclamation of coastal saline soil (pH 9.03, EC 5.97 dSm-1 and ESP 32.54) and on the yield and nutrient uptake of ragi were evaluated in field experiments conducted in a farmer’s field from 1993-94 to 1995-96. Gypsum+organic wastes incorporation reduced the pH, EC, ESP and increased the nutrient availability resulting in better growth and yield of ragi. Gypsum+casuarina needles application @ 5 t ha-1 was better than all other treatments in improving yield, nutrient uptake and availability of nutrients in soil.
8.R. S. SHIVANKAR, N. G. ZODE AND S. K. SHIVANKAR [Effect of time of harvest on seed quality of soybean seed during storage]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 44-48 (2003). Department of Agricultural Botany Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India
Seeds of three soybean cultivars viz., PKV-25, JS-335 and JS-80-21 were harvested at six different harvest times (one prior to physiological maturity and four after physiological maturity). Seed lots were stored in cloth bags for a period of six months under ambient condition. The remarkable differences were observed in seed germination, shoot length, root length and seed vigour index for six different harvest times. Seeds harvested at physiological maturity were found superior in germination percentage, shoot length, root length and seed vigour index than seeds those harvested prior and after physiological maturity during six months storage period.
9. T. RANGARAJ, V. MANIVANNAN AND V. E. SOMA SUNDARAM [Irrigation management in groundnut with special reference to field layouts and soil amendments]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 49-51 (2003). National Pulses Research Center Vamban Colony P. O. 622 303, Pudukkottai District (Tamil Nadu), India.
Field experiments were conducted on irrigated groundnut to study the levels of irrigation, irrigation layouts and soil amendments. The results showed that under scarce water situations irrigating the groundnut with 0.60 IW/CPE ratio in ridges and furrows with incorporation of 15 t ha-1 of coir waste was found to influence the growth parameters viz., height of the crop, DMP, LAI and yield parameters viz., number of pods per crop, yield of pods and haulm yield.
10. B. LAVANYA VENI, V. R. K. MURTHY, SHAIK MOHAMMAD AND G. RAMESH [Performance of soybean varieties to different sowing dates under rainfed conditions of southern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 52-55 (2003). Agriculture & Soils Group NRSA, Department of Space, Hyderabad-500 037 (A. P.), India.
Field experiment carried out during kharif 2001-02 revealed that increase in the yield of soybean was possible only by selecting a suitable genotype with appropriate sowing time for a particular region. The four soybean genotypes JS-335, MACS-124, PK-472 and KB-79 when sown on 28 June, 18 July, 7 August and 27 August at 20 days interval indicated that the four genotypes were progressively sensitive to delayed sowing by 20 days interval from 28 June to 27 August. The magnitude of mean yield loss was 22.85% by sowing the crop on 27 August than the optimal time of sowing on 28 June in the kharif season. JS-335 was advantageous to grow under the agro-ecological situations similar to Rajendranagar owing to its short duration of only 90 days and high production even in the events of sowing late until 7 August to reap more yield compared to MACS-124 maturing in 98 days, PK-472 in 102 days and KB-79 in 100 days. Although the genotype KB-79 was less sensitive to delayed sowing, the yield from JS-35 had an edge over these genotypes. Thus, JS-335 appeared to be the potent option to cover the field early, escape the terminal drought if any and yet yield more.
11. G. J. BHAGAT, ABDUL HAMID, S. P. BONDE, M. D. GIRI AND MOHAMMED SAJID [Effect of irrigation and sulphur levels on growth and yield attributes of rabi sunflower (Helianthus annuus)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 56-59 (2003). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2000-01 at the Agronomy Department Farm, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeh, Akola (M. S.) to find out optimum levels of irrigation and sulphur for rabi sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hybrid PKV SH-27 on a clay loam soil. Irrigation applied at 0.75 IW : CPE ratio recorded significantly highest growth attributes (plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter and stem girth) and yield attributes (dry matter and weight of disk, number and weight of seeds disk-1, number of filled seeds disk-1 and test weight). Application of 40 kg S ha-1 produced significant effect on growth and yield attributes of sunflower.
