Volume 54, Number 1&2 (January & March, 2019)
1. K. Aryal*, K. R. Adhikary, J. J Gairhe, B. P. Tripathi and B. P. Kandel [Assessment of native nutrient supplying capacity of soil for site specific nutrient management to increase early rice (Oryza sativa L.) productivity in Morang, Nepal]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 1-7 (2019). 1Department of Soil Science Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) Post Graduate Program, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal *(e-mail : email@example.com)
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was evaluated for the variety Hardinath-1 under nutrient omission treatment (-N, -P, -K, -Zn, -B and +All) through field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments and four replications during spring season of 2018 at agriculture field of Sailaja Acharya Memorial Polytechnic, Siswani Jahada, Morang. The highest grain (4.62 t/ha) and straw yields (7.75 t/ha) were obtained from the fully fertilized plot (i. e.+All treatments) which might be due to application of all of the major nutrients in sufficient amount (i. e. 150 : 45 : 45 : 20 : 5 N : P : K : Zn : B kg/ha) along with following SRI principles. Omitting the major nutrients showed significantly lesser growth and yield parameters of rice. The P omitted treatment showed significantly higher sterility percentage (23.74) as P had major role on grain filling and development. The nutrients omission treatment also produced significant effect on plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn and B. Significantly higher uptake of N (76.73 kg/ha), P (38.28 kg/ha), K (52.41 kg/ha), Zn (0.086 kg/ha) and B (0.022 kg/ha) was obtained from fully fertilized plot. Based on plant uptake of nutrient on omission plot, native N, P, K, Zn and B supplying capacity of the soil at research plot was found to be 23.51, 25.94, 37.59, 0.075 and 0.019 kg/ha, respectively. The recovery efficiency of applied N, P, K, Zn and B was found to be 35.48, 5.7, 32.93, 0.06 and 0.06%, respectively. Owing to native nutrient supplying capacity of the soil at the research site, N, P, K, Zn and B required to obtain the target yield of 5 t/ha was found 139.5 kg N/ha, 45.22 kg P/ha, 50.8 kg K/ha, 12.1 kg Zn/ha and 2.6 kg B/ha, respectively.
2. Utietiang Litio Undie* [Growth and yield of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] in response to oil palm bunch ash- and poultry manure- amended soil in the tropical rainforest agro-ecology of south-eastern Nigeria]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 8-15 (2019). Department of Crop Science University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com)
Tropical soils are inherently deficient in plant nutrients and self-inoculate mycorrhiza for legume production. An experiment was, therefore, carried out to evaluate supplementary effects of two common sources of organic fertilizer (oil palm bunch ash (OPBA) and poultry manure (PM)) on the growth and yield performance of newly introduced mungbean. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria during the 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons. The study was a 3 x 3 factorial laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included three levels of OPBA (0, 4 and 10 t/ha), and three levels of PM (0, 5 and 10 t/ha). The results obtained showed that the highest agronomic parameters as well as yield attributing characters and yield were obtained when 10 t/ha OPBA or 10 t/ha of PM were applied. Each of the levels of applications significantly decreased the number of days to 50% flowering. The highest seed yield of 0.77 t/ha in 2016 and 0.82 t/ha in 2017 were obtained with the applications of 5 t/ha OPBA+10 t/ha PM and 10 t/ha OPBA+10 t/ha PM, respectively. OPBA or PM may be used alone or in combination to give the same yield increase in mungbean.
3. R. K. Dwivedi*, M. K. Ahirwar and A. K. Shrivastava [Effect of phosphorus, sulphur and biofertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake and economy in fertilizer use in lentil (Lens culinaris)]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 16-19 (2019). Krishi Vigyan Kendra (JNKVV) Sagar Road, Madiahar, Damoh-470 661 (Madhya Pradesh), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17 to find out the effect of P, S and biofertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake and economy in fertilizer use in lentil cv. Pant Lentil-5. N, P, K and S contents in lentil grain were 3.57, 0.447, 0.67 and 0.205%, whereas in straw 2.19, 0.214, 0.52 and 0.156%, respectively. The corresponding total N, P, K and S uptake values in grain+straw were 51.76, 5. 63, 11.06 and 3.35 kg/ha. Higher levels of phosphorus (P60), sulphur (S30) and dual biofertilizers (Rhizobium+PSB) encouraged the uptake of these nutrients in grain and straw significantly over their preceding levels. The combined application of P60S30+Rhizobium+PSB further augmented these nutrients in grain and straw. Dual seed inoculation with biofertilizer proved most economical, and, therefore, use of costly chemical fertilizers may be curtailed to some extent.
