Volume 56, Number 1&2 (January & March 2021)
1. Pramod Kumar*, Ghanshyam Singh, Prashant Deo Singh, Tejbal Singh, Anand Singh and Kairovin Lakra [Effect of different crop establishment methods and nitrogen levels on the performance of kharif season rice (Oryza sativa) in the Indo-Gangatic plains of eastern Uttar Pradesh]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 1-7 (2021). Department of Agronomy N. D. University of Agricultural & Technology Ayodhya-208 002, Uttar Pradesh), India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The objective of this study was to develop best method of rice establishment because of scarcity of irrigation water, shortage of farm laborers and increasing cost of rice cultivation in conventional transplanting in puddled soil, forcing rice farmers to explore the alternatives of transplanting and to determine the optimum N rates for high yielding rice varieties and to maximize yield and profit. In this regard, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2016 at Agronomy Research Farm, College of Agriculture, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India to find out the best crop establishment method and the optimum nitrogen dose for obtaining higher yield of rice. The main plot consisted of three methods of establishment (M1-Transplanting, M2-System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and M3-Direct seeding) with five nitrogen levels (N0-0 kg N/ha, N1-40 kg N/ha, N2-80 kg N/ha, N3-120 Kg N/ha and N4-160 kg N/ha) in sub plots replicated thrice. The results revealed that highest plant height (86.14 cm), number of effective tillers (464.40/m2), leaf area index (4.19), dry matter accumulation (1027.5 g), days taken to 50% flowering (81.20), days taken to maturity (135.51) and B:C ratio (SRI+160 kg N/ha – 1:2.10) in favour of SRI technique. Among the different establishment methods, grain and straw yield was recorded higher with SRI (52.14 and 61.42 q/ha, respectively) and at par with transplanting (45.43 q/ha) while lower yield was realized under direct seeding method (36.82 and 47.71 q/ha, respectively). Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that in areas where labour is available and cheap, SRI technique is a better establishment method of rice because it produces more yield and gross monetary economic return compared to other methods.
2. C. J. Patel*, D. B. Sisodiya, A. R. Patel and N. R. Bumbadiya [Effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conserve moisture condition]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 8-13 (2021). Agricultural Research Station Anand Agricultural University, Arnej-382 230, Gujarat, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Proper nutrient management practices along with use of bio-fertilizers can together not just reduce the cost of cultivation but also the quality of produce. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and bio-fertilizer on yield of irrigated wheat under conserve moisture condition during rabi season of the year 2016-17 and 2017-18 on medium black highly saline soil at Agricultural Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Arnej, Bhal and Coastal Zone-VIII, Gujarat, India. Eight treatment combinations comprising of four levels of nitrogen (N1: 60 kg N/ha, N2: 60 kg N/ha + Bio NPK, N3: 90 kg N/ha and N4: 120 kg N/ha) and two levels of phosphorus (P1: 30 kg P2O5/ha and P2: 60 kg P2O5/ha) were laid out in a Randomized Block Design (factorial) with four replications. The application of 120 kg N/ha gave significantly highest grain yield compared to the rest of treatments. Significantly the highest grain yield of 2349, 2430 and 2389 kg/ha recorded during 2016-17, 2017-18 and in pooled data, respectively. While in case of phosphorus levels, application of 60 kg P2O5/ha recorded significantly the highest grain yield of 2340, 2465 and 2402 kg/ha during 2016-17, 2017-18 and in pooled data, respectively. It could be concluded that for obtaining maximum grain yield of wheat, application of 120 kg N/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha from which 50 % should be applied as basal, 25% at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and remaining 25% after 45 DAS through urea and di-ammonium phosphate fertilizers.