12. A. K. KAPOOR, Y. S. SHARAWAT, S. K. SHARMA AND RAJPAUL [Distribution of soluble salts in highly saline soil irrigated with different modes of irrigation water]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 60-62 (2003). Department of Soil Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
An experiment was conducted in microplots (5 m x 4 m) under pearl millet and berseem crop at the farm of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the depth distribution of reactive and non-reactive solutes on irrigation with different qualities of irrigation water. The mean Cl and Na concentration of profile decreased after the harvest of pearl millet and at the sowing of berseem crop. The order of decrease in concentration of Cl and Na from the soil profile was canal>mixed>sewage. The concentration of Cl decreased from the top layer very sharply and accumulated in the lower soil layers. On the other hand, Na concentration leached from whole of the profile under canal irrigation. The degree of decrease was not so sharp as that of Cl and in mixed and sewage irrigation the concentration of Na decreased upto 90 cm. Below this depth there was some accumulation.
13. K. K. SINGH AND GAYATRI VERMA1 [Influence of fly ash on physico-chemical properties and fertility status of soil]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 63-68 (2003). Project Directorate (Research)Agriculture & Soil Survey, Krishi Bhavan, Bikaner-334 001 (Rajasthan), India.
The effect of different levels of fly ash (FA) on pH, EC and available major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) was investigated in an alkaline loamy sand soil of Agra district. A decrease in soil pH and increase in EC was observed with the increasing doses of FA. The effect on the availability of NH4+-N and K+ followed the order 7.5 > 5.0 > 2.5 > 0.0 > 10.05 > 12.5 > 15.0 > 30.0 g kg-1 soil. The available phosphorus increased with the increasing doses upto 7.5 g kg-1 and thereafter it decreased with the increasing doses of FA but remained in higher amounts than the control.
14. G. SINGH AND J. S. KANWAR [Seasonal variation in the shoot nitrogen content and its relationship with fruit size and quality of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cv. Shan-i-Punjab]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 69-73 (2003). PAU Institute of Agriculture, Gurdaspur-143 521 (Punjab), India.
Seasonal variations in the nitrogen content of shoots, leaves and fruits of peach cv. Shan-i-Punjab were measured at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during 1999-2000. The mean percentage of total nitrogen was significantly higher in shoots, leaves and fruits from vigorous categories (mean length 75 cm) than those from medium vigorous (mean length 50 cm) and poor vigorous (mean length 20 cm) categories of shoots. The percentage of total nitrogen decreased in shoots, leaves and fruits throughout the season from March 10 to June 30. Fruit quality in terms of weight, diameter, TSS, acidity, TSS/acid ratio and fruit firmness was better on vigorous shoots. It is concluded that fruit size and its quality had positive relationship with shoot vigour.
15.A. BASKARAN AND S. SATHIAMOORTHY [Effect of growth retardants on growth, flowering and yield of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) cv. CO 2]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 69-73 (2003). Horticultural College and Research Institute Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003 (Tamil Nadu), India.
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of growth retardants on growth and flowering in papaya at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Among the four growth retardants viz., alar, CCC, ethrel and paclobutrazol (PP 333) as foliar sprays, application of PP 333 (cultar) had profound influence in altering growth, flowering and yield features. Effects varied depending upon the concentrations of growth retardants. In case of plant height, paclobutrazol reduced the plant height to the minimum of 230.3 cm at 270 DAP followed by CCC and alar. Paclobutrazol induced early flowering followed by alar, while CCC and ethrel delayed it compared to control. Paclobutrazol induced flowering at the lowest height (112.3 cm). In general, paclobutrazol induced early flowering by 40 days, followed by alar (34 days) compared with control. Paclobutrazol gave the highest yield of 48 fruits per tree. CCC gave 38 fruits per tree, while in control there were only 24 fruits.
16. S. MICHAEL GOMEZ, P. RANGASAMY AND N. NADARAJAN [Assessing the best combiners in rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for drought prone areas of Tamil Nadu]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 79-84 (2003). Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai (Tamil Nadu), India.
