Volume 4, Number 2 (August, 2003)
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1. SUNITA SHEOKAND AND SWARAJ KUMARI [Role of cysteine proteases in plants-A review]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 151-165 (2003). Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India
The cysteine proteinases are endopeptidases (E. C. 3.4.22) with a cysteine residue at the active center. They are known widely to occur in almost all aspects of plant growth and development like germination, environmental stress conditions, plant microbe interaction, circadian rhythmus, and senescence and programmed cell death. The cysteine proteinases involved in germination mainly belong to the papain class of proteases and the vacuolar processing enzymes (vpes). Under stress condition also the plant cysteine proteinases are induced, and many of the stress induced cysteine proteinases have signal sequences which target the protein to the secretory pathway. During senescence also cysteine proteinases play an important role. Degradation of proteins is accelerated when the tissue becomes nitrogen limited or senescent or when the stored amino acids are needed by sink tissues suggesting that plants have signaling pathways linking the supply of free amino acids or nitrogen to the supply of free amino acids or nitrogen. Many of the cysteine proteinases induced during senescence are also induced during germination indicating that the same cysteine proteinases may be involved in remobilization of stored nutrients in these two different physiological processes. The caspase type of cysteine proteinases are induced during programmed cell death and hypersensitive response. Recently, specific expression of cysteine processes. The caspase type of cysteine proteinases are induced during programmed cell death and hypersensitive response. Recently, specific expression of cysteine proteinases has been reported in actinorhizal and legume root nodules and may be involved in protein turnover, as rapid metabolic activity occurs during nodule formation. This review deals extensively with the cysteine proteinases involved in germination, growth, development and senescence of plants.(Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most widely grown cereal crop in Jordan and other west Asian countries. The barley-based farming system exists in wide areas along the dry margins (200-300 mm mean annual rainfall) of cultivation in Syria, Jordan and Iraq. It is grown mainly as feed for livestock. Many factors such as genotypes, seeding rates, climatic factors, soil fertility and weeds are the major factors affecting barley production. The present review illustrates the effects of genotypes, fertilizers and 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) on the yield, yield components and growth characteristics of barley.
2. M. GHOSH, D. MAITY, P. K. JANA, A. K. PAL AND P. BANDYOPADHYAY [Studies on growth pattern of rice in rice-cum-fish farming system in coastal saline zone of West Bengal]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 166-169 (2003). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
A study was undertaken at Regional Research Station (Coastal Saline Zone), Kakdwip, West Bengal during winter season of 1996, 1997 and 1998 to evaluate the growth pattern of rice in rice-cum-fish farming system. The LAI and NAR were found to increase upto 40 DAT, thereafter they decreased, whereas CGR and RGR and tillers hill-1 increased upto 60 DAT. The T8 treatment (rice+tilapia+NPK fertilizer) gave maximum LAI and CGR, but the T4 (rice+javapunti) treatment recorded maximum RGR and NAR at 40-60 DAT, whereas T2 (rice+NPK fertilizer) treatment registered maximum tillers hill-1 at 60 DAT.
3.S. K. SHARMA AND H. S. DUNGARWAL [Effect of growth regulators, sulphur fertilization and crop geometry on cotton seed yield and seed quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 170-173 (2003). R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar (Raj.), India.
A field experiment was conducted on cotton at Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar of Rajasthan Agricultural University during two consecutive kharif seasons (1996 and 1997). Application of growth regulators of NAA and triacontanol increased significantly the cotton seed yield, seed index and oil out-turn by 19.7, 16.7, 10.0, and 10.6, 19.6, 11.1%, respectively, over control. Sulphur fertilization @ 50 kg S ha-1 increased the cotton seed yield, seed index and oil out-turn and gossypol content in seed by 20, 8.2 and 22.3% over no sulphur treatment. Rectangular plant geometry of 45 x 45 cm proved superior over other crop geometry in respect of cotton seed, seed index, oil out-turn and gossypol content.
4.S. K. SHARMA AND H. S. DUNGARWAL [Effect of growth regulators, sulphur fertilization and crop geometry on lint yield and fibre properties of American cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 174-177 (2003). R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar (Raj.), India.