3. RAPUNGA FLORY H*, ARVIND KUMAR CHAURASIYA, ELAVENA WAR AND TODIK JIMMY SANGMA [Study on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blood fruit [Haematocarpus validus (Miers.) Bakh. f. ex Forman]]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 14-19 (2021). Department of Horticulture North Eastern Hills University Tura-794002, Meghalaya, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Blood fruit is one among the lesser known and underutilized fruit plant which has a rich source of antioxidant and possesses immense nutritive and medicinal value but so far systematic studies on various physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blood fruit are scarce. Therefore, a study was conducted during 2017 to 2019 at the North Eastern Hill University, Meghalaya, India to analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of blood fruit for further studies. The fresh fruits were collected from orphan plant from Chitoktak, Tura, West Garo Hills, Meghalaya. They were analyzed for the quality parameters using standard methods and recorded a nutrient of 14.50 °brix TSS, 7.14 % total sugar, 4.54 % reducing sugar, 0.26% total titratable acidity, 5.33 mg/100g ascorbic acid, 7.60 % protein and 138.42 IU -Carotene (vitamin-A). The fruit has one of the rich sources of carbohydrates (8.68 %) and anthocyanin (195.93mg/100g pulp of total monomeric anthocyanin). The fruit also has trace amount of starch (0.23 g/100 g). The high nutritional value of blood fruit indicates good potential for exploration and value-added products like wine and juice can be processed for consumption during off season.
4. PRANJAL PRATIM NEOG* [Community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana (Musa Spp.) cultivation in north bank plain agro-climatic zone of Assam]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 20-22 (2021). Department of Nematology, B. N. College of Agriculture Biswanath Chariali-784176, Sonitpur District, Assam, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
A study was conducted during October 2018 to September 2019 at the Department of Nematology, B. N. College of Agriculture, Biswanath Chariali, Assam to record the plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana plantation in north bank plain agro-climatic zone of Assam. Analysis of nematode communities revealed the presence of several plant parasitic nematodes, of which Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were predominant and encountered in all the samples with cent per cent frequency. Lower frequency was recorded in case of Pratylenchus sp. (30%). M. incognita recorded the highest density of 387.50 followed by H. dihystera (287.50). Among the community of plant parasitic nematodes M. incognita was the most prominent (PV=39.95) followed by H. dihystera (PV=29.64). Pratylenchus sp. was least prominent (1.09). Therefore, it could be concluded that M. incognita was the most frequent and dominant species in the entire nematode community associated with the rhizosphere of the banana and responsible for significant reduction in yield.
5. T. SONIYA, S. KAMALAKANNAN*, T. UMA MAHESWARI, R. SUDHAGAR AND S. KUMAR [Effect of intercropping on yield, system production efficiency and economics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 23-29 (2021). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Tomato is a very good source of income for small and marginal farmers. It is a highly perishable fruit and so the market value is less. The income of the tomato farmers can be increased through introduction of intercropping practices. Development of proper intercropping system is one of the proper approaches to improve the profitability of the farmers. Based on this a field experiment was conducted during 2019 at Tirupattur district, Tamil Nadu, India to find out the effect of intercropping in tomato. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of three intercrops viz., radish, small onion and vegetable cowpea, and three levels of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) viz., 100, 125 and 150 % along with sole crop of tomato under 100 % RDF. Results indicated higher fruit yield (99.16 t/ha), tomato equivalent yield (210400 kg/ha), land equivalent ratio (1.63), area time equivalent ratio (1.54) and production efficiency (1753.33 kg/ha/day) with benefit cost ratio of 4.08 and income equivalent ratio of 1.63 under application of FYM @ 25 t/ha + 150% recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers in tomato + small onion intercropping system. The above said treatment was found to be at par with tomato + vegetable cowpea, under the application of FYM @ 25 t/ha + 150 % recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers. In view of the above facts, it may be concluded that by adopting the above said treatments, farmers can effectively utilize their land area and time and increase their income and production efficiency besides minimizing soil erosion, which are the serious drawbacks of mono-cropping. It also reduces seasonal work peaks as a result of the different planting and harvesting times of intercropping crops.
6. B. Pamela Elisheba* and R. Sudhagar** [Growth manipulation in ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cv. Ring of Fire as a bedding plant]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 30-36 (2021). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; **email@example.com)
Bedding plants with their seemingly infinite variety of flower colour and plant form fit into almost any landscape situation. They provide that necessary touch of colour to an often drab landscape. New species are introduced into urban landscapes more rapidly to break the monotony. In view of this context, an experiment was conducted during 2019 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India to study the effect of growth retardants on sunflower so as to be grown as bedding plants. This experiment was laid out in a randomized block design and was replicated thrice. Three growth retardants namely paclobutrazol (30, 60 and 90 ppm), cycocel (2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm) and Alar (1500, 3000 and 4500 ppm) were applied to the plants. A control plot was maintained for comparison. Around twenty-five plants were maintained for each plot. Among the various treatments, plants treated with Alar @ 4500 ppm recorded the minimum plant height (71.50 cm), shortest internodal length (3.71 cm), maximum number of primary branches (17.12), highest number of flowers (15.81), maximum carotenoid content (1.42 mg/g) and the highest overall performance rating (6.01), making it evident that it is the most suitable plant growth retardant to be used for ornamental sunflowers grown as bedding plants.