Combining ability for 12 quantitative characters in rice under drought situation was studied through line x tester analysis involving 10 drought resistant local land races and five high yielding testers. The combining ability analysis revealed that all the characters studied were governed by additive gene action except harvest index. Among the parents, TKM-9, IR 64, ADT 43, Nutripattu, PMK 1 and Poongar were found to be good general combiners for grain yield as well as drought resistant characters. Five crosses were identified as best hybrids based on their per se performance and high specific combining ability effects. Appropriate breeding techniques were suggested for further development of drought tolerant varieties.
17. P. N. RASAL AND H. S. PATIL [Line x tester analysis in pearl millet. I. Yield component characters]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 85-90 (2003). Agricultural Research Station, MPKV, Niphad-422 303 (M. S.), India.
The combining abiltiy of five male sterile lines of pearl millet in crosses with eight diverse genotypes was studied in line x tester design for grain yield/plant and five other yield component traits. Involvement of non-additive gene action for grain yield/plant and additive gene action for plant height, days to flower, tillers/plant, ear girth and ear length was observed. Among female parents, MS 88628 A was observed to be good general combiner for plant height, ear girth and length and grain yield/plant and MS 88840 A was observed to be good general combiner for plant height, ear girth and length. Among male parents, 884581 was found to be good general combiner for all the traits studied and 88839 was found to be good general combiner for plant height, ear girth and grain yield/plant. From the studies of specific combining ability, it can be concluded that the crosses viz., MS 1596 A x 884581 and MS 88840 A x 881761 produced significantly higher grain yield than the general mean and high yielding parents and showed significant sca effects and would prove to be the potential combinations for exploitation of heterosis. However, it needs to be assessed further for their performance in future.
18. V. SRINIVASA REDDY, Y. CHANDRA MOHAN, N. VENKATESHWAR RAO AND L. KRISHNA [Combining ability studies through L x T design in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 91-96 (2003). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.
Six popcorn lines and four testers were crossed in line x tester design to produce 24 hybrids during kharif 1997. These were evaluated for combining ability during rabi 1997-98 in a randomised block design. Among the lines, NPC I-3-1-1-1 and BPC II-7-1-1-1 were found to be good general combiners for popping expansion, degree of popping and grain yield. However, among testers PCC II was best combiner for popping expansion and degree of popping, whereas PPC V was good for grain yield. The hybrids BPC II-7-1-1-1 x PCC II, BPC I-8-1-1-1 x PPC V, NPC I-3-1-1-1 x PCC II, NPC I-3-1-1-1 x PPC V, OPC II -2-2-1-1 x PPC V and OPC II-2-2-1-1 x PCC X were showing sca effect for at least some of the desired popping quality and yield characters in only significant positive direction.
19. K. NOREN SINGH, P. R. SHARMA AND M. R. K. SINGH [Stability analysis in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 97-103 (2003). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics
Central Agricultural University, Imphal-795 001, India.
Stability analysis in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] for 11 promising genotypes was conducted during kharif 1997 for estimation of stability parameters in respect to grain yield and its components in six different artificially created micro-environments. The genotypes showed significant differences among themselves for all the characters excepting seeds per pod. The G x E interaction was significant for all the characters. The linear component of G x E interaction was significant for 100-seed weight and seed yield per plot, whereas non-linear component was significant for all the characters. In sandy loam with higher dose of applied fertilizer in June sowing (E-6), the expression of yield and its components was maximum, while in clay without additional fertilizers in May sowing (E-1) was minimum for the same. The genotypes RMG-268 and PDM-229 were found to be better for phenotypic stability in grain yield and its components and suitable for general cultivation over wide environmental conditions of Manipur Valley. PBG-16 and AAU-34 were found to be suitable under favourable and high input management conditions.
20. N. V. RAO, Y. CHANDRA MOHAN AND S. SOKKA REDDY [Variability and character association in the elite lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 104-109 (2003). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.