A field experiment was conducted on cotton at R. A. U. Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar during two consecutive kharif seasons (1996 and 1997). Application of growth regulators increased the lint yield significantly. Spray of NAA increased the lint yield by 4.3 and 24.9% over triacontanol and no spray, while spray of triacontanol and NAA increased the lint index by 11.2 and 13.2% over control. Application of sulphur @ 50 kg ha-1 increased the lint yield and lint index by 25.4 and 8.9%, respectively, over control. Square planting (45 x 45 cm) gave increased lint yield by 16.0 and 5.9% and an increase of 12.9 and 11.8% in lint index over 90 x 22.5 cm and 67.5 x 30 cm crop geometry, respectively. Spray of growth regulators, sulphur fertilization and crop geometry failed to affect the either of fibre quality characteristics of cotton.
5. DHIMAN RAY, P. BANDYOPADHYAY, D. DUTTA1 AND P. K. JANA [Studies on growth, water use efficiency and crop coefficient of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under limited irrigation]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 178-181 (2003). Department of Agronomy Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741 252 (West Bengal), India.
Field experiments were conducted during the rabi seasons of 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya to study the effect of irrigation schedules on growth, yield, water use and crop coefficient of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Crops receiving protective irrigation twice at branching and flowering stage seemed to be superior in respect of the growth attributes, economic and biological yield of mustard. Total water use and crop coefficient were also higher by providing protective irrigation twice to the crop but water use efficiency in terms of both kg/ha-mm and Rs./ha-mm was higher in plots receiving no protective irrigation. Soil-moisture-depletion pattern of the mustard crop showed that 0-15 cm of soil layer was the active root zone for moisture extraction.
6.N. N. DAMDAR, ABDUL HAMID, A. P. KARUNAKAR, MOHAMMED SAJID AND D. J. JIOTODE [Effect of land configurations and irrigation levels on growth, yield and irrigation water economy in hybrid sunflower]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 182-185 (2003). Department of Agronomy Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104 (M. S.), India.
Plants in border irrigation recorded maximum growth and yield attributes. Differences in seed yield due to treatments of border irrigation and irrigation to furrows opened after every crop row and every two crop rows were non-significant. Four irrigations given at 14 DAS, buttoning, late flowering, grain filling stages and five irrigations given at 14 DAS, buttoning, flowering, grain filling and grain development stages proved at par in respect of growth and yield attributes and final seed yield. Compared to border irrigation treatment of irrigation to furrows opened after every crop row and after every two crop rows saved 7.77 and 37.03% irrigation water for comparable yields.
7. KHYATI MATHUR, HARBIR SINGH, V. P. SINGH AND B. P. SINGH [Effect of sources of starter nitrogen and Rhizobium inoculation on grain yield and economics of summer moongbean cultivation]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 186-189 (2003). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
At Hisar, field experiment was conducted with summer moongbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] during 1999 on a sandy loam (Typic Ustochrepts) soil to study the effect of sources of starter nitrogen (urea, FYM and vermicompost, each to supply 20 kg N ha-1 alongwith a no nitrogen-control) and inoculation (Rhizobium inoculation and non-inoculation control) on seed yield contributing characters, seed, stover and biological yield and economics of its cultivation. Among various sources of starter N, vermicompost being at par with FYM, recorded significantly highest number of pods and grain yield plant-1, grain, stover and biological yield ha-1. Rhizobium inoculation recorded significantly higher number of seeds and seed yield plant-1 and seed, stover and biological yield ha-1. Highest gross, net returns and increase (%) in net return over control from moongbean cultivation were recorded with vermicompost x inoculation followed by FYM x inoculation.
8.R. S. RINWA, S. C. GUPTA, M. C. MUNDRA AND B. P. SINGH [Productivity of cropping systems in participatory research in Haryana]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 190-194 (2003). Department of Agronomy
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
Field experiments on two predominant cropping systems viz., pearlmillet-wheat and paddy-wheat were carried out in participatory research programme at farmers’ field in Haryana state for two years (2000-01 and 2001-02). Five cropping systems each in pearlmillet as well as paddy based cropping system were the treatments in the study. Maximum wheat equivalent yield of 10783 kg ha-1 was recorded in paddy-potato-sunflower system and maximum net return, B : C ratio and link relative index in paddy-wheat system. Maximum wheat equivalent yield of 7225 kg ha-1, net return of Rs. 29609 ha-1, B : C ratio of 2.20 and link relative index of 2.74 were recorded in clusterbean-wheat system in pearlmillet cropping system zone of Haryana. Maize-wheat-cowpea (fodder) only recorded positive nutrients balance and all other systems had negative balance. of three soybean cultivars viz., PKV-25, JS-335 and JS-80-21 were harvested at six different harvest times (one prior to physiological maturity and four after physiological maturity). Seed lots were stored in cloth bags for a period of six months under ambient condition. The remarkable differences were observed in seed germination, shoot length, root length and seed vigour index for six different harvest times. Seeds harvested at physiological maturity were found superior in germination percentage, shoot length, root length and seed vigour index than seeds those harvested prior and after physiological maturity during six months storage period.