4. B. D. Patel*, D. D. Chaudhari, V. J. Patel, H. K. Patel, Aakash Mishra and G. N. Motka [Cotton-greengram system productivity as influenced by tillage and weed management practices]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 20-27 (2019). 1AICRP-Weed Management, B. A. College of Agriculture Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Field experiment was conducted during kharif-rabi season of 2016-17 at research farm of AICRP-Weed Management, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) to study the effect of tillage and weed management practices in cotton-greengram cropping system. Results indicated that in cotton total weed density and dry biomass at harvest (11.0 No./m2 and 31.1 g/m2) were recorded the highest under zero tillage+zero tillage and zero tillage+residue treatments, respectively. Significantly the highest seed cotton yield was obtained under conventional tillage treatment (2.52 t/ha) and pendimethalin 900 g/ha PE fb IC+HW at 30 and 60 DAS (2.33 t/ha). While in greengram, significantly the lowest weed density and weed dry biomass (7.19 No./m2 and 6.90 No./m2) were recorded at 30 DAS in conventional tillage followed by conventional tillage (CT-CT) treatment, respectively. The highest yield of greengram was recorded under zero tillage+residue followed by zero tillage+ residue (ZT+R-ZT+R) treatment and pendimethalin 500 g/ha PE fb IC+HW at 30 DAS.
5. B. A. Lawal, F. G. O. Oni*, G. O. Egedegbe and A. M. Omogoye [Effects of calcium on agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in Ogbomoso, Nigeria]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 28-32 (2019). 1Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Ogbomoso, PMB 4000 Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a good source of protein and oil for man and livestock usage. The need to provide more quality soybean requires more study; hence, this field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of calcium application on performance and nutritional quality of soybean. The treatment were five levels of calcium application (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg Ca/ha) using gypsum as source and three cultivars of soybean (V1-TGX 1835-10E, V2-TGX 1987-62F and V3-TGX 1910-42F) resulting in a 15 treatment combination replicated three times and arranged in factorial experiment fixed into randomized complete block design (RCBD). The total rainfall and average temperature were 1093.2 mm and 26.4°C within the period under study. Growth responses of soybean to treatments were recorded starting from three weeks after planting at one-week interval. Yield parameters were also taken and data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% probability level. The results showed that calcium application at 0 kg Ca/ha (control) produced the tallest plant (35.57 cm) and highest number of leaves (19.94), and seed weight (1,694.20 kg/ha). Application 45 kg Ca/ha produced the highest mean pod weight (2,919.20 kg/ha). TGX 1910-42F produced the highest mean plant height and number of leaves (36.21 cm and 20.92, respectively), while TGX 1835-10E had the highest mean pod and seed weight (3,187.50 and 1,770.30 kg/ha, respectively). Also, the highest protein percentage (45.6) was obtained from TGX 1835-10E treated with 60 kg Ca/ha. This experiment showed that application of calcium might not be needed for pod and seed production in the trial area but was required for better nutritional quality.
6. Kalpana Gogoi* and J. K. Choudhary [Effect of nutrient and weed management by integrated methods on growth and economics of yellow sarson (Brassica rapa var. trilocularis) under rainfed condition]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 33-41 (2019). Department of Agronomy Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
An experiment was conducted at Instructional-cum-Research Farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 with a view to find out the effect of integrated weed management (IWM) and integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth and yield of yellow sarson. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of five INM practices viz., control (N0), RDF (60-30-30 kg/ha N, P2O5, K2O (N1), 25% RDF+75% of N through vermicompost (N2), 50% RDF+50% of N through vermicompost (N3) and 75% RDF+25% of N through vermicompost (N4), and three IWM practices viz., weedy check (W0), pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha pre-em+MW 20 DAS (W1) and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha pre-em+MW 20 DAS (W2). The data revealed that the density, dry weight and nutrient uptake of weeds during both the years were found to be significantly lesser with N4 compared to rest of the treatments. Moreover, the growth parameters (barring N3 which was at par with N4) and yield attributing characters were significantly improved due to N4. The highest seed and stover yields of yellow sarson were recorded with N4. The oil content, oil yield, N, P and K content and uptake also increased with N4. In respect of IWM, W2 was found to result in significantly lesser density and dry weight of weeds with lower NPK content and uptake in weeds. The growth and yield attributing characters of yellow sarson were improved with W2 which also recorded the highest seed and stover yields. With regard to oil content, oil yield, N, P and K content and uptake, the values were significantly higher with W2. The INM interacted significantly with IWM in respect of seed and stover yields of yellow sarson. The combination of N4W2 was found to be superior. The comparative economics highlighted that N4W2 combination resulted in the highest gross returns, net returns and benefit : cost ratio.