Genetic variability character associations and path coefficients were estimated for 11 characters with 82 genotypes of sunflower laid out in RBD with two replications during rabi 1997-98. Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences for all the traits studied. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for number of filled seeds per head (48.127, 47.776), seed yield (45.723, 45.522), plant height (21.069, 20.581) and test weight (20.227, 20.099). Heritability was recorded high for all the characters in the present study indicating the presence of additive gene action. Correlation studies showed the presence of significant positive association of seed yield with number of filled seeds per head, test weight, head diameter, stem girth, number of leaves per plant and plant height. In contrast, seed yield was negatively associated with oil content. Path analysis indicated that the number of filled seeds per head, test weight and head diameter had maximum direct effects on seed yield. It was clearly understood that the seed yield per plant in sunflower could be increased by increasing the number of filled seeds per head, test weight and head diameter.
21. DHARAMVEER, R. S. CHAMPAWAT, M. S. PANWAR AND SURJEET SINGH [Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of three different species of Fusarium causing wilt of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 110-113 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan), India.
Utilization of carbon compound is inherent character of the different species of fungi. Out of nine sources of carbon tried, all the three species of the pathogen, namely, Fusarium concolor, F. oxysporum and F. moniliforme showed their ability to utilize practically all of them but with varying degree. Lactose proved best source for the growth of the fungi and it was followed by maltose. Fungi used in the present investigation were able to utilize nitrate, ammonia and organic sources of nitrogen. L-Aspartic acid served as best nitrogen source for the growth of the fungi and it was followed by ammonium oxylate.
22. RUPENDRA KHANDWE AND R. C. SHARMA [Effect of drip irrigation on growth and production of teak (Tectona grandis) in Satpura plateau of Madhya Pradesh] Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 114-116 (2003). JNKVV Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chandangaon, Chhindwara-480 001 (M. P.), India.
Few progressive farmers of Chhindwara district have done the teak plantation with drip irrigation in degraded land under the guidance of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chhindwara. Teak plants with drip irrigation gave the highest plant height (380 cm) with 97% survival after one year, in comparison with traditional irrigation method having plant height of 165 cm with 74% survival. One year old teak plant in natural forest had plant of height of 43 cm with 30% survival. The average diameter at breast height of teak plant was 14.4 and 5.0 cm with drip irrigation and traditional irrigation method, respectively. After one year, leaf area index of teak plant was found to be 8.6 and 3.4 with drip irrigation and traditional irrigation method, respectively. Under drip irrigation system with an application rate of 2 l water/tree/day showed better performance over traditional irrigation method @ 14 l water/tree/week at one time. It was estimated that in a period of 5 to 7 years teak plantation with drip irrigation would give approximately 165, 1295 and 190 number of log/ha with diameter 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 cm, respectively, while in natural forest condition this size of log will be received after 20-25 years period. It was further estimated that teak plantation gave approximate net return of Rs. 77.94 lakh/ha from the cutting of teak log in different ages during the period of 20 years.
23. ALFREDO DORANTES EUAN, MARTHA MÉNDEZ*, RAFAEL DURÁN AND R. K. MAITI [Methods to promote germination of endangered species of high economic potential in Yucatan, Mexico]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 117-126 (2003). Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A. C.Unidad de Recursos Naturales, Calle 43, No. 103Colonia Chuburna de Hidalgo, C. P. 97200, Mérida, Yucatán, México *(e-mail : mar@cicy. mx)
Different treatments were evaluated to promote germination of palms (Pseudophoenix sargentii Wendl ex Sarg. and Coccothrinax readii Quero), besides the species of Cactaceae (Pterocereus gaumeri). These species are endangered and of great economic potential in Yucatan. Four treatments were applied viz., (1) use of different substrates (commercial agrolite, sands/sand-soil (kancab), (2) different times of imbibition (24 and 48 h), (3) different promoters of germination (gibberelic acid and potassium nitrate) and (4) germination in light and darkness. The four treatments were realized under controlled conditions (in germination chambers and green house conditions). In the germination chamber, a photo period of 12 h at 35°C and in darkness of 12 h at 30°C were maintained. Besides, an analysis of viability of seeds of two species of palms was done under condition of storage in environmental condition. A high percentage of germination was obtained for Pseudophoenix sargentii (96.7%) in sands used as substrate conducted in germination chamber and the similar percentage was obtained with potassium nitrate treatment in incubator. In the treatments the very high percentage of germination was obtained in incubator than those in green house. For Coccothrinax readii, the very high percentage of germination (85%) was obtained in the incubator under condition of darkness. With respect to seed viability, after seven months of storage, the percentage of germination of P. sargentii was reduced to half but in C. readii, germination increased with the time of storage. In Pterocereus gaumeri, a very high percentage of germination (86.7-97.5%), was obtained both in the incubator and green house. However, the velocity of germination increased significantly, much higher than those in any other treatments.
