F&M VOLUME 3Uncategorized

Volume 3, No. 2 (December, 2018)

1. Xiaohong Yin, Chunrong Zhao, Min Huang*, Guanghui Chen and Yingbin Zou [Effects of earthworm casts produced in oilseed rape fields on amylose content and pasting properties in rice]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 81-86 (2018). Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops (CICGO) Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : mhuang@hunau.edu.cn; jxhuangmin@163.com)


The demand for high-quality rice production has increased in China as people’s living standards are improving, and eating quality is of paramount importance to rice consumers. Amylose content and pasting properties are commonly used physicochemical parameters for evaluating the eating quality of rice. The main objective of this study was to determine whether earthworm casts produced during the oilseed growing season in rice-oilseed rape rotation fields will affect the eating quality of the subsequently grown rice. A micro-plot field experiment was conducted in 2017 to investigate the effects of application of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on amylose content and pasting properties in four rice cultivars, two with high and two with low amylose contents. Results showed that application of earthworm casts only resulted in a slight increase (1%) in amylose content and did not significantly alter any of the pasting properties including pasting temperature, peak time, and peak, trough, breakdown, final, setback and consistency viscosities. Our study suggested that the earthworm casts produced during the oilseed rape-growing season in rice-oilseed rape rotation fields may have negligible effect on the eating quality of subsequently grown rice.


Xiaohong Yin, Min Huang* and Yingbin Zou [Potential use of biochar in raising machine-transplanted rice seedlings]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 87-92 (2018). Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops (CICGO) Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China *(e-mail : mhuang@hunau.edu.cn; jxhuangmin@163.com)


Improving seedling quality is important for obtaining high yield in machine-transplanted rice production. In recent years, it has been of interest to use biochar in growing media. However, limited information is available on the potential use of biochar in raising machine-transplanted rice seedlings. This study was conducted to provide such information through determining the effects of biochar addition on machine-transplanted rice seedling traits in a tray experiment. Root length, surface area, volume, and biomass of machine-transplanted rice seedlings grown in nursery soil amended with biochar at a volume-by-volume ratio of 3 : 1 (NMSC) were 21-53% greater than those in soil only (NMS). Leaf area, height, basal stem diameter and shoot biomass were 6-21% greater in machine-transplanted rice seedlings grown in NMSC than in NMS. Water culture test showed that number of newly formed roots was 42% more in machine-transplanted rice seedlings grown in NMSC than in NMS. Length of the longest new root was 13% longer in machine-transplanted rice seedlings grown in NMSC than in NMS. These results suggest that biochar presents a potential use in raising machine-transplanted rice seedlings.


Keshav Prasad Shrestha*, Rabin Giri, Sagar Kafle, Rajesh Chaudhari and Jiban Shrestha [Zero tillage impacts on economics of wheat production in far western Nepal]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 93-99 (2018). 1Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) Socio-economics Agriculture Research Policy Division (SARPOD), Khumaltar, Nepal *(e-mail : kpshresthasocio@gmail.com)


The crop productivity of far western region of Nepal is lower than that of the other regions of Nepal. The existing cultivation practices of this research area are conventional tillage (CT). Zero tillage (ZT) has been found as an effective crop management practice to rejuvenate soil fertility and increase crop yield. This research was conducted at Masuriya, Kailali district, the outreach site of Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), Doti, Nepal during October 2017 to March 2018 with the objective of identifying suitable tillage practice for high wheat crop profitability. ZT and CT were used as two treatments in 11 farmers’ fields. Seed-cum-fertilizer drill machine was used in ZT, whereas CT as farmers’ practice and field data as well as farmers’ perceptions were collected for analysis. The results revealed that farmers saved 10% human labour, 41.67% machinery labour and 25% seed amount in ZT compared to CT method. The net return of wheat was NRs. 54,255.5/ha in ZT and NRs. 39298/ha in CT method of wheat production. The benefit : cost ratio was found 2.38 in ZT compared to 1.83 in CT which is 23.64% more over CT method. Similarly, grain yield was found to be increased by 6.28% in ZT method. Farmers who had adopted ZT method of wheat cultivation were found interested for the continuation of this technology in future too. The ZT technology is an important alternative to save the scare resources and reduce the cost of production and enhance the net farm income with higher benefit : cost ratio.


Ankit bhattarai, Jarpan bhujel, Santosh subedi, K. C. Biswas and Dipendra Regmi [Study of performance of baby corn under different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers in mid hills of Nepal]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 100-103 (2018). Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Tribhuvan University, Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, Nepal *(e-mail : jarpan.bhujel211@gmail.com)


A field experiment on baby corn was conducted at Boudgaun, Sindhupalchowk, Nepal to identify effect of different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield attributes of baby corn during kharif season of 2017. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments were different combinations of vermicompost, farm yard manure and chemical fertilizers. Results revealed that yield and yield attributes were statistically different among treatments. Yield and yield attributing characters viz., length and weight of baby corn with and without husk in first three harvests of baby corn were found significantly superior in treatment with 75% vermicompost and 25% inorganic fertilizers. In contrast, root length and plant height of baby corn were found significantly superior in treatment with 75% FYM and 25% chemical fertilizers. The results signified that performance of yield and yield attributes of baby corn was superior in organic source and best over application of vermicompost.