9. MEENA SEWHAG, HARBIR SINGH, R. S. HOODA, ANIL KHIPPAL AND SURENDER GODARA [Uptake of N, P and K by pearlmillet as influenced by composites and levels of nitrogen under rainfed condition]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 195-198 (2003). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
At Hisar, field experiment was conducted to study the nutrients (N, P and K) uptake by rainfed pearlmillet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend. Stuntz] under five composites and four levels of nitrogen during kharif 2001. Pearlmillet composites did not differ significantly in respect of N and P content and uptake in grain. However, HC-10 recorded significantly higher K content in grain as well as total N, P and K uptake than rest of the pearlmillet composites except Raj 171 and MP 394. N, P and K content(s) both in grain and stover and their uptake by pearlmillet increased due to increasing levels of N.
10. B. L. VERMA, A. L. BABEL, YOGESH SHARMA AND R. A. SINGHANIA [Effect of mitigating the adverse effects of soil alkalinity and high RSC water on yield of pearlmillet and mustard]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 199-205 (2003). Agricultural Research Station Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 006 (Raj.), India.
Three years’ studies conducted on loamy sand soil at Agricultural Research Station, Fatehpur-Shekhawati during 1999-2000 to 2001-02 to find out the optimum dose of gypsum for higher yields of crops in salt affected soil being irrigated with high RSC water, for sustainable crop production revealed that addition of gypsum to soil @ 50% GR had increased grain yield of pearlmillet and mustard and at 100% GR gypsum application the yields were at par. Neutralization of RSC of irrigation water had significantly increased the grain yield of pearlmillet and mustard upto 6 meL-1. Increase in yield was higher at first two-milli equivalent neutralization as compared to higher neutralization. Yield attributes of both the crops also followed similar trend. There was no advarse effect of remaining RSC of water upto 4.0 meL-1 on pearlmillet and mustard yield. Addition of gypsum in soil as per GR and according to RSC neutralization of water upto 6.0 meL-1 decreased the pH2 of soil, while EC2 of soil had registered little variation. Addition of gypsum not only reduced the alkalinity of soil but also prevented further degradation of soil with the use of high RSC water.
11. D. KUMARIMANIMUTHU VEERAL, G. KUPPUSWAMY AND K. THANUNATHAN [Direct and residual effects of lignite flyash and humic acid on rice-blackgram cropping system]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 206-209 (2003). Department of Agronomy Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, India.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of lignite flyash (LFA) at three levels viz., 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 with or without FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 and humic acid @ 30 kg ha-1 on rice-blackgram cropping system. Lignite flyash @ 10 t ha-1 with FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 and HA @ 30 kg ha-1 exerted a remarkable influence on all the yield attributes, ultimately leading to increased rice yields of 35% over control. In respect of residual crop, blackgram, the above treatment showed distinct influence on both grain and haulm yields. In both the crops, the highest net return (Rs. 20,080 and 11,109) and return rupee-1 invested (Rs. 2.92 and 8.13) were obtained.
12. SHER SINGH AND P. S. RATHORE [Influence of phosphorus and thiourea on yield and economics of greengram [Vigna radiata var. aureus (L.) Wilczek]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 210-212 (2003). Department of Agronomy R. A. U. College of Agriculture, Beechwal, Bikaner-334 006 (Raj.), India.
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif 1998 at Bikaner to study the effect of phosphorus and thiourea on yield and economics of greengram. Application of 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly increased the grain yield by 23.04 and 7.17%, while net returns by 31 and 7% over control and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1, respectively. The treatment TUS+Fpf significantly increased the grain yield and net returns over all other TU treatments.
