Volume 6, No. 2 (December, 2021)

1. RAHIL GOLFAM, KHADIJEH KIA ROSTAMI*, TAHMINEH LOHRASEBI, SHABNAM HASRAK AND KHADIJEH RAZAVI [Essential enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of wheat (Triticum aestivum) starch : A review]. Farm. Manage. 6 (2) : 59-69 (2021). Department of Plant Physiology Faculty of Biological Sciences Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran *(e-mail : kh.kiarostami@alzahra.ac.ir)


Cereals make up about 70 percent of the world’s one billion hectares of arable land. Finding solutions to maintain and increase crop yields is one of the essential goals of researchers. In 2030, the demand for cereal for human and livestock nutrition will reach 2.8 billion tons per year. Wheat is the third-largest producer in the world after corn and rice. Starch is the most crucial final product of wheat growth and development. A better understanding of starch biosynthesis processes is essential for improving grain yield and cereal quality. Starch synthesis from sucrose significantly affects the starch level in wheat and grain weight. Identification of the most important enzymes involved in this pathway can be important in identifying cultivars useful for agriculture, breeding, genetic engineering and the production of wheat with high starch quality. Synthesis of starch in wheat mainly regulated by the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, Soluble Starch Synthase, Granule Bound Starch Synthase, Starch Branching Enzyme, and Starch debranching enzymes. This article examines these enzymes and the genes involved.

2. K. LALRUATSANGI* [Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a major insect pest of maize in India and its management : A review]. Farm. Manage. 6 (2) : 70-76 (2021). Department of Entomology School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development Medziphema Campus, Nagaland University-797106 *(e-mail : mimirskhawlhring@gmail.com)


Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a major pest of maize which is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and is the key insect pest of maize in tropical region. The Fall Army Worm (FAW) was first noticed in the Indian subcontinent at Bangalore and Chikkaballapur districts during May and June 2018 and South Karnataka during the first fortnight of July 2018. Since then, it has spread to different states of India on maize. Due to its migratory behavior, wide host range, high reproductive capacity, and the absence of diapause in tropical climate it is capable of damaging crops to a serious extent and may accelerate expansion of its geographical range within the country. It causes damage up to 30 per cent yield reduction in maize crop in 10 states of India. In the context of its economic importance and destruc­tive nature, their identification, biology and life cycle, nature of damage, extent of yield loss, and management through cultural practices, mechanical, botanicals, biological and synthetic pesticides have been reviewed in detail in the present manuscript. Early planting and intercropping with non-host crops are essential cultural practices to reduce pest incidence. Several plant species (botanicals) have shown insecticidal properties against FAW. It is therefore necessary to create awareness about the pest and its management options which is ecologically sustainable, economically profitable and socially acceptable to mitigate the impact of the fall armyworm in India.

3. R. K. MAITI* AND V. P. SINGH [A review on recent research in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)]. Farm. Manage. 6 (2) : 77-107 (2021). Gaurav Publications, Agricultural Research Information Centre (Regd.) Systematic Printers, Near Video Market, Hisar-125 001 (Haryana), India *(e-mail : cropresearch1@gmail.com)


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) being an important fruit vegetable of high commercial and food values, lots of research have been undertaken throughout the world. Salient outlines of some research are reviewed on different aspects such as medicinal values, economic importance, physiology, agronomy, insect-diseases, food chemistry and food values, etc. Okra retains many insecticides which are beyond tolerance limits. Therefore, non-risky control measures are also described to protect the crop with non-risky control measures.

4. R. A. BALIKAI* AND C. P. MALLAPUR [Bio-efficacy of Belt Expert 480 SC against caterpillars and sucking pest complex in black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) and its effect on natural enemies and plants]. Farm. Manage. 6 (2) : 108-124 (2021). Department of Agricultural Entomology University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India *(e-mail : rabalikai@gmail.com)


The use of insecticides as a combination product with different modes of action and target may help in the reduction enhancement of categories of pests. Furthermore, the number of insecticide applications would be reduced which may pave the opportunity for an easy fit into the strategies of integrated pest management. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out at the Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka, India for two consecutive kharif seasons to evaluate bio-efficacy of combination product Belt Expert 480 SC (Flubendiamide 24% + Thiacloprid 24% SC w/v) against caterpillars and sucking pest complex in black gram and their safety towards non-target organisms. Field trials consisted of nine treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. Results revealed that two sprays of the combi-product Belt Expert 480 SC (Flubendiamide 24% w/v + Thiacloprid 24% w/v SC) @ 250 mL/ha recorded lower pod borer incidence (4.54 %) with higher seed yield (9.13 q/ha) followed by Belt Expert 480 SC (Flubendiamide 24% w/v + Thiacloprid 24% w/v SC) @ 200 mL/ha with pod borer incidence of 5.47 % and seed yield of 8.83 q/ha. The treatments viz., Belt Expert 480 SC (Flubendiamide 24% w/v + Thiacloprid 24% w/v SC) @ 200 and 150 mL/ha, Alanto 240 SC (Thiacloprid 21.7% w/w SC) @ 250 mL/ha and Fame 480 SC (Flubendiamide 39.35% m/m SC) @ 100 and 125 mL/ha proved safe to natural enemies. None of the insecticidal treatments (Belt Expert 480 SC (Flubendiamide 24% w/v + Thiacloprid 24% w/v SC) @ 250, 500 and 1000 mL/ha) showed any type of phytotoxic symptoms on black gram plants.


error: Content is protected !!