I. B. CHAVAN, D. N. JAGTAP* AND U. V. MAHADKAR [Effect of different establishment techniques, levels and time of application of nitrogen on partitioning of dry matter in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 104-109 (2018). Department of Agronomy Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712, Dist. Ratnagiri (M. S.), India *(e-mail : mauli296@gmail.com)


A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of establishment techniques, levels and time of application of nitrogen on partitioning of dry matter in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn]. The field experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with 48 treatments and three replications. Total number of 48 treatments consisted of four techniques of establishment as main plot [T1–Recommended transplanting at 20 × 15 cm, T2–Random transplanting, T3–Random broadcasting of 30 days old seedlings (Awatni) and T4–Random broadcasting of 20 days old seedling (Awatni)], three nitrogen levels in sub-plot (F1–60 kg N/ha, F2–80 kg N/ha and F3–100 kg N/ha) and four times of nitrogen application as sub-sub plot [S0–Basal (half dose through suphala (15 : 15 : 15), S1–2 splits–TP, 30 DAT, S2–3 splits–TP, 30 DAT, 60 DAT, S3–4 splits–TP, 20 DAT, 40 DAT and 60 DAT]. Results revealed that to obtain higher dry matter, grain and straw yield per ha the finger millet crop should be established by recommended transplanting at 20 x 15 cm and supplied with 100 kg nitrogen per ha along with three equal splits of nitrogen (at transplanting, 30 and 60 DAT).


Marco Bensemann, Dinesh K. Benbi, Mathias Spieckermann and Rolf Nieder* [Land use effects on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and dynamics in North Germany]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 110-122 (2018). 4Institute of Geoecology Technische Universität Braunschweig Langer Kamp 19c, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany *(e-mail : r.nieder@tu-bs.de)


In the last few decades, several studies have documented the effect of land use on soil C pools but studies relating to soil N pools and land use are scarce. Since C and N cycles are interrelated, it is important to study the two nutrients simultaneously to understand the processes leading to their stabilization and mineralization in soil. We studied the effect of land use viz., arable, grassland and deciduous forest at two different locations (Hordorf and Warmbüttel) in North Germany with similar soil conditions on total, biological and extractable pools of soil C and N and nitrification potential of soils. Soils at Hordorf location were fine textured and were characterized by higher total C and N concentrations than the soils at Warmbüttel. However, at both the locations, C and N stocks in the 60 cm soil profile were highest in the forest soil. Averaged across both the locations, soil C and N stocks in forest soils were higher by 78-97 and 39-55%, respectively, compared to arable and grassland soils. Land use influenced N mineralization differentially at the two locations. While at Hordorf highest N mineralization potential was observed in forest soils followed by grassland and arable soils; at Warmbüttel grassland soils exhibited the greatest N mineralization followed by forest and arable soils. Compared to arable soils nitrification activity was limited in forest soils because of low pH. Hot water-soluble C and N fractions which varied with land use significantly influenced mineralization and nitrification processes in soils.


Christoph Knoblauch, Francois-Xavier Naramabuye and Rolf Nieder* [Phosphorus availability in selected soils of Rwanda : Comparison of four test procedures]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 123-135 (2018). 1Faculty of Life Sciences Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences Marie-Curie-Str. 1, 47533 Kleve, Germany *(e-mail r.nieder@tu-bs.de)


Low levels of plant-available phosphorus (P) are a major factor limiting crop production in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil tests for phosphorus in this region have been applied mainly to highly weathered tropical lowland soils, while the number of investigations on the P status of less weathered tropical highland soils is limited. In this study, we evaluated four soil P tests with regard to their suitability for typical tropical highland soils and Technosols on mine spoils from pegmatite dump material in the Gatumba Mining District (GMD) of Rwanda. The tests comprised Bray 1, Mehlich 3, Olsen P and Pi test. Twelve soils (eleven from Rwanda and a reference soil from Germany) were analyzed for available P. The results reflected extremely low levels of available P in the Rwandan soils compared to the soil from Germany. A ranking from highest to lowest measured P followed the order Mehlich 3 > Bray 1 > Olsen > Pi. High correlations were found between Bray 1, Mehlich 3 and Pi. Extremely low levels of P extracted with Pi compared to Bray 1 and Mehlich 3, however, raised the question of its suitability for the investigated soils. Values of Olsen P generally showed low reproducibility and low correlation coefficients. Results from regression analyses with pH, clay content and soil organic matter also confirmed limited suitability of Olsen. A regional calibration for the detection of plant-available P in the GMD was successful for Bray 1 and Mehlich 3 demonstrating that these were suitable for all soils investigated.