13. S. C. GUPTA, M. C. MUNDRA AND B. P. SINGH [Cropping system and fertility management for higher productivity]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 213-216 (2003). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
Field experiments were conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar on eight cropping systems with fertility management in randomized block design with four replications with a view to find out efficient cropping systems for irrigated conditions of south-western Haryana. Among the cropping systems, pigeonpea-wheat fertilized with 100% recommended dose was identified as the most efficient cropping system with highest productivity (6262 kg ha-1), net return (Rs. 19178 ha-1), energy (22022 K Cal x 1000) followed by pigeonpea-wheat fertilized @ 75% of recommended dose. Pearlmillet-wheat-green manuring gave total productivity of 5498 kg ha-1, maximum productivity per ha per day of 25 kg, net return of Rs. 9322 ha-1 and energy of 19293 K Cal x 1000. Thus, pearlmillet-wheat-green manuring appeared to be sound cropping system to meet out the local farmers’ and state’s needs.
14. SAT PAL AND M. S. SAIMBHI [Effect of varying levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on earliness and yield of brinjal hybrids (Solanum melongena L.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 217-222 (2003). Department of Vegetable Crops Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India.
A study was undertaken at Ludhiana (Punjab) to find out the effect of four levels of nitrogen (0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg/ha) and four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) in the brinjal hybrids (BH-1 and BH-2). Nitrogen significantly delayed flowering and increased the number of days taken to first fruit picking, whereas phosphorus enhanced earliness. Nitrogen 125 kg and phosphorus 60 kg/ha significantly increased early yield. However, nitrogen 187.5 kg/ha and phosphorus 60 kg/ha were found to be the most optimum levels for obtaining the highest marketable and total fruit yield of brinjal hybrids. Hybrids (BH-1 and BH-2) did not exhibit any significant difference with respect to all the characters under the present investigation. Similarly, all the interactions were found to be non-significant.
15.R. K. MAITI*, A. BAQUIÉ, V. P. SINGH, E. SÁNCHEZ ARREOLA, P. WESCHE EBELING, B. FLORES LEZAMA AND OLGUÍN TELLEZ LILIA PAMELA [Comparative study of the response of 17 vegetable crop species to different levels of salinity at germination stage cultivated in high lands of Puebla, Mexico]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 223-229 (2003). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Américas-Puebla Santa Catarina Mártir, Cholula, C. P. 72 820, Puebla, México *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org).
The present study was conducted under laboratory conditions with the objective to classify groups of vegetable species and their varieties with respect to their tolerance against salinity. Seeds of 17 species of vegetables were sown in vermiculite under optimum conditions in three replications of 10 seeds each in each petri dish. Three solutions of salinity were prepared : C=H2O, 0 Mol/L NaCl, T1=0.1 Mol/L NaCl and T2=0.2 Mol/L NaCl. The vegetable species used in this study were grouped in three categories viz., (1) leafy vegetables, namely, chard, lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower and spinach, (2) green fruit and seed vegetables viz., tomato, Italian gourd, sweet gourd, zucchini, cucumber, green peas and melon and (3) root vegetables viz., onion, beet, small, radish, yam bean root and carrot. On the basis of these studies, it was concluded that under high soil salinity conditions the farmers of high lands of Puebla, Mexico may cultivate seven species of vegetables successfully with economic production, namely, chard, Italian gourd, sweet gourd, zucchini, cucumber, radish and yam bean root.
16. S. MAKESH1, N. RAMASWAMY, S. ASHOK AND D. KUMARESAN [Studies on combining ability for yield and its components in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 230-234 (2003). Department of Horticulture Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.
A 6 x 6 diallel analysis was undertaken with a view to study the combining ability and nature of gene action for seven quantitative traits viz., days to first flowering, plant height, number of laterals per plant, number of fruits per plant, number of fruits per cluster, mean fruit weight and single plant yield. The parents Shakthi, Accn. No. 378642 and 368894 were the best general combiners for most of the traits. The crosses Shakthi x Accn. No. 378642, Shakthi x Accn. No. 368894 and PKM-1 x Shakthi were found to be the best based on their high per se performance and sca effects. These genotypes can be further exploited in breeding programmes.
17. S. MAKESH1, M. PUDDAN, M. RIZWANA BANU AND N. RAMASWAMY [Heterosis for some important quantitative traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 235-239 (2003). Department of Horticulture Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.