7. R. MARY RUBY SHYLA* AND S. RAMESHKUMAR** [Effect of gypsum and micronutrients on spike and corm yield of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus ) cv. Guvari]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 37-44 (2021). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu-608002, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org; **email@example.com)
Gladiolus is a nutrient responsive crop that requires major and micro-nutrients viz. N, P, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, B, along with gypsum significantly improves the growth, flowering, yield and quality of corms. In addition, gypsum acts as a source of calcium and soil loosening factor that is needed for corm development. Hence, field experiment was conducted during 2019-2020 at Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India on gladiolus cv. Guvari to maximize the yield and quality of spikes and corms. The treatments comprised of ten different combinations of recommended dose of fertilizers (120:150:150 kg/ha NPK), Gypsum (100, 200 and 300 kg/ha) and foliar application of FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 and H3BO3 (0.5% each in single spray on 30 days after planting (DAP) and two sprays on 30 and 45 DAP laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The growth, flowering, and corm yield parameters were periodically assessed. The results revealed that application of gypsum and micronutrients significantly increased the vegetative growth, flowering, spike yield, and corm yield. Application of 300 Kg/ha gypsum was found effective when compared to low doses. Among the ten treatments, application of 120:150:150 kg/ha NPK + 300 kg/ha Gypsum + foliar spray of (0.5% each) FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 and H3BO3 at 30 and 45 DAP found most effective with higher plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, dry matter production, spike length, floret diameter, spike yield, and number of marketable spikes per plant. The corm yield parameters including corm weight, number of daughter corms per plant, number of cormels per plant and weight of daughter corms were also superior in this treatment. Hence, it is confirmed that the application of 300 kg/ha gypsum + foliar spray of (0.5% each) FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 and H3BO3 at 30 and 45 days after planting P along with 120:150:150 kg/ha NPK proved maximizing the spike and corm yield of gladiolus.
8. M. S. Aswini, Shobica Priya Ramasamy and A. Thanga Hemavathy* [Genetic studies for quantitative traits in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 45-49 (2021). Department of Pulses Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Pigeonpea is one of the most important pulse crops grown in many states of India and plays an important role in sustainable food and nutritional security. Increased pigeonpea production is possible with high yielding varieties suitable for different agro-climatic conditions, that can be achieved by assessing the variability of the existing germplasm. Based on this, a study was carried out during kharif 2018 at Department of Pulses, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India to evaluate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of eleven characters in fifteen genotypes including checks (Gulyal Red, CO 6, CO 8, Maruti, BWR 133, BSMR 846, ICPL 10967, ICPL 11023, IC 525403, IC 525411, IC 525413, IC 525424, IC 525456, IC 525521, IC 525527). Analysis of variance revealed that significant difference among genotypes for all the eleven characters studied the magnitude of PCV and GCV was moderate to high for racemes per plant, cluster per plant, pods per cluster, total number of pods and single plant weight. High heritability was recorded for primary branches, pod length, racemes per plant, cluster per plant, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, plant height and single plant weight. High heritability combined with high genetic advance was recorded for number of pods per plant, clusters per plant and plant height indicating that these characters are controlled by additive gene effect and phenotypic selection of these characters would be effective for further breeding purpose.
9. Triveni D*, Uma Jyothi K, Dorajee Rao A. V. D. and Mamatha K [Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) for yield and its contributing traits]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 50-55 (2021). College of Horticulture Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Venkataramannagudem West Godavari-534101, Andhra Pradesh, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
The present investigation was undertaken during kharif 2018-19 at College of Horticulture, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India to evaluate bitter gourd genotypes for yield and its contributing traits in order to assess genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. Trial was laid out in Augmented Block Design with twenty nine bitter gourd genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all the genotypes for all the characters. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) for all traits were slightly higher than their corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV). High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for fruit yield per hectare (99.57 and 85.84), node number at which first female flower appeared (98.63 and 27.99), fruit yield per vine (98.04 and 83.52), number of fruits per vine (97.44 and 47.97), node number at which first male flower appeared (97.35 and 27.80), fruit length (97.18 and 62.38), average fruit weight (95.47 and 74.00) and vine length (94.07 and 20.88) indicating that such traits were mainly governed due to additive gene effect and hence selection was felt highly effective for their improvement. High heritability along with moderate genetic advance was observed for the traits viz., number of primary branches, internodal length (cm) and days to opening of first female flower indicated presence of additive gene action and selection may be effective for these characters. Based on the present study, it was concluded that for selecting promising genotypes, primary emphasis should be given on fruit yield per vine (kg) followed by average fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm) and number of fruits per vine.