Renu Ojha*, Aditi Sarkar1, Asmita Aryal, K. C. Rahul, Sabina Tiwari, Mukti Poudel, Khem Raj Pant and Jiban Shrestha [Correlation and path coefficient analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 136-141 (2018). 1Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Paklihawa Campus, Paklihawa, Rupandehi, Nepal *(e-mail : ojharenu1996@gmail.com)


The correlations and path coefficient were studied in 20 diverse genotypes of wheat in order to understand the relationship and contribution of 11 characters towards the grain yield. This field experiment was conducted in alpha lattice design with two replications at Agronomy Farm of Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Pakhlihawa, Rupendehi, Nepal. The correlation between grain yield and number of spikes/m2 (r=0.663) was positive and significant. Similarly, the positive phenotypic correlation was found between grain yield and other following components : plant height (r=0.186), spike weight (r=0.225), spike length (r=0.117), number of grains/spike (r=0.394), flag leaf length (r=0.081) and 1000-kernel weight (r=0.201). Path coefficient analysis revealed that the magnitude of positive direct effect on grain yield was highest through number of spikes/m2, spike weight, number of grains per spike, days to anthesis and 1000-kernel weight. This study suggests that number of spikes/m2 and spike weight can be used as selection criteria in breeding study to improve the high yielding wheat genotypes.


Mahendra Mallah*, Rekha Sapkota and Bishnu Prasad Kandel [Efficacy evaluation of common botanicals to manage maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais M) in laboratory condition]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 142-145 (2018). 1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Tribhuvan University, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar, Lamjung, Nepal *(e-mail : shahani.mahendra@gmail.com)


The storage of maize (Zea mays L.) is threatened by a wide range of pests; maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) being the most serious pest causing upto 32% loss of total stored grain. The experiment was carried out to find out the effectiveness of some locally available botanicals for eco-friendly management of storage pests. Completely randomized design was followed with three replications and eight treatments under room temperature at 25-28°C and relative humidity at 70±5% in Entomology Laboratory of Lamjung campus during spring season of 2017. The treatments consisted of three botanicals : Bojho (Acorus calamus), Neem (Azadirachta indica), and Titepati (Artemisia vulgaris) with two concentrations (2.5 and 5% of weight of grain); and other two treatments – Celphos tablet (standard check) and control (untreated check). Dry powders of each plant component were then mixed thoroughly with 200 g grains in plastic jars and six pairs of adult weevils were released in it. Jars were then roofed with muslin cloth and tightened with rubber band. Number of dead weevils and grain weight loss were recorded at every 30, 60 and 90 days after the application of treatments. The botanicals significantly affected weevil mortality and grain weight loss compared to untreated check, but not as effective as Celphos. Bojho rhizome powder 5% was significantly more effective among botanicals with least average weight loss of only 1.19% of grain weight and also had highest weevil mortality rate followed by Neem and Titepati with their respective highest concentration (P<0.05).


D. N. Jagtap*, P. B. Pawar, M. W. Sutar, M. S. Jadhav and S. S. Pinjari [Response of rice to different fertilizer sources : A mini review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 146-152 (2018). Department of Agronomy Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712, Dist. Ratnagiri (M. S.), India *(e-mail : mauli296@gmail.com)


The straight fertilizers are no doubt, important and easily available fertilizer source of nutrients which can meet the nutrient requirement of plants but their low availability to crop due to leaching and other losses leads to low yield. Therefore, it will be advisable to optimize the use of briquette fertilizers for getting high yields of better quality and keeping the cost of production at sustainable level. The information on nutrient requirements of the crop to be supplied through straight fertilizers is available. However, the information on requirement of nutrients in rice established by comparing different fertilizer sources is lacking. An attempt has been made here to review the effect of different fertilizer sources on growth and yield of rice.


Bishnu Prasad Kandel* and Jiban Shrestha [Characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm in Nepal : A mini review]. Fmg. & Mngmt. 3 (2) : 153-159 (2018). 1Department of Plant Breeding, Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, PG Program, Kritipur, Kathmandu, Nepal *(e-mail : bkandel33@gmail.com)


This article reviewed on general overview of characterization of rice germplasm in Nepal. Nepal is one of the centers known for the diversity for rice. A total of 8389 rice accessions from Nepal were conserved in different national and international gene banks. Germplasm collection is important for the maintenance of biological diversity and food security. About 2500 rice accessions were characterized by agro-morphological traits, biochemical and DNA markers by NARC and other organizations, but other remaining germplasm were not characterized yet all. All the germplasm were needed to characterize agro-morphologically, biochemically and molecular level because these are the source of valuable genes; which is important tool of crop improvement. Isoenzymes and SSR molecular analysis technique were used to characterize biochemical and molecular properties of rice germplasm. Molecular and biochemical characterizations of rice germplasm were very limited because of physical facilities which were not available for the systematic evaluation of the germplasm for biochemical and genetic finger printing. Nepal was dependent about 95 to 100% on foreign germplasm for varietal development. A systematic study was conducted to characterize all the rice accessions agro-physiologically and moelcular level to identified valuable gene and used in crop improvement program. Studies showed that farmers conserved the landraces at farm level now gene bank, DNA bank and field bank involved in germplasm conservation. Research on rice germplasm characterization is being conducted at research and academic institution in Nepal.


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