A study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for six quantitative traits viz., days to first flowering, plant height, number of laterals per plant, number of fruits per plant, mean fruit weight and single plant yield in a 6 x 6 diallel cross in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The hybrids Shakthi x PKM-1, Shakthi x CO-3, Accn. No. 368894 x Shakthi, Shakthi x Accn. No. 378642 and Shakthi x Accn. No. 368894 exhibited significantly high amount of heterosis over their better parents and the standard variety (COTH-1) for single plant yield. These hybrids can be specifically exploited further in heterosis breeding programmes.
18. D. SUT, P. TALUKDAR AND S. SINGH [In vitro culture of selfed ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud] seeds]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 240-244 (2003). Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.
Selfed seeds of R-1416 genotype of ramie were studied to ascertain the germination behaviour and growth characters of ramie seedlings on MS basal media and GA3 supplemented media under in vitro condition. Significant differences were obtained among the media for the seedling characters. Considering these characters and comparisons made among them revealed that supplementation of GA3 to the MS basal media was essential for better germination and growth of the seedlings. The in vitro propagation through seeds can be helpful in faster rate of multiplication and conservation of germplasm through seed materials and reduction or deterioration of materials during transport. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the media suitable for better germination and growth of the seedlings.
19. P. D. GAIKWAD AND KALYANI PRASAD [Differential response of various culture media for callus induction and regeneration in Ashwagandha using cotyledon as explant]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 245-248 (2003). Tissue Culture Laboratory, Zonal Agricultural Research Station College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India.
The present study investigated the potential of in vitro culture for rapid propagation of the medicinal plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.). Cotyledonary explants of W. somnifera were cultured on six different media, viz., M1, M2, M3, M4, Gamborg’s B5 and White. Of these the first four media were Murashige and Skoog’s media. Of all the tested media, M3 medium containing 1 mg NAA/1, 2 mg BAP/1, 2 mg Kn/1 and 100 ml coconut milk/1 proved to be the best for callus induction and shoot regeneration followed by M1 and M4 media. The regenerated shoots rooted on 1/2 strength MS medium containing 1 mg IBA/1, 2 mg BAP/1 and 40 g sucrose/1. Darkness was found to be favourable for root regeneration.
20. P. D. GAIKWAD, SINU C. JOHN AND M. BILLORE [Callus induction and regeneration studies in Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant & Fern)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 249-253 (2003). Tissue Culture Laboratory, Zonal Agricultural Research Station J. N. K. V. V. College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India.
The four explants of Chlorophytum borivilianum i. e. seedling, roots, stem disc and leaf (Basal half) were tried on nine media including seven which were MS media with different combinations and concentrations of the hormones and vitamins for callus development as well as for the shoot and root regeneration. M3 medium was most efficient for callusing as well for the shoot proliferation. Best rooting medium was M7. The best explant was found to be the leaf base, which was at par with stem disc. The performance of the root explant was the poorest.
21. E. SANCHEZ-ARREOLA, R. K. MAITI*, J. AGUILAR, G. MARTINEZ, M. C. LAYNES, L. SALDAÑA AND V. P. SINGH [A comparative preliminary study on the phytochemistry of Ipomea murucoides and Ipomea arborescens (family Convolvulaceae) of common use in Cholula Puebla and other region of Tehuacan, Puebla, Mexico]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 254-257 (2003). Departamento de Química y Biología Universidad de las Américas, Puebla Santa Catarina Mártir, Cholula, Puebla, C. P. 72 820, Mexico *(e-mail : email@example.com).
This is a preliminary report on the phytochemistry of Ipomea murucoides collected in Puebla city and Ipomea arborescens collected from Tehuacan and Puebla areas of Mexico. Both the species showed the presence of different secondary metabolites of medicinal values.
22. B. C. DUTTA AND R. K. NATH [Seasonality of rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera (Olivier) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 258-262 (2003). Department of Entomology Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India.
The seasonal abundance of adult rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera was carried out from January, 1998 to December, 1999 at Sensowapathar, a hispa endemic area of Sibsagar district, Assam, India. D. armigera had been found to be present all the year round in the surveyed area on ahu, bao and sali and wild grasses. High relative humidity with moist condition, steady temperature with least fluctuation between maximum and minimum temperature coupled with high minimum temperature were highly conducive for the development of population and causing outbreak of the pest.