24. A. PARIARI, A. B. SHARANGI, S. DATTA AND R. CHATTERJEE [Growth and yield of fennel as influenced by different growth regulating chemicals under West Bengal condition]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 127-130 (2003). Department of Spices and Plantation Crops Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
To study the effect of growth regulating chemicals on yield, an experiment was conducted at SIF, Jaguli, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya during 1999-2000 and 2000-01 with 15 treatments (viz., ethrel 25 ppm, ethrel 50 ppm, ethrel 100 ppm, GA 25 ppm, NAA 50 ppm, NAA 100 ppm, ethrel 25 ppm+GA 25 ppm, ethrel 50 ppm+GA 25 ppm, ethrel 100 ppm+GA 25 ppm, ethrel 25 ppm+NAA 50 ppm, ethrel 50 ppm+NAA 50 ppm, ethrel 100 ppm+NAA 50 ppm, NAA 50 ppm+GA 25 ppm, NAA 100 ppm+GA 25 ppm and control i. e. water spray). It was found that ethrel 50 ppm+NAA 50 ppm, ethrel 50 ppm, ethrel 50 ppm+GA 25 ppm and NAA 100 ppm were most effective in improving the yield (9.86, 8.80, 8.26 and 8.13 q/ha, respectively) and yield attributing characters.
25. S. S. SARODE, B. N. DAHATONDE, N. K. PATKE, S. K. LAWALE AND SHILPA DAHATONDE [Studies on growth and yield of pre-monsoon hybrid cotton in response to moisture regimes, planting patterns and intra-row distances under drip irrigation]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 131-132 (2003). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.
A field experiment comprising combination of two planting patterns (single and paired), two intra-row distances (60 and 90 cm) and three moisture regimes (irrigations at 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 ETC) was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola (M. S.) during 1999-2000 with an object to study their effects on growth and yield of pre-monsoon hybrid cotton. Planting patterns were at par. Intra-row distance of 60 cm enhanced the growth and yield attributes and seed cotton yield than 90 cm. Irrigation scheduling at 0.6 ETC was found effective than 0.4 and 0.8 ETC.
26. N. K. PATKE, B. N. DAHATONDE, S. S. SARODE AND SHILPA DAHATONDE [Studies on growth and yield of pre-monsoon hybrid cotton as influenced by nitrogen levels, methods and split application under drip irrigation]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 133-134 (2003). Regional Agricultural Research Station, Diphu-782 460 (Assam), India.
A field experiment comprising nine treatment combinations of three nitrogen levels (50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) and two methods of application (soil application in three splits and fertigation in four and five splits) was conducted during 1999-2000 at Department of Agronomy, Dr. P. D. K. V., Akola (M. S) with an object to study their effects on growth and yield of pre-monsoon hybrid cotton. Successive increase in the levels of nitrogen application from 50 to 100 kg ha-1 consistently enhanced the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of cotton. Fertigation of nitrogen in five splits boosted the growth and yield attributes and yield than recommended practice of soil application in three splits. Further splitting into six instalments was not found beneficial.
27. R. S. RAGHUWANSHI AND P. THAKUR [Economic performance of fertilizers on rabi crops]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 135-137 (2003). Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Tikamgarh-472 001 (M. P.), India.
