1. UPASANA SAHOO, SAGAR MAITRA, SUMAN DEY, KATHULA KARTHIKA VISHNUPRIYA, MASINA SAIRAM* AND LALICHETTI SAGAR [Unveiling the potential of maize-legume intercropping system for agricultural sustainability: A review]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 1-13 (2023). Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry M. S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi-761 211 (Odisha), India *(e mail: email@example.com)
Intercropping offers a promising approach to enhance productivity in a given land area by simultaneously cultivating two or more crops together. Maize, a versatile cereal crop that can be seeded in widespread rows, presents an excellent prospect for growing another crop in between two rows. The coexistence of maize and legumes in an intercropping system brings about numerous benefits across various facets. The accomplishment of the maize-legumes intercropping system relies heavily on proper selection of crop species in mixed stands, considering factors such as their duration, plant stand per unit area, planting geometry and planting time. The advantages of adopting a maize-legume intercropping system are manifold. Firstly, it leads to higher yields and optimal utilization of available resources. Additionally, this system aids in weed, pest and disease management. Legumes play a crucial role by fixing biological nitrogen and transferring it to the associated maize plants, thereby contributing to nitrogen availability. Moreover, intercropping with legumes acts as an insurance against crop failure for smallholders and helps in restriction of soil erosion by covering a larger field area. The article focuses on the multifaceted benefits of the maize-legumes intercropping system, highlighting its potential to enhance agricultural productivity, resource utilization and sustainable farming practices.
2. LABAD RYMA, MOHAMMEDI ZEKARI, ECHCHERKI SMAIN, BELDI YASMINE, BOUNEDJAR ABDELWAHAB, CHACHOUA ABDELFETAH, KEBIR KHADIDJA, KERIMI HAMID, TAYEB HAMANI RYMA, TAIBI SABRINA1 AND FEDDAL MOHAMED AMINE* [Effect of tillage practices on durum wheat (Triticum durum) productivity under semi-arid climatic conditions]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 14-20 (2023). Water Control in Agriculture “LMEA” Department of Agricultural Engineering National Higher School of Agronomy (ENSA), ES1603, Algeirs. Algeria *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
The current study addresses one of the constraints of direct seeding adoption in Algeria, which is the high cost and limited availability of seeders, leading to a slow adoption of this agricultural system in the country. However, a specific seeder called “Boudour” has been developed in Algeria by the CMA of Sidi Bel Abbes. To evaluate the performance of this machine, an experiment was conducted in a semi-arid area at the Experimental Station of the Technical Institute of Field Crops (ITGC) in Sétif. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of different seeders on wheat development. The results indicated that the “Boudour” seeder performed better in terms of achieving a regular seeding depth of 6 cm and resulted in higher observed yield values. These findings suggest that the “Boudour” seeder can contribute to improved wheat cultivation in soils where it can provide consistent seeding depth. The results have demonstrated that the choice of crop technique, along with the type of seed drill, remains a significant factor in improving the cultivation of durum wheat, even in semi-arid conditions. However, yield components such as grain weight per spike (PMG) and spike length are not influenced by the choice of crop technique. On the other hand, the number of grains per spike and tillering appear to be greatly influenced by the choice of the technical approach. Regarding the estimated yield of durum wheat, it is significantly higher in the plots where soil is tilled, with an average theoretical yield reaching 42 q/ha, compared to an average of 16 q/ha for direct seeding using the Jean Shearer method.
3. E. P. SUKHAREVA AND A. V. BELIKINA* [Study of peanut culture (Arachis hypogaea L.) for agricultural production in the Lower Volga region of Russia]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 21-24 (2023). Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Centre of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences» (FSC of Agroecology RAS) Volgograd, Russia *(e-mail: email@example.com)
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a valuable oilseed crop that is widely used in the food industry, animal husbandry and there is information about the benefits of peanuts for human health. There is no industrial production of peanut seeds in Russia, and it imports from producing countries. However, Russian scientists are carrying out breeding work to develop peanut varieties that will be cultivated in natural and climatic conditions suitable for it. The breeding work in Russia is aimed at selecting plant forms with a shorter growing season. In the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation,which was approved for using and two varieties were registered, one of which was created in close natural and climatic conditions to the Volgograd region. To study the cultivation of peanuts in the Volgograd region and the possibility of expanding the area of its growth,a decision was made to conduct an ecological test of the Astrakhan 5 variety. The purpose of the ecological study was to determine the germination of the period of peanut culture in the Volgograd region in comparison with the one declared in the characteristics of the variety–126 days, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the studied variety. As a result, it was determined that the germination of peanut seeds was 70%. The vegetation period of the peanut cultivar Astrakhan 5 in the Volgograd region was152 days, which was 28 days more than in the characteristics of the variety. Collected from the experimental site of 0.78 t/ha, seed yield was 2.6 t/ha, which was 5.45% lower than the declared one. Oil content of peanut seeds–55%, protein content–23% and weight of 1000 grains–85 g.