23. M. A. HUSSAIN, R. PACHORI AND B. S. CHOUDHARY [Management of Spodoptera litura Fab. on cabbage with special reference to microbial pesticides]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 263-267 (2003). Department of Entomology J. N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Adhartal-482 004, Jabalpur (M. P.), India.
Microbial pesticides viz., NPV @ 200, 250 and 300 LE ha-1, B. t. @ 500 ml ha-1 and 1000 ml ha-1 and endosulfan 35 EC @ 0.07% were evaluated for their effectiveness against tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab. on cabbage. All the treatments were superior to the untreated control in causing larval decline with a mean per cent reduction of 28.46 to 70.40% and 49.25 to 84.11% after first and second sprays, respectively. The efficacy of the microbial pesticides was found to be concentration dependent.
24. ASHISH GAREWAL, A. N. SHARMA, K. N. KAPOOR AND R. N. SINGH [Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance against major insect-pests]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 268-272 (2003). College of Agriculture, Indore-452 001 (M. P.), India.ABSTRACT
Ten genotypes of different maturity groups (four early, four medium and two late) were screened against major insect-pests of soybean during kharif 2000 at NRCS. On the basis of All India Coordinated Research Project on Soybean (AICRPS) method of screening, it was found that genotypes NRC-18, JS-335, JS 80-21 and JS 71-05 were resistant to more than one insect species, whereas genotypes NRC-7, NRC-25, NRC-33 and Bragg were resistant to one insect species.
25. SEKHAR BANDYOPADHYAY, SUBRATA DUTTA AND N. D. SHARMA1 [Studies on effective culture media for mass multiplication of effective Trichoderma strain]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 273-279 (2003). Department of Plant Pathology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar-735 165, India.
Different types of media were inoculated with the most effective strain of Trichoderma and the growth and sporulation in different media was studied in vitro. It was found that sago treated with 1% yeast-peptone-sucrose solution for 1 and 2.5 min plus 1 or 2 g CaCO3 or 1 or 2 g sterilized soapstone was the best mass multiplication medium of the effective strain of Trichoderma.
26. S. K. YADAV [E-Agricultural extension : Concept and key issues]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 280-283 (2003). Department of Agronomy CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India.
While farmers are in need of information and knowledge that is authentic, accurate and made available to them in a timely manner, it would require the following over and above the development and implementation of a good software solution before farmers readily pay for having access to such information and knowledge viz., effort of local entrepreneurs who (a) hava a strong understanding of farmers, (b) who are respected and looked upto by farmers and (c) who have a strong conviction vis-á-vis advantages of using information technology in the long run. Further information accessed by one farmer who has paid for it should not be easily available to other farmers who have not paid for it, else the kiosk may not be financially viable.
27. V. N. KORE, K. P. DHANAWATE, V. W. BENDALE, R. S. PATIL AND A. V. MANE [Genetic variation in leaf area production and yield potential of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cultivars]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 284-286 (2003). Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712 (M. S.), India.R
Field study was conducted at Vegetable Improvement Scheme, Central Experiment Station, Wakawali, District Ratnagiri of Maharashtra state during kharif 2000. Results indicated that the functional leaf area of all the cultivars of bitter gourd increased upto 90 days after sowing (DAS) and reduced thereafter. Maximum contribution of leaf area was from 30-90 DAS. The consistently high leaf area of cvs. Konkan Tara, MC-84 and Preethi recorded significantly higher fruit yield per hectare showing their high photosynthetic efficiency. As regards partitioning potential of assimilates into fruit cv. MC-84 superceded all the cultivars under study which was clearly indicated from highest fruit yield (78.66 q ha-1) of MC-84.
28. S. MAKESH, N. RAMASWAMY, D. KUMARESAN AND S. ASHOK [Gene action for quality and yield in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)]. Res. On Crops 4 (2) : 287-289 (2003). Department of Horticulture Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India.
Gene action for quality traits and yield was studied in F1 of 6 x 6 full diallel cross involving six different lines of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Variation due to gca and sca alongwith D and H components revealed that both additive and non-additive gene actions were in operation in the inheritance of all the traits taken for the study. And further the predominance of non-additive gene action was there as revealed by greater value of H1. Further dominance ratio indicated the presence of both partial and over dominance for the characters. Heritability estimates were high for all the traits. This indicated the prospect of improving these traits through selection.