Field experiments were conducted at farmers’ fields in Tikamgarh district (M. P.) during 1996-97 and 1997-98. The data showed that the yields increased with increased dose of NPK in the rabi crops. The highest average yields of crops i. e. 3191, 1666, 1063 and 133 kg ha-1 of wheat, gram, linseed and mustard, respectively, were obtained with recommended dose of NPK kg ha-1. The highest cost : benefit ratio was found in linseed 9.00 applying 50% of recommended NPK followed by gram 6.80 with 100% recommended NPK against additional cost of NPK. The cost : benefit ratio was constant in wheat and mustard crops in company of NPK doses. It was observed that the use of NPK increased net profit by 8, 6, 4 and 3 times of the linseed, gram, wheat and mustard, respectively, of the additional cost.
28. V. SRINIVAS REDDY, Y. CHANDRA MOHAN, N. V. RAO AND L. KRISHNA [Heterotic studies in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta)]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 138-140 (2003). Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030 (A. P.), India.
Twenty-four hybrids were developed by crossing six popcorn lines and four testers in line x tester mating design. The extent of heterosis over Amber popcorn ranged from -85.69 to 29.14 for popping expansion and from -16.1 to 80.16 for grain yield per plot. Regarding popping expansion, degree of popping and yield of three hybrids viz., BPC I-8-1-1-1 x PPC V, NPC I-3-1-1-1 x PPC V and NPC II-9-1-1-1 x PCC II showed significant heterosis in one of the characters without significant decrease in the heterosis of other two characters. These hybrids can substitute Amber popcorn for immediate use.
29. MAYUR DIKKAR AND V. V. DESHMUKH [Effect of bio-agents and soil amendments on chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. ciceri]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 141-143 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagarh (Gujarat), India.
Chickpea, a rabi pulse crop, is prone to several diseases. A severe outbreak of wilt of chickpeas was observed causing considerable damage. Chickpea wilt incidence was significantly reduced by amending the soil with de-oiled mustard cake, groundnut cake and FYM. Among different fungal and bacterial bio-agents tested, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus ‘E’ were found to be effective in inhibiting the fungal growth in vitro
30.DHANBIR SINGH, B. K. SHARMA, AKHILESH SINGH, S. L. GARTAN, RAVINDER KUMAR AND AMIT GHANAKSH [Incidence of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) in relation to meteorological factors]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 144-145 (2003). CSK HPKV Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan District Sirmour-173 001 (H. P.) India.
Analysis of 11 years’ Karnal bunt incidence and meteorological data during flowering stage of the crop in the month of March (1990-2001) revealed that occurrence of disease was governed by the prevalence of minimum temperature (10.1-10.2°C), maximum temperature (25.9-26.0°C) and maximum relative humidity (90% and above). Some rainfall (40.9-46 mm) was also necessary for the development of Karnal bunt. However, high rainfall alone did not favour the occurrence of disease. Combined effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall led to development of Karnal bunt epidemic.
31. DHARAMVEER, R. S. CHAMPAWAT, M. S. PANWAR AND SURJEET SINGH [Three new species of Fusarium causing wilt of Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) from India]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 146-147 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan), India.
Severe wilting of jojoba caused by Fusarium spp. has been observed from northern India. Affected plant leaves turned yellow and dropped off prematurely. Necrosis and discolouration were also observed in the collar region of the dead plants. Roots of such plants were found to be partially or fully decayed. Isolation from diseased roots yielded three Fusarium spp., namely, Fusarium concolor, F. oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme among these spp. variability in growth rate, topography pigmentation and amount of sporulation was observed. The three species of the fungus were found to be pathogenic and typical symptoms appeared within 20 to 25 days of inoculation.
32. P. B. BHENDE AND V. V. DESHMUKH [Efficacy of fungicides and plant extracts against Alternaria alternata in vitro of mango]. Res. On Crops 4 (1) : 148-149 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M. S.), India.
In the present study on Alternaria blight of mango, dithane M-45 and thirum were significantly superior over all other fungicides and plant extract treatments in inhibiting the fungal growth, copper oxychloride (87.35%), Kawach (70.58%) and Ashoka leaf extract (49.11%).