4. G. INDIAN*, G. MATHANKUMAR, J. RAVIVARMAN, N. SHABINA AND M. DIVYA [Morphological characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm based on Bioversity International Descriptor]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 25-35 (2023). Department of Fruit Crops Horticultural College & Research Institute HC & RI (TNAU), Periyakulam-625 604 (Tamil Nadu), India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Crop breeding has gained importance in the present era in the Horticulture Industry. Selection of parent varieties is an important aspect of such crop breeding technology. Therefore, in choosing the right parent species, Biodiversity International has guided us by considering several characters. Based on that the studies were carried out on mango genotypes developed at Horticultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Periyakulam to develop and document descriptors, during 2017-18. The experiment was laid out in row column design with three replications having 27 genotypes as treatments. Observations were recorded on various morphological parameters and qualitative characters. From the observations made, it was found that the mango genotypes expressed morphological variations from genotype to genotype. These morphological variations have the ability to distinguish between the mango genotypes with each other. Descriptors were developed for 27 mango genotypes after observations. Descriptors were developed and documented, which consisted of 32 characters including morphological and qualitative characters. Among the characters, three characters were developed for plant, six characters for leaf, six characters for inflorescence, 14 characters for fruit and three, characters for fruit pulp. The developed and documented descriptors will facilitate plant variety registration, identification of genotypes and also in tree improvement programmes.
5. O. K. TOBE*, T. K. ATALA, N. M. SADDIQ AND M. DAMISA [Factors influencing the adoption of improved tomato post-harvest loss management practices among farmers in north-west zone of Nigeria]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 36-43 (2023). PYXERA Global Organization Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria *(e-mail: email@example.com)
The study assessed the factors influencing the adoption of improved tomato post-harvest loss management practices among farmers in the North-West zone of Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: assess farmers’ rate of adoption of improved tomato post-harvest management practices and determine the factors influencing the adoption of improved tomato post-harvest management practices by farmers in the study area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the total of 540 farmers selected. Descriptive statistics and logit regression model were used to analyze the data. The study found that of the 10 practices disseminated, 78% of farmers were aware of proper harvest timing, 72% were aware of proper harvesting time, and 63% were aware of improved sun-drying. The practices with the highest adoption levels were proper harvest timing (77%), proper harvest time (77%), and improved sun-drying (75%). The rate of adoption was moderate with 53% of the farmers adopting between 7 and 10 of the practices. Furthermore, the factors affecting adoption were found to be labour supply (2.1638) which was significant at 1% level of probability, while farm size (1.0698) and education (1.0180) each had a significant influence on the adoption of the practices at 10% level of probability. The technology-specific factors that were significant to adoption include attitude towards the technology (1.9961) and the cost of technology (1.7608) which were significant at 1% probability level. The study concluded that, the levels of awareness and adoption of the improved tomato post-harvest management practices were not adequately sufficient to improve the outcomes of farmers in terms of loss reduction and income. The study, hence, recommended that there should be increased efforts directed to encourage greater awareness and adoption of post-harvest loss management practices among tomato farmers, and smart programmes aimed at availing farmers with incentives should be offered to address cost factors in technology adoption.
6. PRIYANKA CHOUDHARY* AND SHAMINDRA SAXENA [Effect of organic farming on growth, yield and quality of solanaceous vegetables under dryland conditions of Jaipur district, Rajasthan]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 44-48 (2023). Department of Botany Government Dungar College, Bikaner-334 003 (Rajasthan), India *(e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
This study was conducted during the years 2021 to 22 at Kanakpura village, Jaipur to investigate the impact of organic farming methods on the development, production and quality of solanaceous vegetables grown in the dry Jaipur district. A randomized complete block design with two different treatments was used as the approach–Organic farming practices, conventional farming practices with four replicates each. The results showed that organic farming practices significantly improved soil health, in terms of soil organic matter [t(48)= 2.76, P<0.05] and soil nitrate [t(48)=3.12, P<0.01], plant growth and yield [F(1,48)=6.75, P<0.05], fruit size [F(1,48)=5.32, P<0.05] and vitamin C content [F(1,48)=4.46, P<0.05] in comparison to conventional farming. The use of organic fertilizers and pest control measures resulted in better quality produce in aspect of total yield, fruit size and vitamin C content with reduced residues of synthetic chemicals. The study highlights the potential of organic farming practices to improve the sustainability of agriculture, particularly in dry land regions with limited water resources.
7. Yahya Istaitih* [Profitability analysis of lamb fattening in small-scale farmers in West Bank, Palestine]. Farm. Manage. 8 (1): 49-57 (2023). Palestine Technical University Palestinian Territory Occupied, Palestine *(e-mail: email@example.com)
This paper aims at highlighting some of the main issues raised by developing and implementing the most appropriate sub-sector in West Bank (WB), considering the assess fattening cost and feed type, as critical elements of profitability and competitiveness of a small-scale lamb fattening production system in WB, comparing economic performance by means of a financial analysis of fattening and grazing type effects, on the profitability and feed type as main factors were analyzed. The main material of this study was primary data collected from sheep farmers in the north and south of the west bank (Fakuoa and Al-thaheryia), data collected from a sample of (170) small ruminant keepers, 125 from Al-thaheryia, and 45 from Fakuoa using a designed questionnaire with personal interviews at the two sites. The data analysis discussed different Small Ruminant (SR) breeds on fattening efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model analysis, where the breed type had appositive relationships (P<0.05) where 62% of farmers depended on Assaf breeds for production and other between Awasi and cross breed (Awasi × Assaf), where the analysis indicated mean 2.4 of Assaf, 1.5 for crossbreed and 0.8 for Awasi breed. For SR fattening, found a significant relationship (P<0.05) between feed type and the species where the herds depended on Assaf SR and were dependent on concentration feeds. Results showed the profitability of fattening lambs, where the return from 40 heads was around 3560$ despite the high prices of concentration feeds, and the saving of labour and rent costs. These results mean profitability will increase if feed costs can be reduced, and available cheap traditional mixes are available. Results found a significant relationship (P<0.05) between feed type and the species where the herds depend on Assaf breed, generally dependent on concentration feeds, with a low percentage of farmers practicing traditional farming.