10. JAVAID HASSAN SHEIKH* AND GOWHAR RASHID [A management strategy of genus Filenchus (Andrassy, 1954) Meyl 1961) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Kashmir valley]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 56-59 (2021). Government Degree College Nihama Kulgam, Kulgam-192231, Jammu & Kashmir, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Phyto-nematodes are very costly burdens of crop production with considerable impact on tomato grown in all the regions of the valley. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted during 2019-20 with an objective to make a general survey of these parasites on tomato by analysing the soil and root samples of the host and to study their average prevalence from the valley and to sort out a possible management strategy to reduce the parasite burden on the host for the effective production. Filenchus (Andrassy, 1954) Meyl, 1961 was met with 83.3 % of absolute frequency, 27% of absolute density and 84 as the mean intensity value. It was found that the population density of this nematode was reduced by the organic amendment to a varied extent and poultry manure and walnut leaf extract caused considerable reduction of nematode populations.
11. JITENDRA K. DAS, KANGKON SAIKIA, GAUTAM K. HANDIQUE2 AND A. K. HANDIQUE* [Nutritive values and dietary antioxidant of some under-utilized seeds and nuts from ethnic sources of North East India]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 60-66 (2021). Food Chemistry Research Group Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University Guwahati-781014, Assam, India *(e-mail : email@example.com)
Food security and nutritional security are under increasing stress due to unabated surge in population growth, which is aggravated by global warming, climate change etc. In this context it is a growing necessity to evaluate non-conventional, lesser-known edible food plant for sustainable utilization. India is known for vast diversity of such edible plants, most of which are still unexplored, particularly the seed and nut category of edible plants. The present investigation was conducted during 2018-19 at Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India. The present study deals with seven unrelated and diverse type of non-conventional seeds and nuts, viz., Trapa natans, Nymphaea nouchali, Euryle ferox, Castanopsis argentea, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Nelumbo nucifera and Gnetum gnemon. It was revealed that all these were rich in nutritive values with wide variation and high in calorific values. Crude protein content varied from 4.40% to 32.08%; carbohydrate content varied from 38.66 to 77.50%. With calorific values in the range of 317.78 to 376.62 Kcal/100g, these are high calorie food with low lipid in the range of 0.93 to 6.74%. They are also rich in dietary antioxidant phenolics which varied widely from 1.0 to 17.6 mg/g; free amino acid content varied from 4.0 to 10.66 mg/g. This preliminary study showed that contrary to general perception that non-conventional seeds and nuts are nutritionally poor and unimportant; they were very promising and need further consideration for utilization.
12. P. H. Patel, K. S. Panchal*, B. N. Patel and H. P. Patel [Production and partial purification of pectinase from Streptomyces chartreusis]. Crop Res. 56 (1&2) : 67-73 (2021). Department of Biotechnology, Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University, Mehsana, Gujarat, India *(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
Pectinases usually familiar as pectic enzymes, are a main class of enzymes used in industries like wine, paper and food for the processing of fruits, vegetables, tea and coffee, can be extracted from filamentous bacteria Streptomyces sp. This study was conducted during January to July 2019 at Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Gujarat, India to extract pectinase enzyme from Streptomyces sp. isolated from the soils of Mehsana District, Gujarat, India. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and ethanol precipitation methods were used for the purification of extracellular pectinase and spectrophotometric analysis was carried out for the measurement of enzyme activity. The specific activity was observed in enzyme extract, 192.16 U/mg. The selected isolate was sequenced and identified as a Streptomyces chartreusis through 16srRNA sequencing (Accession number-MN133919). The optimum pH and temperature for pectin hydrolysis was observed as 7 and 37°C, respectively. The thin layer chromatography analysis was investigated to identify degradation products of pectin hydrolysis.