7. Pritikana Basumatary* and Luchon SaiKia [Impact of fertilizer levels on yield and quality of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) types]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 42-45 (2019). Department of Horticulture Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785 013 (Assam), India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
An investigation was carried out during rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat to study the influence of NPK and Zn on productivity of French bean types. The treatment combinations including two French bean types (Main treatment : V1–Pole and V2–Dwarf), three levels of NPK (sub-treatment : F1 : 30-40-20, F2 : 30-40-30 and F3 : 40-40-40) and three levels of zinc sulphate (sub-sub treatment : Z0 : 0 ppm, Z25 : 25 ppm and Z50 : 50 ppm) were laid out in a split-split plot design with three replications. Experiment revealed that application of varieties, NPK and Zn levels had significant influence on yield and yield parameters of French bean. It was observed that out of the two French bean types, V1 recorded the highest number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod yield/plant, crude protein content and tryptophan content of pod. Regarding the fertility effect, F3 (40-40-40 NPK) exhibited the number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod yield/plant, pod yield/ha, crude protein content and tryptophan content of pod. Zinc sulphate concentration Z50 (50 ppm) recorded the highest number of pod/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod yield/plant, pod yield/ha, crude protein content and tryptophan content of pod. Among the interaction effects of variety, fertilizer and zinc, the yield and quality characters like number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, pod yield/plant, crude protein content and tryptophan content of pod were recorded in V1F3Z50, except the pod yield/ha it was recorded highest in V2F3Z50 due to its spacing.
8. M. VISNUPRIYA* AND N. MUTHUKRISHNAN [In vivo and field evaluation of newer green insecticide spinetoram 12 SC against shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee on brinjal]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 46-52 (2019). Department of Agricultural Entomology Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai-625 104 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Throughout the world, shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) is a constant pest on brinjal. Experiments were carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of spinetoram 12 SC against larval stage of L. orbonalis in the laboratory and to evaluate the effectiveness in the field in two seasons from 2013 to 2014 in Madurai district. Toxicity test on a laboratory strain of the 4th instar larva of L. orbonalis was carried out at different concentrations after 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. LC50’s of spinetoram in 4th instar larvae after 24, 48 and 72 h were 3.84, 1.92 and 1.41 ppm, respectively, and LC95’s of spinetoram in 4th instar larvae after 24, 48 and 72 h were 15.97, 7.21 and 6.68 ppm, respectively. In field experiments, spinetoram 12 SC was significantly effective at 45 and 54 g a. i./ha when sprayed thrice at 15 days interval and minimized the incidence of shoot and fruit borer and increased the fruit yield.
9. A. K. MUSA* and M. T. LAWAL [Effects of different concentrations of four spices on the adult mortality and emergence of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)]. Crop Res. 54 (1&2) : 53-57 (2019). Department of Crop Protection University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of four spices on the adult mortality and emergence of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. in maize. The study was carried out in 2017 at the Department of Crop Protection Laboratory, University of Ilorin, Nigeria at prevailing temperature of 28±30C, relative humidity of 68±3% and photoperiod of L12 : D12. The maize variety (SAMMAZ 52) was obtained from Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, stored in air-tight polyethylene bag, kept in domestic deep freezer and later thawed. The experiment consisted of 50 g of seeds weighed into each jar and then treated with African nutmeg Monodora myristica (Gaertn) Dunal, garlic, Allium sativum (L.), cloves Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe powders at the concentrations of 0.00, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 g and permethrin at 0.12 g against S. zeamais. Five newly emerged adults (2 males : 3 females) of 1-2 day old were used to infest the treated seeds and the untreated control. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four replications. S. zeamais mortality data were taken at 1, 3 and 5 days post-infestation (DPI), anti-oviposition activity was estimated at 6 DPI and adult emergence of S. zeamais was determined at 31, 33 and 35 DPI. Results showed that percentage mortality was significantly (P<0.05) increased compared with the untreated control. At 5 DPI, total mortality (100.0%) of S. zeamais in garlic and clove powders was recorded at highest concentration, suggested their performance in matching the efficacy of permethrin. No adults emerged from the African nutmeg from1.25 to 2.50 g per 50 g seeds at 31 and 33 DPI compared with the control with cumulative mean adult emergence that ranged from 1.25 to 2.25. It could be concluded that the spices had great insecticidal potentials against S. zeamais under small-scale storage. The spices are, therefore, recommended for incorporation in the management of S. zeamais.